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1.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 72: 101933, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As part of the third European Commission's Joint Action on Cancer (Innovative Partnership for Action Against Cancer, iPAAC), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was commissioned to produce a report on recommendations to sustain and monitor future updates of the European Code Against Cancer (ECAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A co-creational consultation process, including a virtual workshop, was carried out. More than 100 experts in cancer prevention, public health, communication and representatives of European authorities provided input on the scope of future editions of the ECAC, including updating the scientific evidence and its maintenance, and on strategies for its implementation and dissemination across Europe. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overwhelming support for the need of the ECAC and its continuous updating, optimization and wider dissemination was expressed by all the stakeholders. Eight recommendations and four research needs summarise the assessment and pave the way for the future of the ECAC.

2.
Mol Oncol ; 15(3): 741-743, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660939
3.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741694

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms such as aberrant DNA methylation (DNAme) are known to drive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), yet they remain poorly understood. Here we studied tumor-specific DNAme in ESCC cases from nine high-incidence countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. Infinium MethylationEPIC array was performed on 108 tumors and 51 normal tissue adjacent to the tumors (NAT) in the discovery phase, and targeted pyrosequencing was performed on 132 tumors and 36 NAT in the replication phase. Top genes for replication were prioritizied by weighting methylation results using RNA-seq data from TCGA and GTEx and validated by qPCR. Methylome analysis comparing tumor and NAT identified 6,796 differentially methylated positions (DMP) and 866 differential methylated regions (DMR) with a 30% methylation (Δß) difference. The majority of identified DMPs and DMRs were hypermethylated in tumors, particularly in promoters and gene-body regions of genes involved in transcription activation. The top three prioritized genes for replication, PAX9, SIM2 and THSD4 had similar methylation differences in the discovery and replication sets. These genes were exclusively expressed in normal esophageal tissues in GTEx and downregulated in tumors. The specificity and sensitivity of these DNAme events in discriminating tumors from NAT were assessed. Our study identified novel, robust, and crucial tumor-specific DNAme events in ESCC tumors across several high incidence populations of the world. Methylome changes identified in this study may serve as potential targets for biomarker discovery and warrant further functional characterization.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(2): 248-251, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547145

RESUMO

In this issue, Mmbaga and colleagues present results of a case-control study to investigate environmental and lifestyle risk factors for esophageal cancer in Tanzania, East Africa. The results contribute to the early stage of a growing evidence base aimed to inform primary prevention of a major poor prognosis cancer in East Africa. In this commentary, we first discuss considerations needed to evaluate causality of associations, a feature needed for primary prevention. There is a need for further studies across the African esophageal cancer corridor, for more refined exposure assessment and a careful consideration of potential epidemiologic biases within study designs for real-life situations in the setting. This study also forms a prime example of the broader research needs for cancer in low- and middle-income countries and in Sub-Saharan Africa, a setting with distinct and underresearched cancers and exposure patterns. While this etiologic research is challenging, it is an essential component of the ground-shot approach to global health research needed to inform primary prevention.See related article by Mmbaga et al., p. 305.

5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(3): 144-152, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a considerable increase in thyroid cancer incidence among adults in several countries in the past three decades, attributed primarily to overdiagnosis. We aimed to assess global patterns and trends in incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents, in view of the increased incidence among adults. METHODS: We did a population-based study of the observed incidence (in 49 countries and territories) and mortality (in 27 countries) of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years using data from the International Incidence of Childhood Cancer Volume 3 study database, the WHO mortality database, and the cancer incidence in five continents database (CI5plus; for adult data [age 20-74 years]). We analysed temporal trends in incidence rates, including absolute changes in rates, and the strength of the correlation between incidence rates in children and adolescents and in adults. We calculated the average annual number of thyroid cancer deaths and the age-standardised mortality rates for children and adolescents. FINDINGS: Age-standardised incidence rates of thyroid cancer among children and adolescents aged 0-19 years ranged from 0·4 (in Uganda and Kenya) to 13·4 (in Belarus) cancers per 1 million person-years in 2008-12. The variability in the incidence rates was mostly accounted for by the papillary tumour subtype. Incidence rates were almost always higher in girls than in boys and increased with age in both sexes. Rapid increases in incidence between 1998-2002 and 2008-12 were observed in almost all countries. Country-specific incidence rates in children and adolescents were strongly correlated (r>0·8) with rates in adults, as were the temporal changes in the respective incidence rates (r>0·6). Thyroid cancer deaths in those aged younger than 20 years were less than 0·1 per 10 million person-years in each country. INTERPRETATION: The pattern of thyroid cancer incidence in children and adolescents mirrors the pattern seen in adults, suggesting a major role for overdiagnosis, which, in turn, can lead to overtreatment, lifelong medical care, and side effects that can negatively affect quality of life. We suggest that the existing recommendation against screening for thyroid cancer in the asymptomatic adult population who are free from specific risk factors should be extended to explicitly recommend against screening for thyroid cancer in similar populations of children and adolescents. FUNDING: International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Union for International Cancer Control; French Institut National du Cancer; Italian Association of Cancer Research; and Italian Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/tendências , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Causas de Morte/tendências , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 340-351, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663320

