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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527138

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism in cancer incidence and outcome is widespread. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is fundamental to improve cancer prevention and clinical management. Sex disparities are particularly striking in kidney cancer: across diverse populations, men consistently show unexplained two-fold increased incidence and worse prognosis. We have characterized genome-wide expression and regulatory networks of 609 renal tumors and 256 non-tumor renal tissues. Normal kidney displayed sex-specific transcriptional signatures, including higher expression of X-linked tumor suppressor genes in women. Sex-dependent genotype-phenotype associations unraveled women-specific immune regulation. Sex differences were markedly expanded in tumors, with male-biased expression of key genes implicated in metabolism, non-malignant diseases with male predominance, and carcinogenesis, including markers of tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Analysis of sex-dependent RCC progression and survival uncovered prognostic markers involved in immune response and oxygen homeostasis. In summary, human kidney tissues display remarkable sexual dimorphism at the molecular level. Sex-specific transcriptional signatures further shape renal cancer, with relevance for clinical management.

2.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403511

RESUMO

There are unexplained geographical variations in the incidence of kidney cancer with the high rates reported in Baltic countries, as well as eastern and central Europe. Having access to a large and well-annotated collection of "tumor/non-tumor" pairs of kidney cancer patients from the Czech Republic, Romania, Serbia, UK, and Russia, we aimed to analyze the morphology of non-neoplastic renal tissue in nephrectomy specimens. By applying digital pathology, we performed a microscopic examination of 1012 frozen non-neoplastic kidney tissues from patients with renal cell carcinoma. Four components of renal parenchyma were evaluated and scored for the intensity of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and arterial wall thickening, globally called chronic renal parenchymal changes. Moderate or severe changes were observed in 54 (5.3%) of patients with predominance of occurrence in Romania (OR = 2.67, CI 1.07-6.67) and Serbia (OR = 4.37, CI 1.20-15.96) in reference to those from Russia. Further adjustment for comorbidities, tumor characteristics, and stage did not change risk estimates. In multinomial regression model, relative probability of non-glomerular changes was 5.22 times higher for Romania and Serbia compared to Russia. Our findings show that the frequency of chronic renal parenchymal changes, with the predominance of chronic interstitial nephritis pattern, in kidney cancer patients varies by country, significantly more frequent in countries located in central and southeastern Europe where the incidence of kidney cancer has been reported to be moderate to high. The observed association between these pathological features and living in certain geographic areas requires a larger population-based study to confirm this association on a large scale.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 143: 33-39, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cancer is typically a disease of the older age groups, some types start emerging early in adulthood. This implies that exposures and stressors occurring before adulthood might play a role in the risk of cancer in adults. Little research has been conducted in this area. METHODS: We used European data from the Cancer in Five Continents Vol. XI to calculate cumulative risks by the end of subsequent adulthood decades of age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49) for 34 cancer sites and classified them as early-age emerging cancers if they reached 0.005% by 29 years old, intermediate-age emerging cancers by 39 years old, and late-age emerging cancers after 40 years old. We used data from Cancer in Five Continents Plus to analyse time trends in incidence rates by age groups over the period 1998-2012. FINDINGS: We identified 14 early-age emerging cancers. Nine of them showed significant increasing trends over calendar time in the early decades of adulthood, often more pronouncedly so in 20-29-year-olds than in 30-39 or 40-49-year-olds. The increase of colon cancer rates in the 20-29-year-olds was particularly high with an average annual percent change of 7.9% (95% confidence interval: 5.9%-10%). Decreases in incidence rates were only observed for cancer types classified as intermediate- or late-age emerging cancers. INTERPRETATION: Cancer prevention efforts seem to have favourably impacted intermediate- and late-age emerging cancer incidence rates. For early-age emerging cancers, aetiological research is needed to identify exposures and stressors occurring early in life, especially for those cancers that have been increasing in young adults. This knowledge will be essential to develop preventive strategies.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260905

