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1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 115, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive screen time has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adolescents; however, snack intake in front of screens may play a role in this association. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the association between screen-based sedentary time with MetS and whether this association is modified by unhealthy snack intake in front of screens. METHODS: This study was a nationwide, cross-sectional, school-based survey in Brazil including adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. The frequency of snack consumption in front of screen and screen-based sedentary time (TV view, computers and videogames use) were self-reported. Thereafter, screen time was categorized (≤2, 3-5 and ≥ 6 h/day); snack consumption in front of screens was dichotomized. Metabolic syndrome diagnosis was defined based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Associations between screen time and MetS were investigated using logistic regression in overall sample and after stratification by snack intake in front of screens. RESULTS: A total of 33,900 adolescents were included in the analysis. The final adjusted model, which included sociodemographic data, physical activity, and energy intake, showed that adolescents who spent ≥6 h/day in front of screens had an increased odds ratio for MetS (OR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.03-2.74). However, after stratifying the sample according to reported snack intake, the association between higher screen-based sedentary time and MetS remained significant only for adolescents who reported consumption of snacks in front of screens. CONCLUSION: Longer screen-based sedentary times were directly associated with MetS. However, this association seems to be modified by reported snack intake in front of screens.

2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 385-400, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1040336

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to assess the quality of systematic reviews on prevention and non-pharmacological treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Data source: A search was done in electronic databases (Medline via PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials), including only systematic reviews with meta-analysis. Reviews were selected by two researchers, and a third one solved the divergences. PRISMA statement and checklist were followed. Summary of data: A total of 4574 records were retrieved, including 24 after selection. Six reviews were on obesity prevention, 17 on obesity treatment, and one on mixed interventions for prevention and treatment of obesity. The interventions were very heterogeneous and showed little or no effects on weight or body mass index. Mixed interventions that included dieting, exercise, actions to reduce sedentary behavior, and programs involving the school or families showed some short-term positive effects. Reviews that analyzed cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated significant improvements in the short-term. Conclusion: The systematic reviews of interventions to prevent or reduce obesity in children and adolescents generally showed little or no effects on weight or body mass index, although cardiovascular profile can be improved. Mixed interventions demonstrated better effects, but the long-term impact of obesity treatments of children and adolescents remains unclear.


Resumo Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade das revisões sistemáticas sobre prevenção e tratamento não farmacológico do sobrepeso e da obesidade em crianças e adolescentes. Fontes de dados: Foi realizada uma busca em bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline via Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, The Cochrane Library e Ensaios Clínicos), incluindo apenas revisões sistemáticas com meta-análise. As revisões foram selecionadas por dois pesquisadores e um terceiro resolveu as divergências. A lista de recomendações do PRISMA foi seguida. Síntese dos dados: Foram identificados 4.574 publicações, e 24 foram incluídas após seleção. Seis publicações eram sobre prevenção da obesidade, 17 sobre tratamento da obesidade e 1 sobre intervenções mistas para prevenção e tratamento da obesidade. As intervenções eram muito heterogêneas e mostraram pouco ou nenhum efeito sobre o peso ou índice de massa corporal. Intervenções mistas que incluíam dieta, exercícios, ações para reduzir o comportamento sedentário e programas que envolviam a escola ou as famílias mostraram alguns efeitos positivos de curto prazo. Revisões que analisaram fatores de risco cardiovascular demonstraram melhoras significativas em curto prazo. Conclusão: As revisões sistemáticas de intervenções para prevenir ou reduzir a obesidade em crianças e adolescentes geralmente mostraram pouco ou nenhum efeito sobre o peso ou índice de massa corporal, embora o perfil cardiovascular possa ter melhorado. Intervenções mistas demonstraram melhores efeitos, mas o impacto em longo prazo dos tratamentos da obesidade de crianças e adolescentes ainda não está claro.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 657, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a clinical condition highly prevalent in the elderly, imposing great risks to cardiovascular diseases and loss of quality of life. Current guidelines emphasize the importance of nonpharmacological strategies as a first-line approach to lower blood pressure. Exercise is an efficient lifestyle tool that can benefit a myriad of health-related outcomes, including blood pressure control, in older adults. We herein report the protocol of the HAEL Study, which aims to evaluate the efficacy of a pragmatic combined exercise training compared with a health education program on ambulatory blood pressure and other health-related outcomes in older individuals. METHODS: Randomized, single-blinded, multicenter, two-arm, parallel, superiority trial. A total of 184 subjects (92/center), ≥60 years of age, with no recent history of cardiovascular events, will be randomized on a 1:1 ratio to 12-week interventions consisting either of a combined exercise (aerobic and strength) training, three times per week, or an active-control group receiving health education intervention, once a week. Ambulatory (primary outcome) and office blood pressures, cardiorespiratory fitness and endothelial function, together with quality of life, functional fitness and autonomic control will be measured in before and after intervention. DISCUSSION: Our conceptual hypothesis is that combined training intervention will reduce ambulatory blood pressure in comparison with health education group. Using a superiority framework, analysis plan prespecifies an intention-to-treat approach, per protocol criteria, subgroups analysis, and handling of missing data. The trial is recruiting since September 2017. Finally, this study was designed to adhere to data sharing practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03264443 . Registered on 29 August, 2017.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(2): 155-165, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002460

