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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recently a declining trend in dementia incidence rates has been reported in high-income countries. We investigated dementia incidence in a representative sample of the Greek population in the age group of 65 years and above. METHODS: This research is part of the Hellenic Epidemiological Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). The incidence cohort consisted of 1072 participants who were reevaluated after a mean period of 3.09 years. RESULTS: The incidence rate of dementia was 19.0 cases per 1000 person-years (age-standardized and sex-standardized incidence: 25.4/1000 person-years), of which 16.3 per 1000 person-years were attributable to Alzheimer disease. Each additional year of age increased dementia risk by 19.3% and each additional year of education decreased dementia risk by 12.1%. Apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ε4 homozygous participants were 18 times more likely to be diagnosed with dementia. A baseline diagnosis of mild cognitive decline (MCI) resulted in a risk for dementia increased by 3.7 times compared with the cognitively normal; in participants with MCI at baseline, APOE-ε4 carriage increased dementia risk by 4.5 times. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of dementia in people 65 years and above in Greece is generally consistent with recently published rates in Europe and North America. Advancing age, baseline MCI, and APOE-ε4 homozygosity are risk factors, while higher educational attainment seems protective.

2.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between both self-reported quality and quantity sleep characteristics and frailty status in a large non-sex-specific population of older individuals in Greece. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1984 older individuals (≥65 years old) were drawn from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD). MEASURES: Frailty was assessed using 3 different definitions, the Frailty Index (FI), the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), and the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI). Sleep quality was evaluated through the Sleep Index II, which includes 9 of the 12 self-reported items of the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale. To examine sleep duration, participants were asked to report on how many hours they slept each night during the past 4 weeks. Logistic regression models adjusted for multiple covariates were explored. Additional analyses, stratified by gender, adjusting for sleep-related medications and excluding participants diagnosed with dementia, were also performed. RESULTS: In total, 389 (20%), 619 (31.9%), and 608 (31.3%) participants were categorized as frail according to the FI, the TFI, and the GFI respectively. Sleep quality was significantly associated with frailty in all models. Even after adjusting for subjective sleep duration, compared with participants who subjectively reported high sleep quality, those with low sleep quality had 3.7, 2.6, and 2.5 more times to be frail as measured with FI, TFI, and GFI respectively. Regarding the associations between frailty and self-reported sleep duration, sex-specific associations were observed: prolonged sleep duration was associated with frailty in the subsample of male participants. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The present study shows a strong correlation between subjective sleep quality and frailty status, contributing substantial information to the growing literature demonstrating that sleep is associated with older people's overall health. Sleep complaints should not be underestimated, and older individuals who self-report sleep disorders should be further assessed for frailty.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of further cognitive decline, partly depending on demographics and biomarker status. The aim of the present study was to survey the clinical practices of physicians in terms of biomarker counseling, management, and follow-up in European expert centers diagnosing patients with MCI. METHODS: An online email survey was distributed to physicians affiliated with European Alzheimer's disease Consortium centers (Northern Europe: 10 centers; Eastern and Central Europe: 9 centers; and Southern Europe: 15 centers) with questions on attitudes toward biomarkers and biomarker counseling in MCI and dementia. This included postbiomarker counseling and the process of diagnostic disclosure of MCI, as well as treatment and follow-up in MCI. RESULTS: The response rate for the survey was 80.9% (34 of 42 centers) across 20 countries. A large majority of physicians had access to biomarkers and found them useful. Pre- and postbiomarker counseling varied across centers, as did practices for referral to support groups and advice on preventive strategies. Less than half reported discussing driving and advance care planning with patients with MCI. CONCLUSIONS: The variability in clinical practices across centers calls for better biomarker counseling and better training to improve communication skills. Future initiatives should address the importance of communicating preventive strategies and advance planning.

4.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 210, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia shows sex difference in its epidemiology. Childbirth, a distinctive experience of women, is associated with the risk for various diseases. However, its association with the risk of dementia in women has rarely been studied. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled baseline data from 11 population-based cohorts from 11 countries over 3 continents, including 14,792 women aged 60 years or older. We investigated the association between parity and the risk of dementia using logistic regression models that adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cohort, with additional analyses by region and dementia subtype. RESULTS: Across all cohorts, grand multiparous (5 or more childbirths) women had a 47% greater risk of dementia than primiparous (1 childbirth) women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.94), while nulliparous (no childbirth) women and women with 2 to 4 childbirths showed a comparable dementia risk to primiparous women. However, there were differences associated with region and dementia subtype. Compared to women with 1 to 4 childbirths, grand multiparous women showed a higher risk of dementia in Europe (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.38-6.47) and Latin America (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.04-2.12), while nulliparous women showed a higher dementia risk in Asia (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.33-3.47). Grand multiparity was associated with 6.9-fold higher risk of vascular dementia in Europe (OR = 6.86, 95% CI = 1.81-26.08), whereas nulliparity was associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer disease (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.07-3.39) and non-Alzheimer non-vascular dementia (OR = 3.47, 95% CI = 1.44-8.35) in Asia. CONCLUSION: Parity is associated with women's risk of dementia, though this is not uniform across regions and dementia subtypes.