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter regions are frequent events in urothelial cancer (UC) and their detection in urine (supernatant cell-free DNA or DNA from exfoliated cells) could serve as putative non-invasive biomarkers for UC detection and monitoring. However, detecting these tumor-borne mutations in urine requires highly sensitive methods, capable of measuring low-level mutations. In this study, we developed sensitive droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays for detecting TERT promoter mutations (C228T, C228A, CC242-243TT, and C250T). We tested the C228T and C250T ddPCR assays on all samples with sufficient quantity of urinary DNA (urine supernatant cell-free DNA (US cfDNA) or urine pellet cellular DNA (UP cellDNA)) from the DIAGURO (n = 89/93 cases and n = 92/94 controls) and from the IPO-PORTO (n = 49/50 cases and n = 50/50 controls) series that were previously screened with the UroMuTERT assay and compared the performance of the two approaches. In the DIAGURO series, the sensitivity and specificity of the ddPCR assays for detecting UC using either US cfDNA or UP cellDNA were 86.8% and 92.4%. The sensitivity was slightly higher than that of the UroMuTERT assay in the IPO-PORTO series (67.4% vs. 65.3%, respectively), but not in the DIAGURO series (86.8% vs. 90.7%). The specificity was 100% in the IPO-PORTO controls for both the UroMuTERT and ddPCR assays, whereas in the DIAGURO series, the specificity dropped for ddPCR (92.4% versus 95.6%). Overall, an almost perfect agreement between the two methods was observed for both US cfDNA (n = 164; kappa coefficient of 0.91) and UP cellDNA (n = 280; kappa coefficient of 0.94). In a large independent series of serial urine samples from DIAGURO follow-up BC cases (n = 394), the agreement between ddPCR and UroMuTERT was (i) strong (kappa coefficient of 0.87), regardless of urine DNA types (kappa coefficient 0.89 for US cfDNA and 0.85 for UP cellDNA), (ii) the highest for samples with mutant allelic fractions (MAFs) > 2% (kappa coefficient of 0.99) and (iii) only minimal for the samples with the lowest MAFs (< 0.5%; kappa coefficient 0.32). Altogether, our results indicate that the two methods (ddPCR and UroMuTERT) for detecting urinary TERT promoter mutations are comparable and that the discrepancies relate to the detection of low-allelic fraction mutations. The simplicity of the ddPCR assays makes them suitable for implementation in clinical settings.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential to improve disease outcomes. No screening program for sporadic RCC is in place. Given relatively low incidence, screening would need to focus on people at high risk of clinically meaningful disease so as to limit overdiagnosis and screen-detected false positives. METHODS: Among 192,172 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (including 588 incident RCC cases), we evaluated a published RCC risk prediction model (including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status) in terms of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (observed probability as a function of predicted probability). We used a flexible parametric survival model to develop an expanded model including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status, with the addition of self-reported history of hypertension and measured blood pressure. RESULTS: The previously published model yielded well-calibrated probabilities and good discrimination (C-statistic [95% CI]: 0.699 [0.679-0.721]). Our model had slightly improved discrimination (0.714 [0.694-0.735], bootstrap optimism-corrected C-statistic: 0.709). Despite this good performance, predicted risk was low for the vast majority of participants, with 70% of participants having 10-year risk less than 0.0025. CONCLUSIONS: Although the models performed well for the prediction of incident RCC, they are currently insufficiently powerful to identify individuals at substantial risk of RCC in a general population. IMPACT: Despite the promising performance of the EPIC RCC risk prediction model, further development of the model, possibly including biomarkers of risk, is required to enable risk stratification of RCC.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

8.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(5): 408-415, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies. AIM: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2065-2069, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Much of the heritable risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with common genetic variation is unexplained. New analytic approaches have been developed to increase the discovery of risk variants in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including multi-locus testing through pathway analysis. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis using GWAS summary data from six previous scans (10,784 cases and 20,406 controls) and evaluated 3,678 pathways and gene sets drawn from the Molecular Signatures Database. To replicate findings, we analyzed GWAS summary data from the UK Biobank (903 cases and 451,361 controls) and the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort (317 cases and 50,511 controls). RESULTS: We identified 14 pathways/gene sets associated with RCC in both the discovery (P < 1.36 × 10-5, the Bonferroni correction threshold) and replication (P < 0.05) sets, 10 of which include components of the PI3K/AKT pathway. In tests across 2,035 genes in these pathways, associations (Bonferroni corrected P < 2.46 × 10-5 in discovery and replication sets combined) were observed for CASP9, TIPIN, and CDKN2C. The strongest SNP signal was for rs12124078 (P Discovery = 2.6 × 10-5; P Replication = 1.5 × 10-4; P Combined = 6.9 × 10-8), a CASP9 expression quantitative trait locus. CONCLUSIONS: Our pathway analysis implicates genetic variation within the PI3K/AKT pathway as a source of RCC heritability and identifies several promising novel susceptibility genes, including CASP9, which warrant further investigation. IMPACT: Our findings illustrate the value of pathway analysis as a complementary approach to analyzing GWAS data.