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of excessive screen-based behaviors among Brazilian adolescents through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Data source: Systematic review and meta-analysis were recorded in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO-CRD 2017 CRD42017074432). This review included observational studies (cohort or cross-sectional) that evaluated the prevalence of excessive screen time (i.e. combinations involving different screen-based behaviors) or TV viewing (≥2 h/day or >2 h/day in front of screen) through indirect or direct methods in adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years. The research strategy included the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO and ADOLEC. The search strategy included terms for "screen time", "Brazil", and "prevalence". Random effect models were used to estimate the prevalence of excessive screen time in different categories. Data summary: Twenty-eight out of 775 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of excessive screen time and TV viewing was 70.9% (95% CI: 65.5-76.1) and 58.8% (95% CI: 49.4-68.0), respectively. There was no difference between sexes in both analyses. The majority of studies included showed a low risk of bias. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time and TV viewing was high among Brazilian adolescents. Intervention are needed to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de tempo excessivo de tela e de TV em adolescentes brasileiros através de revisão sistemática com metanálise. Fontes de dados: A revisão sistemática e a metanálise foram registradas no Registro Prospectivo Internacional da Base de Dados de Análises Sistemáticas (Prospero-CRD 2017 CRD 42017074432). Esta análise incluiu estudos observacionais (coorte ou transversais) que avaliaram a prevalência de tempo excessivo de tela (ou seja, combinações que envolvem diferentes comportamentos baseados em tempo de tela) ou tempo em frente à TV (≥ 2 horas/dia ou > 2 horas/dia em frente à tela) por avaliação direta ou indireta em adolescentes com idades entre 10 a 19 anos. A estratégia de pesquisa incluiu as seguintes bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO e ADOLEC. A estratégia de busca incluiu termos como "tempo de tela", "Brasil" e "prevalência". Os modelos de efeito aleatório foram utilizados para estimar a prevalência de tempo excessivo de tela em diferentes categorias. Resumo de dados: Dos 775 estudos identificados na busca 28 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. A prevalência de tempo excessivo de tela e tempo de TV foi 70,9% (IC de 95%: 65,5 a 76,1) e 58,8% (IC de 95%: 49,4 a 68,0), respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os sexos nas duas análises. A maior parte dos estudos incluídos mostrou baixo risco de viés. Conclusões: A prevalência de tempo excessivo de tela e tempo de TV foi alta entre os adolescentes brasileiros. São necessárias intervenções para reduzir o tempo excessivo de tela entre os adolescentes.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963230

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns of adolescents using a food-based diet quality index and their compliance with a healthy dietary guideline METHODS: Participants included 71,553 Brazilian adolescents (12-17 years old) from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional school-based multicenter study.. Dietary intake was measured by one 24-h recall. A second recall was collected in a random subsample (~ 10%) to correct within-person variability. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents adapted for Brazilians (DQIA-BR) was used to measure the overall quality of the dietary intake. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to estimate usual dietary intake. The DQIA-BR and the distribution of its components (quality, diversity, and equilibrium) were analyzed according to sex, geographical area, and type of school RESULTS: The mean (SD) DQIA-BR scores were 14.8% (6.1%) for females and 19.0% (6.3%) for males. All analyzed strata revealed low scores of DQIA-BR and its components. The median usual intake was five to sevenfold below the recommendations for vegetables and fruits and approximately twofold below the recommendations for dairy. The highest DQIA-BR mean scores were found in the northern region [17.0% (6.4%), females; 20.7% (6.3%), males]. Adolescents in both types of schools had relatively similar median intakes of snacks (~ 85 g) and sugared drinks (~ 600 ml) CONCLUSIONS: The overall diet quality of Brazilian adolescents is inadequate based on evaluated parameters in all regions and socioeconomic backgrounds.