5.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 91: 104112, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined how the relationship between education and latelife cognitive impairment (defined as a Mini Mental State Examination score below 24) is influenced by age, sex, ethnicity, and Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE*4). METHODS: Participants were 30,785 dementia-free individuals aged 55-103 years, from 18 longitudinal cohort studies, with an average follow-up ranging between 2 and 10 years. Pooled hazard ratios were obtained from multilevel parametric survival analyses predicting cognitive impairment (CI) from education and its interactions with baseline age, sex, APOE*4 and ethnicity. In separate models, education was treated as continuous (years) and categorical, with participants assigned to one of four education completion levels: Incomplete Elementary; Elementary; Middle; and High School. RESULTS: Compared to Elementary, Middle (HR = 0.645, P = 0.004) and High School (HR = 0.472, P < 0.001) education were related to reduced CI risk. The decreased risk of CI associated with Middle education weakened with older baseline age (HR = 1.029, P = 0.056) and was stronger in women than men (HR = 1.309, P = 0.001). The association between High School and lowered CI risk, however, was not moderated by sex or baseline age, but was stronger in Asians than Whites (HR = 1.047, P = 0.044), and significant among Asian (HR = 0.34, P < 0.001) and Black (HR = 0.382, P = 0.016), but not White, APOE*4 carriers. CONCLUSION: High School completion may reduce risk of CI associated with advancing age and APOE*4. The observed ethnoregional differences in this effect are potentially due to variations in social, economic, and political outcomes associated with educational attainment, in combination with neurobiological and genetic differences, and warrant further study.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 569-579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) impacts Hispanics disproportionately, with almost a twofold elevated risk of developing DAT, as well as earlier onset of the disease, than in non-Hispanic Whites. However, the role of main risk factors for DAT, such as APOE-ɛ4 and blood pressure (BP) levels, remains uncertain among Hispanics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of APOE-ɛ4 and BP levels, measures with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, with incidence of DAT in an elderly cohort of Hispanics. METHODS: 1,320 participants from the Maracaibo Aging Study, free of dementia at the baseline, and with ambulatory BP measurements and APOE genotype available were included. Adjusted Cox proportional models were performed to examine 1) the incidence of DAT and 2) the relationship between BP levels and DAT according to APOE genotypes. Models were adjusted by competing risk of death before the onset of DAT. Model performance was assessed by likelihood test. RESULTS: The average follow-up time was 5.3 years. DAT incidence was 5.8 per 1000 person-year. APOE-ɛ4 carriers had a higher risk of DAT. In unadjusted analyses, conventional, 24-h, and nighttime systolic BP levels were significantly higher in participants who developed DAT and of APOE-ɛ4 carriers (p < 0.05). After adjustment for competing risks, only higher nighttime systolic BP was associated with DAT incidence, but only among subjects carrying APOE-ɛ4. CONCLUSION: In this Hispanic population, both APOE-ɛ4 genotype and assessment of nocturnal systolic BP (rather than diurnal or office BP) were necessary to estimate DAT risk.

7.
Mov Disord ; 35(10): 1802-1809, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate the recently updated research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease (pPD) proposed by the International Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Society. METHODS: A total of 16 of 21 markers of pPD were ascertained in the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet cohort composed of community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65 years. The probability of pPD was calculated for 961 individuals without Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies at baseline who were followed-up for a median of 3 years. The ability of the criteria to predict conversion to PD/dementia with Lewy bodies was assessed by estimating their sensitivity and specificity, plotting receiver operating characteristics curves, and using logistic regression. These analyses were repeated using the original criteria. RESULTS: No incident PD/dementia with Lewy bodies case had probable pPD at baseline (ie, ≥80% pPD probability). At cut-offs of 10%, 30%, and 50% probability of pPD, the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria ranged from 4.5% to 27.3%, and 85.7% to 98.3% respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.691 (95% confidence intervals, 0.605-0.777). In logistic regression models, the criteria-derived posttest odds of pPD were a significant predictor of conversion at follow-up. The updated criteria performed similarly to the original but showed a slight increase in sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The new criteria demonstrated suboptimal sensitivity in our random sample of community-dwelling individuals. The absence of specialized assessments with high likelihood ratios in our cohort could be hindering the demonstration of higher sensitivities. Such assessments should be a part of future validation attempts. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