10.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(8): 880-892, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779232

RESUMO

It is of great scientific interest to identify interactions between genetic variants and environmental exposures that may modify the risk of complex diseases. However, larger sample sizes are usually required to detect gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) than required to detect genetic main association effects. To boost the statistical power and improve the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, we incorporate functional genomics information, specifically, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), into a data-adaptive G × E test, called aGEw. This test adaptively chooses the best eQTL weights from multiple tissues and provides an extra layer of weighting at the genetic variant level. Extensive simulations show that the aGEw test can control the Type 1 error rate, and the power is resilient to the inclusion of neutral variants and noninformative external weights. We applied the proposed aGEw test to the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (discovery cohort of 3,585 cases and 3,482 controls) and the PanScan II genome-wide association study data (replication cohort of 2,021 cases and 2,105 controls) with smoking as the exposure of interest. Two novel putative smoking-related pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes, TRIP10 and KDM3A, were identified. The aGEw test is implemented in an R package aGE.

11.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

12.
NAR Genom Bioinform ; 2(2): lqaa021, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363341

RESUMO

The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the way of reaching a genome sequence, with the promise of potentially providing a comprehensive characterization of DNA variations. Nevertheless, detecting somatic mutations is still a difficult problem, in particular when trying to identify low abundance mutations, such as subclonal mutations, tumour-derived alterations in body fluids or somatic mutations from histological normal tissue. The main challenge is to precisely distinguish between sequencing artefacts and true mutations, particularly when the latter are so rare they reach similar abundance levels as artefacts. Here, we present needlestack, a highly sensitive variant caller, which directly learns from the data the level of systematic sequencing errors to accurately call mutations. Needlestack is based on the idea that the sequencing error rate can be dynamically estimated from analysing multiple samples together. We show that the sequencing error rate varies across alterations, illustrating the need to precisely estimate it. We evaluate the performance of needlestack for various types of variations, and we show that needlestack is robust among positions and outperforms existing state-of-the-art method for low abundance mutations. Needlestack, along with its source code is freely available on the GitHub platform: https://github.com/IARCbioinfo/needlestack.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 123(1): 137-147, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the first step in the kynurenine pathway (KP), is upregulated in some cancers and represents an attractive therapeutic target given its role in tumour immune evasion. However, the recent failure of an IDO inhibitor in a late phase trial raises questions about this strategy. METHODS: Matched renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and normal kidney tissues were subject to proteomic profiling. Tissue immunohistochemistry and gene expression data were used to validate findings. Phenotypic effects of loss/gain of expression were examined in vitro. RESULTS: Quinolate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT), the final and rate-limiting enzyme in the KP, was identified as being downregulated in RCC. Loss of QPRT expression led to increased potential for anchorage-independent growth. Gene expression, mass spectrometry (clear cell and chromophobe RCC) and tissue immunohistochemistry (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe), confirmed loss or decreased expression of QPRT and showed downregulation of other KP enzymes, including kynurenine 3-monoxygenase (KMO) and 3-hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-dioxygenase (HAAO), with a concomitant maintenance or upregulation of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the key enzyme in the NAD+ salvage pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread dysregulation of the KP is common in RCC and is likely to contribute to tumour immune evasion, carrying implications for effective therapeutic targeting of this critical pathway.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 55: 102462, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DNA released into the bloodstream by malignant tumours· called circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), is often a small fraction of total cell-free DNA shed predominantly by hematopoietic cells and is therefore challenging to detect. Understanding the biological properties of ctDNA is key to the investigation of its clinical relevance as a non-invasive marker for cancer detection and monitoring. METHODS: We selected 40 plasma DNA samples of pancreatic cancer cases previously reported to carry a KRAS mutation at the 'hotspot' codon 12 and re-screened the cell-free DNA using a 4-size amplicons strategy (57 bp, 79 bp, 167 bp and 218 bp) combined with ultra-deep sequencing in order to investigate whether amplicon lengths could impact on the capacity of detection of ctDNA, which in turn could provide inference of ctDNA and non-malignant cell-free DNA size distribution. FINDINGS: Higher KRAS amplicon size (167 bp and 218 bp) was associated with lower detectable cell-free DNA mutant allelic fractions (p < 0·0001), with up to 4·6-fold (95% CI: 2·6-8·1) difference on average when comparing the 218bp- and the 57bp-amplicons. The proportion of cases with detectable KRAS mutations was also hampered with increased amplicon lengths, with only half of the cases having detectable ctDNA using the 218 bp assay relative to those detected with amplicons less than 80 bp. INTERPRETATION: Tumour-derived mutations are carried by shorter cell-free DNA fragments than fragments of wild-type allele. Targeting short amplicons increases the sensitivity of cell-free DNA assays for pancreatic cancer and should be taken into account for optimized assay design and for evaluating their clinical performance. FUNDING: IARC; MH CZ - DRO; MH SK; exchange program between IARC and Sao Paulo medical Sciences; French Cancer League.