6.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(4): 389-396, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adolescents represents a clinical challenge related to lifestyle and obesity; however, only a few data are available in developing countries. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes among Brazilian adolescents, as well as to describe the cardio-metabolic profile according to the diagnosis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional school-based multicenter study including youth aged 12 to 17 years from cities with more than 100 000 inhabitants in Brazil (n = 37 854 students). Fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and other cardio-metabolic risk factors were measured. Prediabetes was defined by glucose levels 100 to 125 mg/dL or HbA1c 5.7% to 6.4%. T2DM was defined by self-report, glucose ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of prediabetes or T2DM according to covariates. RESULTS: Prevalences of prediabetes and T2DM were 22.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.6%-23.4%) and 3.3% (95% CI 2.9%-3.7%), respectively. This estimates represented 213 830 adolescents living with T2DM and 1.46 million adolescents with prediabetes in Brazil. Prevalences of cardio-metabolic risk factors were higher in adolescents with prediabetes and T2DM. In the multinomial logistic model, obesity (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.20-2.11), high waist circumference (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), and skipping breakfast (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.81) were associated with an increased OR for T2DM, while studying at rural area (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.78) was associated with a decreased OR for T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes was high among Brazilian adolescents, which highlights that this disease became a public health challenge not only among adults in Brazil.

7.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 65-72, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985130

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the physical activity level and functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease and to describe correlations between functionality, surgical and echocardiographic findings, metabolic and inflammatory profile and differences between acyanotic and cyanotic heart defects. Methods: A cross-sectional study including children and adolescents with congenital heart disease between six and 18 years old that were evaluated with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to assess functional capacity. The short version form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was performed to evaluate physical activity levels. Also, echocardiography and blood collection, to evaluate the metabolic (blood glucose, lipids, insulin) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein), were assessed. Results: Twenty-five individuals were evaluated. Of them, 14 had acyanotic heart defects and 11 cyanotic heart defects. Mean age was 12.0±3.7 years, and 20 (80%) were male. IPAQ showed that six (24%) individuals were very active, eight (32%) were active, nine (36%) had irregular physical activity, and two (8%) were sedentary. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT, considering all studied individuals, was 464.7±100.4 m, which was 181.4±42.0 m less than the predicted (p=0.005). There was a positive correlation between Z score 6MWT and the number of surgical procedures (r=-0.455; p=0.022). Conclusions: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease have low functional capacity, but they are not completely sedentary.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de atividade física e a capacidade funcional de crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia congênita, além de descrever correlações entre funcionalidade, achados cirúrgicos e ecocardiográficos, perfil metabólico e inflamatório e diferenças entre cardiopatias congênitas acianótica e cianótica. Métodos: Estudo transversal com crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia congênita entre seis e 18 anos de idade. Foi realizado o teste de caminhada de 6 minutos para avaliar a capacidade funcional, e aplicou-se a versão curta do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ) para avaliar os níveis de atividade física. Foram feitos também: exame ecocardiográfico, coleta de sangue para avaliação de perfil metabólico e inflamatório (glicemia, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade - HDL-colesterol, lipoproteína de baixa densidade - LDL-colesterol, hemograma completo, proteína C reativa, insulina). Resultados: Foram avaliados 25 indivíduos, dos quais 14 tinham cardiopatia congênita acianótica e 11 cianótica. A média de idade foi de 12,0±3,7 anos, e 20 (80%) eram do sexo masculino. O IPAQ mostrou que seis (24%) indivíduos eram muito ativos, oito (32%) eram ativos, nove (36%) tinham atividade física irregular e dois (8%) eram sedentários. A média de distância percorrida no teste de caminhada dos 6 minutos, considerando todos os indivíduos estudados, foi de 464,7±100,4 m, sendo 181,4±42,0 m menor do que o previsto (p=0,005). Encontrou-se correlação entre o escore Z do teste de caminhada de 6 minutos e o número de procedimentos cirúrgicos realizados (r=-0,455; p=0,022). Conclusões: Crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia congênita têm baixa capacidade funcional, mas não são completamente sedentários.