8.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(10): 1863-1873, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396611

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the relationship between Apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE*4) carriage on cognitive decline, and whether these associations were moderated by sex, baseline age, ethnicity, and vascular risk factors. Participants were 19,225 individuals aged 54-103 years from 15 longitudinal cohort studies with a mean follow-up duration ranging between 1.2 and 10.7 years. Two-step individual participant data meta-analysis was used to pool results of study-wise analyses predicting memory and general cognitive decline from carriage of one or two APOE*4 alleles, and moderation of these associations by age, sex, vascular risk factors, and ethnicity. Separate pooled estimates were calculated in both men and women who were younger (ie, 62 years) and older (ie, 80 years) at baseline. Results showed that APOE*4 carriage was related to faster general cognitive decline in women, and faster memory decline in men. A stronger dose-dependent effect was observed in older men, with faster general cognitive and memory decline in those carrying two versus one APOE*4 allele. Vascular risk factors were related to an increased effect of APOE*4 on memory decline in younger women, but a weaker effect of APOE*4 on general cognitive decline in older men. The relationship between APOE*4 carriage and memory decline was larger in older-aged Asians than Whites. In sum, APOE*4 is related to cognitive decline in men and women, although these effects are enhanced by age and carriage of two APOE*4 alleles in men, a higher numbers of vascular risk factors during the early stages of late adulthood in women, and Asian ethnicity.

9.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 34(2): 156-162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Timely recognition of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is essential in optimizing prevention and treatment for Alzheimer disease. Because of the paucity of data on MCI epidemiology in Greece and the variability of worldwide published results, we investigated the prevalence and determinants of MCI in the elderly population in Greece. METHODS: As part of the Hellenic Epidemiological Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD), we randomly selected 1960 individuals 65 years and older to undergo full neurological and neuropsychological assessment by a multidisciplinary team. MCI was diagnosed according to the Petersen criteria. RESULTS: The age-standardized and gender-standardized prevalence of MCI in people aged 65 years and older in Greece is 13.11%. The amnestic and multidomain MCI subtypes are more common than their nonamnestic and single-domain counterparts, respectively. Almost two thirds of cases are because of suspected Alzheimer disease. Every additional year of age increases the odds of prevalent MCI by 7.4%, every additional year of education decreases the odds of MCI by 6.3%, and apolipoprotein E (APOE-ε4) carriage increases the odds of MCI by 57.9%. CONCLUSIONS: MCI prevalence in the elderly population in Greece is on par with previously reported rates. Prospective studies with robust methodology will enhance our understanding of the dementia continuum.

10.
Nutrition ; 71: 110640, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of older adults is increasing rapidly. Malnutrition is a major problem in this age group, which may adversely affect health and quality of life. Several physiological, socioeconomic, and neuropsychological factors can lead to malnutrition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of community-dwelling older adults, and explore the associations of malnutrition risk with physiological, socioeconomic, and neuropsychological characteristics. METHODS: This study is part of the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet study, a cross-sectional observational study in Greece, and study participants were 1831 urban-dwelling elderly individuals (mean age: 73.1 ± 5.9 y; 40.8% men). Risk for malnutrition was assessed with the Determine Your Nutritional Health checklist. Data on age, sex, level of education, marital status, depression, cognitive performance, body mass index, total energy intake, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. Correlations and multivariate analyses were performed between these variables and risk for malnutrition. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of moderate and high nutritional risks was 34.8% and 29.4%, respectively. Risk for malnutrition was associated with marital status (unmarried), increased body mass index, male sex, lower level of education, lower cognitive performance, and lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional screening should be performed frequently in all community-dwelling older adults. Health experts should perform nutritional screening in all community-dwelling older adults as part of secondary prevention, and nutrition counselling and support should be offered in those at risk for malnutrition.