RESUMO

Most breast cancer patients in sub-Saharan Africa are diagnosed at advanced stages after prolonged symptomatic periods. In the multicountry African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes cohort, we dissected the diagnostic journey to inform downstaging interventions. At hospital presentation for breast cancer, women recalled their diagnostic journey, including dates of first noticing symptoms and health-care provider (HCP) visits. Negative binomial regression models were used to identify correlates of the length of the diagnostic journey. Among 1429 women, the median (inter-quartile range) length (months) of the diagnostic journey ranged from 11.3 (5.7-21.2) in Ugandan, 8.2 (3.4-16.4) in Zambian, 6.5 (2.4-15.7) in Namibian-black to 5.6 (2.3-13.1) in Nigerian and 2.4 (0.6-5.5) in Namibian-non-black women. Time from first HCP contact to diagnosis represented, on average, 58% to 79% of the diagnostic journey in each setting except Nigeria where most women presented directly to the diagnostic hospital with advanced disease. The median number of HCPs visited was 1 to 4 per woman, but time intervals between visits were long. Women who attributed their initial symptoms to cancer had a 4.1 months (absolute) reduced diagnostic journey than those who did not, while less-educated (none/primary) women had a 3.6 months longer journey than more educated women. In most settings the long journey to breast cancer diagnosis was not primarily due to late first presentation but to prolonged delays after first presentation to diagnosis. Promotion of breast cancer awareness and implementation of accelerated referral pathways for women with suspicious symptoms are vital to downstaging the disease in the region.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 71(Pt B): 101878, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358343
8.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(2): 285-289, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355599

RESUMO

Importance: Low breast cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa's young population increases the likelihood that breast cancer deaths result in maternal orphans, ie, children (<18 years) losing their mother. Objective: To estimate the number of maternal orphans and their ages for every 100 breast cancer deaths in sub-Saharan African settings during 2014-2019 and to describe family concerns about the orphaned children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Deaths occurring between September 1, 2014, and July 1, 2019, in the African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) were examined in a cohort of women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2014-2017 at major cancer treatment hospitals in Namibia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia. The cohort was actively followed up for vital status via a trimonthly mobile phone call to each woman or her next of kin (typically a partner, husband, or child). Main Outcomes and Measures: The number (Poisson counts) and ages of new orphans at the time of maternal death. Results: This cohort study found that a total of 795 deaths resulted in 964 new maternal orphans, with deaths occurring in women younger than 50 years accounting for 85% of the orphans. For every 100 deaths in women younger than 50 years, there were 210 new orphans (95% CI, 196-225) overall, with country-specific estimates of 189 in Nigerian, 180 in Namibian, 222 in Ugandan, and 247 in Zambian Black women. For every 100 deaths of the women at any age, there were 121 maternal orphans, 17% of whom were younger than 5 years, 32% aged 5 to 9 years, and 51% aged 10 to 17 years at the time of maternal death. In follow-up interviews, families' concerns for children's education and childcare were reported to be exacerbated by the financial expenses associated with cancer treatment. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence that the number of maternal orphans due to breast cancer exceeds the number of breast cancer deaths among women in sub-Saharan Africa. The intergenerational consequences associated with cancer deaths in sub-Saharan Africa appear to be large and support the need for continued action to improve survival.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320959