8.
Blood Press Monit ; 24(2): 52-58, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased blood pressure (BP) variability and inflammation are included among the factors recognized as potential predictors of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes and hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate whether C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with increased BP variability in diabetic-hypertensive patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study with 285 diabetic-hypertensive patients, evaluating laboratory characteristics and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. SD, coefficient of variation (CV%), time-rate index of 24-h systolic BP (SBP), and 24-h BP patterns were evaluated. Pearson's χ-test, Student's t-test, and the Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the groups. Groups were defined by CRP of up to 3 mg/l (low) and more than 3 mg/l (high). RESULTS: The age of the patients was 59 (54-62) years; 101 (35%) were men. There was an increase in office SBP [137 (127-148) vs. 145 (130-157) mmHg] and DBP [79 (73-86) vs. 82 (76-91) mmHg] in the high CRP group. Blood pressure variability indexes were not different among groups [SD: 11.2 (9-15) vs. 12.2 (10-15) mmHg; CV%: 8.6 (7-11) vs. 9.4 (7-12); time rate: 0.55±0.12 vs.12.2 (10-15) mmHg/min]. In addition, BMI (29.3±3.8 vs. 30.9±3.6 kg/m), total cholesterol [166 (148-190) vs. 177 (156-210) mg/dl], and HbA1c [7.5% (6.6-8.9) vs.8.3% (7.1-9.9)] were higher in the high CRP group. CONCLUSION: In patients with diabetes and hypertension, higher CRP levels are linked to cardiometabolic derangements, although they are not associated with increased BP variability.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 37(1): 65-72, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physical activity level and functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease and to describe correlations between functionality, surgical and echocardiographic findings, metabolic and inflammatory profile and differences between acyanotic and cyanotic heart defects. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including children and adolescents with congenital heart disease between six and 18 years old that were evaluated with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to assess functional capacity. The short version form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was performed to evaluate physical activity levels. Also, echocardiography and blood collection, to evaluate the metabolic (blood glucose, lipids, insulin) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein), were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-five individuals were evaluated. Of them, 14 had acyanotic heart defects and 11 cyanotic heart defects. Mean age was 12.0±3.7 years, and 20 (80%) were male. IPAQ showed that six (24%) individuals were very active, eight (32%) were active, nine (36%) had irregular physical activity, and two (8%) were sedentary. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT, considering all studied individuals, was 464.7±100.4 m, which was 181.4±42.0 m less than the predicted (p=0.005). There was a positive correlation between Z score 6MWT and the number of surgical procedures (r=-0.455; p=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease have low functional capacity, but they are not completely sedentary.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício , Exercício , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Teste de Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-998685

RESUMO

As doenças cardiovasculares são a principal causa de morte no Brasil. Os fatores de risco modificáveis dessas doenças podem ser observados desde a infância e sua persistência está associada ao diagnóstico precoce de morbidades. Neste contexto, a adolescência é considerada um período chave para estratégias de prevenção. Com objetivo de avaliar a prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular e seus fatores as-sociados foi planejado o Estudo de riscos cardiovasculares em adolescentes (ERICA), um inquérito multicêntrico de base escolar com abrangência nacional que envolveu mais de 70 mil adolescentes, entre 12 e 17 anos, de cidades brasileiras com mais de 100 mil habitantes. Os principais resultados do estudo apontaram prevalências preo-cupantes de sobrepeso/obesidade (25,5%, IC 95%: 24,4%-26,6%), pressão arterial elevada (9,6%, IC 95%: 8,9%-10,3%) e HDL-c baixo (47,3%, IC 95%: 45,2%-49,3%). A prevalência de síndrome metabólica foi de 2,6% (IC 95%: 2,3%-2,9%). Além disso, mais da metade dos adolescentes reportaram um estilo de vida sedentário. As estimativas regionais apontaram a região sul como a que tem maiores prevalências de fatores de risco. O ERICA foi um estudo pioneiro no Brasil e os adolescentes que participaram do estudo no Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Brasília e Fortaleza serão acompanhados em uma nova etapa. Os primeiros resultados do ERICA podem servir de referência para futuras pesquisas sobre riscos cardiovasculares entre adolescentes brasileiros, bem como subsidiar políticas públicas de saúde.