11.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(1): 137-147, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621435

RESUMO

Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) refers to self-evaluations of impairment in cognitive functions in the absence of objective deficits. Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome that results in increased vulnerability. Both terms are associated with cognitive decline and increased incidence of dementia. The aim of this study was to explore potential associations between SCD and frailty in elderly individuals.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 1454 participants aged 65 and older from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD) study. Individuals with a diagnosis of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, severe anxiety or depression were excluded. SCD were assessed with eighteen questions categorized into cognitive domains. Frailty was assessed according to the Fried definition, the Frailty Index (FI) and the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association.Results: Lower educational level, female sex and low socioeconomic status were found to be associated with frailty and more SCD complaints. Having two or more types of SCD complaints was significantly associated with frailty according to all frailty definitions. All types of SCD complaints were significantly associated with the FI and the TFI. In addition, SCD complaints concerning problems requiring mathematical reasoning had the strongest association with frailty.Conclusion: We found that SCD complaints may be a valid indicator of frailty in cognitively unimpaired older people. We believe that SCD may provide a crucial proactive assessment to detect frailty and to implement programs that will help maintain good health and quality of life during aging.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(3): 439-445, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the associations between social life and adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, the Mediterranean diet (MD), in a population-representative cohort of older people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Adherence to the MD was evaluated by an a priori score; tertiles of the score, indicating low, medium and high adherence, were used in the analyses. Social life was assessed by a questionnaire evaluating participation in leisure-time activities and the number of social contacts; primary occupation was also recorded and job characteristics were further explored. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults. PARTICIPANTS: Adults from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD) study (n 1933; age range 65-99 years). RESULTS: Each unit increase in the number of social contacts/month and in the frequency score of intellectual, social and physical activities was associated with a 1·6, 6·8, 4·8 and 13·7 % increase in the likelihood of a participant being in the high MD adherence group, respectively. The analysis by age group revealed that younger elderly participants had a 1·4, 8·4 and 11·3 % higher likelihood to be in the high adherence group for each unit increase in the number of social contacts/month and in the frequency score of engagement in intellectual and physical activities, respectively. Similar associations were found for older elderly participants with high compared with low MD adherence, except for the intellectual activities. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that high MD adherence is associated with good social life, suggesting a clustering of health-promoting lifestyle factors in older adults.

13.
Sports Med ; 50(2): 403-413, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides physical activity as a target for dementia prevention, sedentary behaviour is hypothesized to be a potential target in its own right. The rising number of persons with dementia and lack of any effective treatment highlight the urgency to better understand these modifiable risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher levels of sedentary behaviour are associated with reduced global cognitive functioning and slower cognitive decline in older persons without dementia. METHODS: We used five population cohorts from Greece, Australia, USA, Japan, and Singapore (HELIAD, PATH, SALSA, SGS, and SLAS2) from the Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium. In a coordinated analysis, we assessed the relationship between sedentary behaviour and global cognitive function with the use of linear mixed growth model analysis (mean follow-up range of 2.0-8.1 years). RESULTS: Baseline datasets combined 10,450 older adults without dementia with a mean age range between cohorts of 66.7-75.1 years. After adjusting for multiple covariates, no cross-sectional association between sedentary behaviour and cognition was found in four studies. One association was detected where more sedentary behaviour was cross-sectionally linked to higher cognition levels (SLAS2, B = 0.118 (0.075; 0.160), P < 0.001). Longitudinally, there were no associations between baseline sedentary behaviour and cognitive decline (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results do not suggest an association between total sedentary time and lower global cognition in older persons without dementia at baseline or over time. We hypothesize that specific types of sedentary behaviour may differentially influence cognition which should be investigated further. For now, it is, however, too early to establish undifferentiated sedentary time as a potential effective target for minimizing cognitive decline in older adults without dementia.

14.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci ; 21(1): 69-82, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607782

RESUMO

Dietary intervention is an enticing approach in the fight against cognitive impairment. Nutritional supplements and dietetic counseling are relatively easy and benign interventions, but research has not yet yielded irrefutable evidence as to their clinical utility. Heterogeneity in the results of available clinical studies, as well as methodological and practical issues, does not allow replication and generalization of findings. The paper at hand reviews only randomized clinical trials of single nutrients, multi-nutrient formulations and dietary counseling in mild cognitive impairment and dementia of the Alzheimer's type focusing on both cognitive and functional outcomes. Thus far, folate, vitamin E, Ω-3 fatty acids, and certain multi-nutrient formulations have shown some preliminary promising results; larger, well-designed trials are needed to confirm these findings before nutritional elements can be incorporated in recommended clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Demência/dietoterapia , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico
15.
Mov Disord ; 34(9): 1303-1304, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539465
16.
Age Ageing ; 48(6): 917-921, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504089