RESUMO

In the African esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) corridor, recent work from Kenya found increased ESCC risk associated with poor oral health, including an ill-understood association with dental fluorosis. We examined these associations in a Tanzanian study, which included examination of potential biases influencing the latter association. This age and sex frequency-matched case-control study included 310 ESCC cases and 313 hospital visitor/patient controls. Exposures included self-reported oral hygiene and nondental observer assessed decayed+missing+filled tooth count (DMFT index) and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov dental fluorosis index (TFI). Blind to this nondental observer TFI, a dentist independently assessed fluorosis on photographs of 75 participants. Odds ratios (ORs) are adjusted for demographic factors, alcohol and tobacco. ESCC risk was associated with using a chewed stick to brush teeth (OR 2.3 [95% CI: 1.3-4.1]), using charcoal to whiten teeth (OR 2.13 [95% CI: 1.3, 4.1]) and linearly with the DMFT index (OR 3.3 95% CI: [1.8, 6.0] for ≥10 vs 0). Nondental observer-assessed fluorosis was strongly associated with ESCC risk (OR 13.5 [95% CI: 5.7-31.9] for TFI 5+ v 0). However, the professional dentist's assessment indicated that only 43% (10/23) of participants assessed as TFI 5+ actually had fluorosis. In summary, using oral charcoal, brushing with a chewed stick and missing/decayed teeth may be risk factors for ESCC in Tanzania, for which dose-response and mechanistic research is needed. Links of ESCC with "dental fluorosis" suffered from severe exposure misclassification, rendering it impossible to disentangle any effects of fluorosis, extrinsic staining or reverse causality.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232971

RESUMO

To compare extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure in the general population in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with high-income countries (HIC), we carried out a systematic literature search resulting in 1483 potentially eligible articles; however, only 25 studies could be included in the qualitative synthesis. Studies showed large heterogeneity in design, exposure environment and exposure assessment. Exposure assessed by outdoor spot measurements ranged from 0.03 to 4µT. Average exposure by indoor spot measurements in homes ranged from 0.02 to 0.4µT. Proportions of homes exposed to a threshold of ≥0.3µT were many times higher in LMICs compared to HIC. Based on the limited data available, exposure to ELF-MF in LMICs appeared higher than in HIC, but a direct comparison is hampered by a lack of representative and systematic monitoring studies. Representative measurement studies on residential exposure to ELF-MF are needed in LMICs together with better standardisation in the reporting.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197280

RESUMO

We examined the geospatial dimension of delays to diagnosis of breast cancer in a prospective study of 1541 women newly diagnosed in the African Breast Cancer - Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) Study. Women were recruited at cancer treatment facilities in Namibia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia. The baseline interview included information used to generate the geospatial features: urban/rural residence, travel mode to treatment facility, and straight-line distances from home to first care provider and to diagnostic/treatment facility, categorized into country/ethnicity (population)-specific quartiles. These factors were investigated in relation to delay in diagnosis (≥3 months since first symptom) and late stage at diagnosis (TNM: III, IV) using logistic regression, adjusted for population group and sociodemographic characteristics. The median (interquartile range) distances to first provider and diagnostic and treatment facilities were 5 (1-37), 17 (3-105), and 62 (5-289) kms, respectively. The majority had a delay in diagnosis (74%) and diagnosis at late stage (64%). Distance to first provider was not associated with delay in diagnosis or late stage at diagnosis. Rural residence was associated with delay, but the association did not persist after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. Distance to the diagnostic/treatment facility was associated with delay (highest vs lowest quartile: Odds Ratio (OR)=1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.27) and late stage (overall: OR=1.47, CI=1.05-2.06; without Nigerian hospitals where mostly local residents were treated: OR=1.73, CI=1.18-2.54). These findings underscore the need of measures addressing the geospatial barriers to early diagnosis in sub-Saharan African settings, including providing transport or travel allowance and decentralizing diagnostic services.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180326