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Brazil. Modifiable risk factors for this group of diseases can be observed since childhood, and their persisten-ce is associated with the early diagnosis of morbidities. In this context, adolescence is considered a key period for prevention strategies. In order to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their associated factors, the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents ("ERICA") was planned. This is a multicenter school-based nationwide survey involving more than 70,000 adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years from Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The main results of the study indicated concerning prevalence of overweight/obesity (25.5%, 95% CI: 24.4%-26.6%), high blood pressure (9.6%, 95% CI: 8.9%-10.3%) and low HDL-c (47.3%, 95% CI: 45.2%-49.3%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.3%-2.9%). In addition, more than half of adolescents reported a sedentary lifestyle. Regional estimates pointed to the south as the region with the highest prevalence of risk factors. ERICA was a pioneering study in Brazil and the adolescents who participated in the study in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Brasília and Fortaleza will be followed in a new stage. The first results of ERICA can both serve as a reference for future research on cardiovascular risks among Brazilian adolescents and support public health policies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Comportamento Sedentário/história
11.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445703

RESUMO

Stress increases inflammation but whether adherence to Mediterranean diet counteracts this association and how early can these effects be observed is not well known. We tested whether (1) cortisol is associated to inflammation, (2) cortisol is associated to the adolescent Mediterranean diet score (aMDS), (3) aMDS lessens inflammation, (4) aMDS associates with cortisol levels and inflammation. Two hundred and forty-two adolescents (137 females; 12.5⁻17.5 years old) provided salivary cortisol, blood and 2-day 24-h dietary recall from which aMDS was derived. Cortisol levels were associated with increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α B = 11.887, p = 0.001) when adjusted for age, gender, parental education and body mass index (BMI). Moreover, cortisol levels were inversely associated to adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (B = -1.023, p = 0.002). Adolescents with higher adherence to aMDS had lower levels of interleukins (IL) IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α, compared to those who did not adhere. The association between cortisol and TNF-α was no longer significant when aMDS was included in the model (B = 6.118, p = 0.139). In addition, comparing lower and higher aMDS groups, the association between cortisol and TNF-α was only observed in those with lower aMDS adherence. Our study suggests that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet may counteract the effect of stress on inflammatory biomarkers which may contribute to decreasing the risk of future mental health.

12.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement and risk factors for underestimation and overestimation between nutritional status and self-perceived body image and to assess the prevalence and associated factors for dissatisfaction with body weight among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: Students aged 12-17 years participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents ("ERICA"), a multicenter, cross-sectional, school-based country-wide study, were included (n=71,740). Variables assessed as covariates were sex, age, skin color, socioeconomic status, and common mental disorders (screened by the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12). Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the association between covariates and combinations between self-perceived body image and body mass index (agreement, underestimation and overestimation). The associations between dissatisfaction with body weight and exposure variables were investigated using multivariable Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Approximately 66% students rightly matched their body mass index with self-perceived weight (kappa coefficient was 0.38 for boys and 0.35 for girls). Agreement was higher among younger students and adolescents from low income households. Male sex, older age, and GHQ-12 score ≥3 were associated with weight overestimation. Prevalence of dissatisfaction with body weight was 45.0% (95% CI: 44.0-46.0), and higher among girls, older adolescents, those with underweight or overweight/obesity, as well as those who were physically inactive and with GHQ-12 ≥3. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the sample rightly self-perceived their body image according to body mass index. Students with body image misperception and those dissatisfied with their weight were more likely to present a positive screening for common mental disorders.

13.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the quality of systematic reviews on prevention and non-pharmacological treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: A search was done in electronic databases (Medline via PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials), including only systematic reviews with meta-analysis. Reviews were selected by two researchers, and a third one solved the divergences. PRISMA statement and checklist were followed. SUMMARY OF DATA: A total of 4574 records were retrieved, including 24 after selection. Six reviews were on obesity prevention, 17 on obesity treatment, and one on mixed interventions for prevention and treatment of obesity. The interventions were very heterogeneous and showed little or no effects on weight or body mass index. Mixed interventions that included dieting, exercise, actions to reduce sedentary behavior, and programs involving the school or families showed some short-term positive effects. Reviews that analyzed cardiovascular risk factors demonstrated significant improvements in the short-term. CONCLUSION: The systematic reviews of interventions to prevent or reduce obesity in children and adolescents generally showed little or no effects on weight or body mass index, although cardiovascular profile can be improved. Mixed interventions demonstrated better effects, but the long-term impact of obesity treatments of children and adolescents remains unclear.