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele has been associated with a number of age-related diseases but previous studies failed to identify any link with Frailty syndrome. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between APOE ε4 allele and frailty syndrome. We operationalised Frailty according to the Fried definition, and we determined the APOE genotype in 1234 participants of the hellenic longitudinal investigation of ageing and diet study. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between APOE ε4 allele and frailty. Models were adjusted for age, education, sex, presence (or absence) of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infraction, coronary disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia or other heart disease, family history of dementia and current smoking. The same models were performed after exclusion of patients with dementia and participants with APOE ε2/ε4 genotype. In the fully adjusted model, carriers of APOE ε4 allele had 2.753 higher odds of frailty relative to non-carriers. After trichotomization of APOE genotype, APOE ε4 heterozygotes had 2.675 higher risk of frailty compared to non-carriers while exclusion of patients with dementia or/and APOE ε2/ε4 genotype did not alter the association. The APOE ε4 allele may be a significant biomarker of frailty with diagnostic and prognostic capacity.

17.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 67: 105-112, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between environmental factors (smoking, coffee, pesticide exposure) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subtypes (early-onset, mid-and-late onset, familial and sporadic) in the Greek population. METHODS: The Hellenic Biobank of PD recorded information of PD cases and controls from two centers in Greece during 2006-2017. Patients with the A53T mutation in SNCA or GBA mutations were excluded. Associations of environmental factors with PD overall (and PD subtypes) versus controls were explored with logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender and each environmental factor. RESULTS: 686 patients and 356 controls were included. Smoking was associated with a reduced risk of PD overall (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.35-0.67), mid-and-late onset (0.46, 0.32-0.66), familial (0.53, 0.34-0.83) and sporadic (0.46, 0.32-0.65), but not early-onset PD. There was an inverse linear association with pack-years of smoking, except for early-onset PD. Early-onset PD was the only PD subtype inversely associated with coffee consumption when dichotomously treated. Compared to never-coffee drinkers, only those at the upper tertile had lower odds for PD overall (0.52, 0.29-0.91), early-onset (0.16, 0.05-0.53) and familial PD (0.36, 0.17-0.75). No associations were found between pesticides and PD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the well-known negative association of smoking with PD occurs across all PD subtypes in the Greek population, apart from early-onset PD. Early-onset PD was also most strongly inversely associated with coffee consumption, highlighting a potential distinct underlying physiopathology in this PD subset that may involve specific gene-environment interactions.

18.
Environ Res ; 177: 108632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from studies to date, regarding the role of chronic pesticide exposure on cognitive function remain contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between self-reported pesticide exposure and cognitive function. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece was used. Pesticide exposure classification was based on 1) living in areas that were being sprayed; 2) application of spray insecticides/pesticides in their gardens; and 3) occupational application of sprays. Associations between z-scores of cognitive performance and self-reported pesticide exposure were examined with linear regression analyses. Adjusted models were applied, for all analyses. RESULTS: Non-demented individuals who reported that they had been living in areas near sprayed fields, had poorer neuropsychological performance, compared to those who had never lived in such areas. Sub-analyses revealed poorer performance in language, executive and visual-spatial functioning, and attention. These associations remained after a sensitivity analysis excluding subjects with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Self-reported exposure to pesticides was negatively associated with cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Jardins , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
20.
Mov Disord ; 34(9): 1345-1353, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification and characterization of Parkinson's disease (PD) in its prodromal stage is crucial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between motor function and the probability of prodromal PD in a community-dwelling older population. METHODS: We used data from a population-based cohort of older adults (HELIAD study). Subjective motor function was evaluated with a 12-item motor symptoms questionnaire and objective motor function indirectly with a physical activity questionnaire and two gait speed tests. The probability of prodromal PD was calculated according to the Movement Disorder Society research criteria for n = 1731 without PD. Regression multiadjusted models were used to investigate the associations between each motor measure and prodromal PD probability. RESULTS: For each unit increase in motor symptoms score and for each kcal/kg/day lower energy expenditure (corresponding to 20 minutes of light walking/day for a 75-kg man) there was a 27% and 3% higher probability for prodromal PD, respectively (P < 0.001). Having at least one subjective motor symptom increased the odds of having possible/probable prodromal PD (n = 49; P < 0.05). Including subjective and indirect motor variables in the same model showed that both (symptoms and physical activity) contributed significantly to the model (P < 0.01). Excluding subthreshold parkinsonism from the calculation showed that gait speed less than 0.8 m/s was also associated with a higher prodromal PD probability score (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Subjective motor symptoms as well as simple objective motor measures of physical activity or gait speed are associated with a higher probability of prodromal PD in older adults. These data may serve to enable the early identification of prodromal PD cohorts, particularly if they are confirmed in longitudinal studies. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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