RESUMO

The presence of preexisting morbidities poses a challenge to cancer patient care. There is little information on the profile and prevalence of multi-morbidities in breast cancer patients across middle income countries (MIC) to lower income countries (LIC) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) breast cancer cohort spans upper MICs South Africa and Namibia, lower MICs Zambia and Nigeria and LIC Uganda. At cancer diagnosis, seven morbidities were assessed: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, tuberculosis and HIV. Logistic regression models were used to assess determinants of morbidities and the influence of morbidities on advanced stage (stage III/IV) breast cancer diagnosis. Among 2189 women, morbidity prevalence was the highest for obesity (35%, country-specific range 15-57%), hypertension (32%, 15-51%) and HIV (16%, 2-26%) then for diabetes (7%, 4%-10%), asthma (4%, 2%-10%), tuberculosis (4%, 0%-8%) and heart disease (3%, 1%-7%). Obesity and hypertension were more common in upper MICs and in higher socioeconomic groups. Overall, 27% of women had at least two preexisting morbidities. Older women were more likely to have obesity (odds ratio: 1.09 per 10 years, 95% CI 1.01-1.18), hypertension (1.98, 1.81-2.17), diabetes (1.51, 1.32-1.74) and heart disease (1.69, 1.37-2.09) and were less likely to be HIV positive (0.64, 0.58-0.71). Multi-morbidity was not associated with stage at diagnosis, with the exception of earlier stage in obese and hypertensive women. Breast cancer patients in higher income countries and higher social groups in SSA face the additional burden of preexisting non-communicable diseases, particularly obesity and hypertension, exacerbated by HIV in Southern/Eastern Africa.

14.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185816

RESUMO

Mobile health (m-health) has shown positive effects on disease prevention; however, several factors might influence its effectiveness, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Randomized trials provide data with high internal validity but no major information on population impact. We conducted a pilot population-based study to assess the feasibility of cancer prevention through m-health in a Latin American population. A sample of affiliates to a health insurance company in Colombia was randomly selected and assigned to receive a short message service (SMS) or voice messages (VMS) during 4 weeks; weekly frequencies 2 and 7. Baseline and post-intervention surveys were conducted. Overall, 797 affiliates were contacted (SMS 393, VMS 404) but only 15.3% and 24.8% enrolled, respectively. Over 80% acceptability was observed among participants for all items evaluated (usefulness, understandability, timing, and frequency); however, 2-VMS per week was the only frequency consistent with the declared number of messages received and listened. Other frequencies resulted in high reception recall but low willingness to read/listen the messages. The willingness to be part of future programs was 20.0%. The gap between declared acceptability and practice, low participation rates, and low willingness to read/listen messages indicate m-health should be part of multicomponent interventions and should not be conceived as the sole intervention.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064313

RESUMO

Even 30 years after the accident, an association between breast cancer incidence and ionizing radiation exposure from Chernobyl fallout remains uncertain. We studied breast cancer incidence in the most contaminated regions of Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev) and Ukraine (Kyiv, Zhytomyr and Chernihiv) before (1978-1986) and after (1987-2016) the accident. Breast cancer cases and female population size data were received from the national cancer registries and the state departments of statistics. The study included 85 132 breast cancers with 150 million person-years at risk. We estimated annual rayon (district)-average absorbed doses to the breast from external and internal irradiation of the adult female population over the period of 1986-2016. We studied an association between rayon-average cumulative absorbed breast dose with 5-year lag, that is, excluding the exposure in 5 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis, and breast cancer incidence using negative binomial regression models. Mean (median) cumulative breast dose in 2016 was 12.3 (5.0) milligray (mGy) in Belarus and 5.7 (2.3) mGy in Ukraine, with the maximum dose of 55 mGy and 54 mGy, respectively. Breast cancer incidence rates statistically significantly increased with calendar year and attained age, and were higher in urban than in rural residents. Adjusting for time, age and urbanicity effects, we found no evidence of increasing incidence with rayon-average 5-year lagged cumulative breast dose. Owing to ecological study design limitations, a case-control study covering this area with individually reconstructed absorbed breast doses is needed testing for association between low-dose protracted radiation exposure and breast cancer risk after Chernobyl.

16.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128785

RESUMO

Esophageal sponge cytology is an endoscopy alternative well accepted by patients with extensive data for accuracy in the context of adenocarcinoma. Few studies have assessed its feasibility in asymptomatic community members, and fewer still in East Africa, where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) rates are high. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a capsule-based diagnosis of esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), an ESCC precursor, which may benefit epidemiological and early detection research. We collected Cytosponge collections in 102 asymptomatic adults from Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Uptake, acceptability and safety were assessed. Participants scored acceptability immediately following the procedure and 7 days later on a scale of 0 (least) to 10 (most acceptable). Slides from paraffin-embedded cell clots were read by two pathologists for ESD and other pathologies. All participants (52 men, 50 women, aged 30-77) swallowed the device at first attempt, 100 (98%) of which gave slides of adequate cellularity. Acceptability scores were 10 (53%), 9 (24%), 8 (21%), 7 (2%) and 6 (1%), with no differences by age, sex or time of asking. Cytological findings were esophageal inflammation (4%), atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (1%), low-grade dysplasia (1%), gastritis (22%) and suspected intestinal metaplasia (6%). Setting-specific logistical and ethical considerations of study implementation are discussed. We demonstrate the safety, acceptability and feasibility of Cytosponge sampling in this setting, paving the way for innovative etiology and early-detection research. Targeted sampling strategies and biomarker development will underpin the success of such initiatives. The study protocol is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04090554).