14.
Endocrine ; 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Part of the beneficial effects of metformin on the prevention of cardiovascular events in diabetes can be attributed to pleiotropic effects, including a blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. In a double-blind parallel clinical trial (NCT02072382), the effect of metformin on BP evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was measured. METHODS: Ninety-seven patients with hypertension, but without diabetes mellitus, were randomized to receive 850-1700 mg of metformin (n = 48) or placebo (n = 49). Clinical, laboratory, and ABPM data were collected at the baseline and after 8 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: The sample consisted mainly of White overweight women. There was no difference in BP reduction measured by ABPM between both groups. There was no effect in BP measured in the different periods of ABP monitoring and office BP. Additionally, fasting plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein remained unchanged during the trial. There was a significant reduction in waist circumference with metformin (95.1 ± 10.4 to 89.3 ± 27.4 cm; p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In the present trial, metformin did not reduce BP, measured by ABP monitoring, in hypertensive patients without diabetes.

15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 143: 184-193, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990565

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the glucose variability, oxidative stress, metabolic and cardiovascular responses after an aerobic exercise session in diabetic patients on treatment with metformin plus vildagliptin or glibenclamide. METHODS: Parallel clinical trial including patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin plus vildagliptin or glibenclamide for 12 weeks. Glucose variability, oxidative stress, metabolic (plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon-like-peptide-1) and cardiovascular responses were evaluated at rest, during and after a 30 min aerobic exercise session (70% of the peak heart rate). RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included, seven in vildagliptin group (METV) and six in glibenclamide group (METG), baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.8 ±â€¯0.3%. Treatment reduced HbA1c (1.2% and 1.5% for METV and METG, respectively). The aerobic exercise session did not change glucose variability in both groups. A decrease in glucose during exercise recovery was found, with area under the curve lower in the METG vs. METV (p = 0.04). After the intervention, systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased in both groups. Patients treated with vildagliptin showed lower SBP variability compared to those treated with glibenclamide. CONCLUSIONS: Besides improvement in glucose control and reduction of SBP obtained by both treatments, lower blood pressure variability was observed in patients receiving vildagliptin. Glucose variability remained unaffected by both interventions and the exercise session.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Exercício/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vildagliptina
16.
Obes Surg ; 28(11): 3611-3620, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030729

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to assess whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) prior to pregnancy is associated with fluid intelligence in offspring. Additionally, perinatal and obstetric outcomes, and children nutritional status were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Singleton births of women who underwent RYGB between 2000 and 2010 (BS) were matched to two control births by maternal age, delivery year, and gender. Control group 1 (CG1) and control group 2 (CG2) included women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) < 35 kg/m2 and ≥ 35 kg/m2, respectively, who had never undergone bariatric surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-two children from each group (n = 96) were analyzed, mostly female (59%) and Caucasian (82%), with a mean age of 7 ± 2 years. Their general intelligence scores were similar after adjusting for sociodemographic confounders; family economic class was the strongest predictor (low: ß = - 20.57; p < 0.001; middle: ß = - 9.34; p = 0.019). Gestational diabetes mellitus (OR 0.06; 95% CI 0.03; 0.35) and hypertensive disorders (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01; 0.40) were less frequent in BS than CG2. Post-RYGB pregnancies were associated with lower birth weight (P = 0.021) than controls. Child overweight and obesity was higher (OR 4.59; 95% CI 1.55; 13.61; p = 0.006) in CG2 (78%) than CG1 (44%) and similar to BS (65%). CONCLUSIONS: RYGB prior to pregnancy was not associated with fluid intelligence in offspring. Prior RYGB was associated with a lower frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders than in women with a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2, as well as with lower birth weight than both control groups.

