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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the sources of HIV transmission provides a basis for prioritizing HIV prevention resources in specific geographic regions and populations. This study estimated the number, proportion, and rate of HIV transmissions attributable to individuals along the HIV care continuum, within different HIV transmission risk groups in six US cities. METHODS: We used a dynamic, compartmental HIV transmission model that draws on racial/ethnic- and risk-behavior-specific linkage to HIV care and use of HIV prevention services from local, state and national surveillance sources. We estimated the rate and number of HIV transmissions attributable to individuals in the stage of acute undiagnosed HIV, non-acute undiagnosed HIV, HIV diagnosed but antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve, off ART, and on ART, stratified by HIV transmission group for the 2019 calendar year. RESULTS: Individuals with undiagnosed non-acute HIV infection accounted for the highest proportion of total transmissions in every city, ranging from 36.8% [26.7%-44.9%] in New York City to 64.9% [47.0%-71.6%] in Baltimore. Individuals who had discontinued ART contributed to the second highest percentage of total infections in four of six cities. Individuals with acute HIV had the highest transmission rate per 100 person years, ranging from 76.4 [58.9-135.9] in Miami to 160.2 [85.7-302.8] in Baltimore. CONCLUSION: These findings underline the importance of both early diagnosis and improved ART retention for ending the HIV epidemic in the US. Differences in the sources of transmission across cities indicate that localized priority-setting to effectively address diverse microepidemics at different stages of epidemic control is necessary.

2.
Addiction ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid-related overdose death rates continue to rise in the United States, especially in racial/ethnic minority communities. Our objective was to determine if US municipalities with high percentages of non-white residents have equitable access to the overdose antidote naloxone distributed by community-based organizations. METHODS: We used community-based naloxone data from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health and the Rhode Island Non-Pharmacy Naloxone Distribution program for 2016-2018. We obtained publicly available opioid-related overdose death data from Massachusetts and the Office of the State Medical Examiners in Rhode Island. We defined the naloxone coverage ratio as the number of community-based naloxone kits received by a resident in a municipality divided by the number of opioid-related overdose deaths among residents, updated annually. We used a Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to analyze the relationship between the municipal racial/ethnic composition and naloxone coverage ratio. To account for the potential nonlinear relationship between naloxone coverage ratio and race/ethnicity, we created B-splines for the percentage of non-white residents; and for a secondary analysis examining the percentage of African American/Black and Hispanic residents. The models were adjusted for the percentage of residents in poverty, urbanicity, state, and population size. RESULTS: Between 2016-2018, the annual naloxone coverage ratios range was 0-135. There was no difference in naloxone coverage ratios among municipalities with varying percentages of non-white residents in our multivariable analysis. In the secondary analysis, municipalities with higher percentages of African American/Black residents had higher naloxone coverage ratios, independent of other factors. Naloxone coverage did not differ by percentage of Hispanic residents. CONCLUSIONS: There appear to be no municipal-level racial/ethnic inequities in naloxone distribution in Rhode Island and Massachusetts, USA.

3.
Subst Abus ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Naloxone is an opioid antagonist medication that can be administered by lay people or medical professionals to reverse opioid overdoses and reduce overdose mortality. Cost was identified as a potential barrier to providing expanded overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) in New York City (NYC) in 2017. We estimated the cost of delivering OEND for different types of opioid overdose prevention programs (OOPPs) in NYC. Methods: We interviewed naloxone coordinators at 11 syringe service programs (SSPs) and 10 purposively sampled non-SSPs in NYC from December 2017 to September 2019. The samples included diverse non-SSP program types, program sizes, and OEND funding sources. We calculated one-time start up costs and ongoing operating costs using micro-costing methods to estimate the cost of personnel time and materials for OEND activities from the program perspective, but excluding naloxone kit costs. Results: Implementing an OEND program required a one-time median startup cost of $874 for SSPs and $2,548 for other programs excluding overhead, with 80% of those costs attributed to time and travel for training staff. SSPs spent a median of $90 per staff member trained and non-SSPs spent $150 per staff member. The median monthly cost of OEND program activities excluding overhead was $1,579 for SSPs and $2,529 for non-SSPs. The costs for non-SSPs varied by size, with larger, multi-site programs having higher median costs compared to single-site programs. The estimated median cost per kit dispensed excluding and including overhead was $19 versus $25 per kit for SSPs, and $36 versus $43 per kit for non-SSPs, respectively. Conclusions: OEND operating costs vary by program type and number of sites. Funders should consider that providing free naloxone to OEND programs does not cover full operating costs. Further exploration of cost-effectiveness and program efficiency should be considered across different types of OEND settings.

4.
Int J Drug Policy ; 98: 103435, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of fatal opioid overdose in Massachusetts (MA) and Rhode Island (RI) far exceed the national average. Community-based opioid education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs are effective public health interventions to prevent overdose deaths. We compared naloxone distribution and opioid overdose death rates in MA and RI to identify priority communities for expanded OEND. METHODS: We compared spatial patterns of opioid overdose fatalities and naloxone distribution through OEND programs in MA and RI during 2016 to 2019 using public health department data. The county-level ratio of naloxone kits distributed through OEND programs per opioid overdose death was estimated and mapped to identify potential gaps in naloxone availability across geographic regions and over time. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2019, the statewide community-based naloxone distribution to opioid overdose death ratio improved in both states, although more rapidly in RI (from 11.8 in 2016 to 35.6 in 2019) than in MA (from 12.3 to 17.2), driven primarily by elevated and increasing rates of naloxone distribution in RI. We identified some urban/non-urban differences, with higher naloxone distribution relative to opioid overdose deaths in more urban counties, and we observed some counties with high rates of overdose deaths but low rates of naloxone kits distributed through OEND programs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified variations in spatial patterns of opioid overdose fatalities and naloxone availability, and these disparities appeared to be widening in some areas over time. Data on the spatial distribution of naloxone distribution and opioid overdose deaths can inform targeted, community-based naloxone distribution strategies that optimize resources to prevent opioid overdose fatalities.

