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Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 7, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010431


Echocardiography is the most commonly applied technique for non-invasive assessment of cardiac function in small animals. Manual tracing of endocardial borders is time consuming and varies with operator experience. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a novel automated two-dimensional software algorithm (Auto2DE) for small animals and compare it to the standard use of manual 2D-echocardiographic assessment (2DE). We hypothesized that novel Auto2DE will provide rapid and robust data sets, which are in agreement with manually assessed data of animals.2DE and Auto2DE were carried out using a high-resolution imaging-system for small animals. First, validation cohorts of mouse and rat cine loops were used to compare Auto2DE against 2DE. These data were stratified for image quality by a blinded expert in small animal imaging. Second, we evaluated 2DE and Auto2DE in four mouse models and four rat models with different cardiac pathologies.Automated assessment of LV function by 2DE was faster than conventional 2DE analysis and independent of operator experience levels. The accuracy of Auto2DE-assessed data in healthy mice was dependent on cine loop quality, with excellent agreement between Auto2DE and 2DE in cine loops with adequate quality. Auto2DE allowed for valid detection of impaired cardiac function in animal models with pronounced cardiac phenotypes, but yielded poor performance in diabetic animal models independent of image quality.Auto2DE represents a novel automated analysis tool for rapid assessment of LV function, which is suitable for data acquisition in studies with good and very good echocardiographic image quality, but presents systematic problems in specific pathologies.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896157


Aim: Diabetes in pregnancy is a major burden with acute and long-term consequences. Its treatment requires adequate diagnosis and monitoring of therapy. Many experimental research on diabetes during pregnancy has been performed in rats. Recently, continuous blood glucose monitoring of non-pregnant diabetic rats revealed an increased circadian variability of blood glucose that made a single blood glucose measurement per day inappropriate to reflect glycemic status. Continuous blood glucose measurement has never been performed in pregnant rats. We wanted to perform continuous blood glucose monitoring in pregnant rats to decipher the influence of pregnancy on blood glucose in diabetic and normoglycemic status. Methods: We used the transgenic Tet29 diabetes rat model with an inducible knock down of the insulin receptor via RNA interference upon application of doxycycline (DOX) leading to insulin resistant type II diabetes. All Tet29 rats received a HD-XG telemetry implant (Data Sciences International, USA) that measured blood glucose and activity continuously. Rats were divided into four groups and blood glucose was monitored until end of pregnancy or the corresponding period: Tet29 + DOX (diabetic) non-pregnant, Tet29 + DOX (diabetic) pregnant, Tet29 (normoglycemic) non-pregnant, Tet29 (normoglycemic) pregnant. Results: All analyzed rats displayed a circadian variation in blood glucose concentration. Circadian variability was much more pronounced in pregnant diabetic rats than in normoglycemic pregnant rats. Pregnancy ameliorated variation in blood glucose in diabetic situation. Pregnancy continuously decreased blood glucose during normoglycemic pregnancy. Diabetic rats were less active than normoglycemic rats. We performed a calculation showing that application of continuous blood glucose measurement reduces animal numbers needed to detect a given effect in experimental setting by decreasing variability and SD. Interpretation: Continuous blood glucose monitoring via a telemetry device in pregnant rats provides a more informative picture of the glycemic situation in comparison to single measurements. This could improve diagnosis and therapy of diabetes, decrease animal numbers within experimental settings, and add another physiological parameter (activity) to the analysis that could be helpful in testing therapeutic concepts targeting blood glucose levels and peripheral muscle function. We propose continuous glucose monitoring as a new tool for the evaluation of pregnant diabetic rats.

Hypertension ; 71(5): 911-920, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610268


Diabetic pregnancy is correlated with increased risk of metabolic and neurological disorders in the offspring putatively mediated epigenetically. Little is known about epigenetic changes already present in fetuses of diabetic pregnancies. We aimed at characterizing the perinatal environment after preexisting maternal diabetes mellitus and at identifying relevant epigenetic changes in the fetus. We focused on the transcription factor Srebf2 (sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2), a master gene in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. We tested whether diabetic pregnancy induces epigenetic changes in the Srebf2 promoter and if they become manifest in altered Srebf2 gene expression. We worked with a transgenic rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Tet29) in which the insulin receptor is knocked down by doxycycline-induced RNA interference. Doxycycline was administered preconceptionally to Tet29 and wild-type control rats. Only Tet29 doxycycline dams were hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperlipidemic. Gene expression was analyzed with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and CpG promoter methylation with pyrosequencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed on fetal brains. Fetuses from diabetic Tet29 dams were hyperglycemic and growth restricted at the end of pregnancy. They further displayed decreased liver and brain weight with concomitant decreased microglial activation in the hippocampus in comparison to fetuses of normoglycemic mothers. Importantly, diabetic pregnancy induced CpG hypermethylation of the Srebf2 promoter in the fetal liver and brain, which was associated with decreased Srebf2 gene expression. In conclusion, diabetic and hyperlipidemic pregnancy induces neurological, metabolic, and epigenetic alterations in the rat fetus. Srebf2 is a potential candidate mediating intrauterine environment-driven epigenetic changes and later diabetic offspring health.