17.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859903

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of excessive screen-based behaviors among Brazilian adolescents through a systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCE: Systematic review and meta-analysis were recorded in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO-CRD 2017 CRD42017074432). This review included observational studies (cohort or cross-sectional) that evaluated the prevalence of excessive screen time (i.e. combinations involving different screen-based behaviors) or TV viewing (≥2h/day or >2h/day in front of screen) through indirect or direct methods in adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years. The research strategy included the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO and ADOLEC. The search strategy included terms for "screen time", "Brazil", and "prevalence". Random effect models were used to estimate the prevalence of excessive screen time in different categories. DATA SUMMARY: Twenty-eight out of 775 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of excessive screen time and TV viewing was 70.9% (95% CI: 65.5-76.1) and 58.8% (95% CI: 49.4-68.0), respectively. There was no difference between sexes in both analyses. The majority of studies included showed a low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of excessive screen time and TV viewing was high among Brazilian adolescents. Intervention are needed to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents.

18.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 43(12): 1282-1287, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806984

RESUMO

We assessed the effects of a diet with flaxseed or soy nuts versus estradiol on the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression in ovariectomized female rats. Forty-four female Wistar rats (90 days old) underwent ovariectomy and were divided into 4 groups: C (standard diet), E (standard diet + subcutaneous 17ß-estradiol pellets), L (standard diet + flaxseed + subcutaneous placebo pellets), and S (standard diet + soy nuts + subcutaneous placebo pellets). Customized diets and the insertion of pellets were started 21 days after ovariectomy and were continued for another 21 days. We measured body mass, insulin tolerance, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and GLUT4 (in cardiac and adipose tissues). We found a lower body mass and a lower Lee index in group E and a trend toward improved insulin sensitivity in group S (p = 0.066). Groups L and S showed a better lipid profile when compared with group C. Microsomal GLUT4 increased in group L (in cardiac and adipose tissues), and plasma membrane GLUT4 increased in groups E, L, and S (in both tissues). We conclude that flaxseed and soy nuts as dietary supplements improve lipid profile and increase GLUT4 expression.

19.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association between active lifestyle components and vitamin D status in adolescents remains relatively unexplored. We aimed to investigate independent and joint associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in adolescents. METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 1152 Brazilian adolescents (age 12-17 years). Serum 25(OH)D was measured in a single laboratory and categorized as ≤20, 21-29, or ≥30 ng/mL. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed by self-reports. Ordered logistic regression was used to investigate potential associations of being physically active (MVPA ≥ 300 min/week) and excessive screen time (>2 h/day) with serum 25(OH)D concentrations. RESULTS: The prevalence of higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations (≥30 ng/mL) was 36.4%. In adjusted models, being physically active was associated with higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations only in boys [proportional odds ratio (POR) = 2.04, 95% CI 1.42-2.93], while excessive screen time was not associated with serum 25(OH)D. Adolescents who were physically active and limited their screen time had higher odds of a higher serum 25(OH)D concentration, but the association was significant only for boys (POR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.19-3.74). CONCLUSIONS: MVPA may play an important role in increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations in adolescence, especially for boys, regardless of screen time.

20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(2): 157-165, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) variability can be evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (24h-ABPM), but its concordance with results from finger BP measurement (FBPM) has not been established yet. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare parameters of short-term (24h-ABPM) with very short-term BP variability (FBPM) in healthy (C) and diabetic-hypertensive (DH) subjects. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 51 DH subjects and 12 C subjects who underwent 24h-ABPM [extracting time-rate, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV)] and short-term beat-to-beat recording at rest and after standing-up maneuvers [FBPM, extracting BP and heart rate (HR) variability parameters in the frequency domain, autoregressive spectral analysis]. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to correlate BP and HR variability parameters obtained from both FBPM and 24h-ABPM (divided into daytime, nighttime, and total). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: There was a circadian variation of BP levels in C and DH groups; systolic BP and time-rate were higher in DH subjects in all periods evaluated. In C subjects, high positive correlations were shown between time-rate index (24h-ABPM) and LF component of short-term variability (FBPM, total, R = 0.591, p = 0.043); standard deviation (24h-ABPM) with LF component BPV (FBPM, total, R = 0.608, p = 0.036), coefficient of variation (24h-ABPM) with total BPV (FBPM, daytime, -0.585, p = 0.046) and alpha index (FBPM, daytime, -0.592, p = 0.043), time rate (24h-ABPM) and delta LF/HF (FBPM, total, R = 0.636, p = 0.026; daytime R = 0,857, p < 0.001). Records obtained from DH showed weak positive correlations. CONCLUSIONS: Indices obtained from 24h-ABPM (total, daytime) reflect BP and HR variability evaluated by FBPM in healthy individuals. This does not apply for DH subjects.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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