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895947

RESUMO

Scant evidence exists to support the association of opium use with head and neck cancer, limited to the larynx and oral cavity. In a multicenter case-control study-Iran Opium and Cancer study, we recruited 633 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (254 lip and oral cavity, 54 pharynx, 327 larynx and 28 other subsites within the head and neck) and 3065 frequency-matched controls from April 2016 to April 2019. Odds ratios (ORs) for opium use and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using mixed-effects logistic regression because of heterogeneity among centers. The adjusted OR (95% CI) for regular opium use was 3.76 (2.96-4.79) for all HNSCC combined. Strong dose-response effects were observed by frequency or amount of use, and duration of use. Regular opium uses significantly increased the risk of HNSCC of the pharynx, larynx and other subsites within the head and neck with OR (95% CI) of 2.90 (1.40-6.02), 6.55 (4.69-9.13) and 5.95 (2.41-14.71), respectively. The observed associations were significant even among never tobacco smokers (including cigarette and water-pipe smoking). Moreover, by the multiplicative interaction scale, the effect of opium use could be varied by cigarette smoking on HNSCC, 8.16 (6.20-10.74). For the first time, the current study showed opium users have an increased risk of several anatomic subsites of HNSCC.

19.
Mol Oncol ; 14(8): 1589-1615, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749074

RESUMO

A comprehensive translational cancer research approach focused on personalized and precision medicine, and covering the entire cancer research-care-prevention continuum has the potential to achieve in 2030 a 10-year cancer-specific survival for 75% of patients diagnosed in European Union (EU) member states with a well-developed healthcare system. Concerted actions across this continuum that spans from basic and preclinical research through clinical and prevention research to outcomes research, along with the establishment of interconnected high-quality infrastructures for translational research, clinical and prevention trials and outcomes research, will ensure that science-driven and social innovations benefit patients and individuals at risk across the EU. European infrastructures involving comprehensive cancer centres (CCCs) and CCC-like entities will provide researchers with access to the required critical mass of patients, biological materials and technological resources and can bridge research with healthcare systems. Here, we prioritize research areas to ensure a balanced research portfolio and provide recommendations for achieving key targets. Meeting these targets will require harmonization of EU and national priorities and policies, improved research coordination at the national, regional and EU level and increasingly efficient and flexible funding mechanisms. Long-term support by the EU and commitment of Member States to specialized schemes are also needed for the establishment and sustainability of trans-border infrastructures and networks. In addition to effectively engaging policymakers, all relevant stakeholders within the entire continuum should consensually inform policy through evidence-based advice.

20.
J Radiol Prot ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759481

RESUMO

To clarify whether medical radiation exposure, especially from head computed tomography (CT), increases the risk of brain tumours in young patients in Japan, which ranks the second highest in the world in the number of paediatric CT examinations following the US. From 2011 to 2015, we performed a case-control study of 120 brain tumour patients and 360 appendicitis patients as controls. Reasons, the number of brain and head CT scans date were available from interviews. A cumulative radiation dose to the brain was calculated as a sum of doses received from head CT scans and from conventional X-rays and estimated using a reference table derived from a literature review of published studies. We performed conditional logistic regression to assess the risk of brain tumours from brain and head CT, and from conventional head X-ray procedures. The case group received on average 1.8 CTs to the brain area and 2.2 CTs to the whole head, with a mean estimated brain dose of 32 ±13 mGy. The odds ratio for developing a brain tumour from having a brain CT was 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.82). This was hardly altered when adjusting for parental educational history and for other diseases (history of neurological disease and attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). Neither whole head CT nor cumulative brain dose to the brain increased the risk of glioma or of all brain tumours. Although this study conducted in Japan, where ranks second in the number of CT scans conducted in the world, did not show an increased risk of brain tumours related to CT scans, it should be taken with caution due to a case-control study with limited sample size.

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