16.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies. AIM: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.

17.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(8): 3801-3813, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Little is known about the aetiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Components of one-carbon (1C) metabolism, which are required for nucleotide synthesis and methylation reactions, may be related to risk of RCC but existing evidence is inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and independent exposure-specific meta-analyses of dietary intake and circulating biomarkers of 1C metabolites and RCC risk. METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched for observational studies investigating RCC or kidney cancer incidence or mortality in relation to components of 1C metabolism and 12 eligible articles were included in the meta-analyses. We used Bayesian meta-analyses to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% credible intervals (CrIs) comparing the highest versus lowest categories as well as the between-study heterogeneity. RESULTS: We did not find convincing evidence of an association between any exposure (riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, methionine, homocysteine, choline, or betaine) and RCC risk. However, vitamin B6 biomarker status did have a protective (RR = 0.62) but imprecise (95% CrI 0.39-1.14) effect estimate and folate intake had a notable association as well (RR = 0.85, 95% CrI 0.71-1.01). CONCLUSION: There was a lack of precision due largely to the low number of studies. Further investigation is warranted, especially for folate and vitamin B6, which had consistent suggestive evidence of a protective effect for both dietary intake and biomarker status. A unique strength of this review is the use of Bayesian meta-analyses which allowed for robust estimation of between-study heterogeneity.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102643, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detecting pre-clinical bladder cancer (BC) using urinary biomarkers may provide a valuable opportunity for screening and management. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations detectable in urine have emerged as promising BC biomarkers. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study within the population-based prospective Golestan Cohort Study (50,045 participants, followed up to 14 years) and assessed TERT promoter mutations in baseline urine samples from 38 asymptomatic individuals who subsequently developed primary BC and 152 matched controls using a Next-Generation Sequencing-based single-plex assay (UroMuTERT) and droplet digital PCR assays. FINDINGS: Results were obtained for 30 cases and 101 controls. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 14 pre-clinical cases (sensitivity 46·67%) and none of the controls (specificity 100·00%). At an estimated BC cumulative incidence of 0·09% in the cohort, the positive and negative predictive values were 100·00% and 99·95% respectively. The mutant allelic fractions decreased with the time interval from urine collection until BC diagnosis (p = 0·033) but the mutations were detectable up to 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide the first evidence from a population-based prospective cohort study of the potential of urinary TERT promoter mutations as promising non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of BC. Further studies should validate this finding and assess their clinical utility in other longitudinal cohorts. FUNDING: French Cancer League, World Cancer Research Fund International, Cancer Research UK, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the U.S. National Cancer Institute.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
20.
J Public Health Res ; 8(2): 1550, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572695

RESUMO

Background: The developing fetus is particularly vulnerable to the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Molecular fingerprints of EDCs can be identified via microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles and may be etiologically implicated in the developmental origin of disease (DOHaD). Methods/design: This pilot study includes pregnant women at high risk (smoking at conception), and low risk (non-smoking at conception) for SGA birth (birthweight<10th percentile for gestational age). We have randomly selected 12 mothers (3 high-risk SGA birth, 3 low-risk SGA birth, 3 high-risk non-SGA birth, 3 low-risk non-SGA birth), with EDC measurements from gestational week 17. All offspring are female. We aim to test the stability of our samples (maternal serum, cord blood, placenta tissue), observe the differential expression of miRNA profiles over time (gestational weeks 17, 25, 33, 37, birth), and study the consistency between maternal EDC measures and miRNA expression profiles across our repeated measures. Expected impact of the study for Public Health: Results from this pilot study will inform the development of a larger cohort wide analysis, and will impact the current state of knowledge in the fields of public health, epigenetics, and the DOHaD.

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