5.
Lancet HIV ; 8(9): e581-e590, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the USA, Black and Hispanic or Latinx individuals continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. Applying a distributional cost-effectiveness framework, we estimated the cost-effectiveness and epidemiological impact of two combination implementation approaches to identify the approach that best meets the dual objectives of improving population health and reducing racial or ethnic health disparities. METHODS: We adapted a dynamic, compartmental HIV transmission model to characterise HIV micro-epidemics in six US cities: Atlanta, Baltimore, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and Seattle. We considered combinations of 16 evidence-based interventions to diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV transmission according to previously documented levels of scale-up. We then identified optimal combination strategies for each city, with the distribution of each intervention implemented according to existing service levels (proportional services approach) and the racial or ethnic distribution of new diagnoses (between Black, Hispanic or Latinx, and White or other ethnicity individuals; equity approach). We estimated total costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of strategies implemented from 2020 to 2030 (health-care perspective; 20-year time horizon; 3% annual discount rate). We estimated three measures of health inequality (between-group variance, index of disparity, Theil index), incidence rate ratios, and rate differences for the selected strategies under each approach. FINDINGS: In all cities, optimal combination strategies under the equity approach generated more QALYs than those with proportional services, ranging from a 3·1% increase (95% credible interval [CrI] 1·4-5·3) in New York to more than double (101·9% [75·4-134·6]) in Atlanta. Compared with proportional services, the equity approach delivered lower costs over 20 years in all cities except Los Angeles; cost reductions ranged from $22·9 million (95% CrI 5·3-55·7 million) in Seattle to $579·8 million (255·4-940·5 million) in Atlanta. The equity approach also reduced incidence disparities and health inequality measures in all cities except Los Angeles. INTERPRETATION: Equity-focused HIV combination implementation strategies that reduce disparities for Black and Hispanic or Latinx individuals can significantly improve population health, reduce costs, and drive progress towards Ending the HIV Epidemic goals in the USA. FUNDING: National Institute on Drug Abuse.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Equidade em Saúde/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(4): 537-544, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study assesses the associations between the recent implementation of robust features of state Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and the abrupt discontinuation of long-term opioid therapies. METHODS: Data were from a national commercial insurance database and included privately insured adults aged 18-64 years and Medicare Advantage enrollees aged ≥65 years who initiated a long-term opioid therapy episode between Quarter 2 of 2011 and Quarter 2 of 2017. State Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs were characterized as nonrobust, robust, and strongly robust. Abrupt discontinuation was measured on the basis of high daily morphine milligram equivalents over the last 30 days of a long-term opioid therapy episode or no sign of tapering before discontinuation. Difference-in-differences models were estimated in 2019‒2020 to assess the association between robust Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and abrupt discontinuation. RESULTS: Among nonelderly privately insured adults, robust Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs were associated with an increase from 14.8% to 15.4% (4% relative increase, p=0.02) in the rate of ending long-term opioid therapy with ≥60 daily morphine milligram equivalents. For older Medicare Advantage enrollees, strongly robust Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs were associated with a reduction from 4.8% to 4.3% (10.4%, p=0.01) and from 3.0% to 2.4% (17.3%, p=0.001) in the rate of ending long-term opioid therapy with ≥90 and 120 daily morphine milligram equivalents, respectively. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs robustness was not associated with clinically meaningful changes in the rate of discontinuing long-term opioid therapy without tapering. CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuation without tapering was the norm for long-term opioid therapies in the samples throughout the study years. Findings do not support the notion that policies aimed at enhancing Prescription Drug Monitoring Program use were associated with substantial increases in abrupt long-term opioid therapy discontinuation.


Assuntos
Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Medicare , Políticas , Estados Unidos
7.
Value Health ; 24(7): 1068-1083, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The crisis of opioid use puts a strain on resources in the United States and worldwide. There are 3 US Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for treatment of opioid use disorder: methadone, buprenorphine, and injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX). The comparative effectiveness and cost vary considerably among these 3 medications. Economic evaluations provide evidence that help stakeholders efficiently allocate scarce resources. Our objective was to summarize recent health economic evidence of pharmacologic treatment of opioid use disorder interventions. METHODS: We searched PubMed for peer-reviewed studies in English from August 2015 through December 2019 as an update to a 2015 review. We used the Drummond checklist to evaluate and categorize economic evaluation study quality. We summarized results by economic evaluation methodology and pharmacologic treatment modality. RESULTS: We identified 105 articles as potentially relevant and included 21 (4 cost-offset studies and 17 cost-effectiveness/cost-benefit studies). We found strengthened evidence on buprenorphine and methadone, indicating that these treatments are economically advantageous compared with no pharmacotherapy, but found limited evidence on XR-NTX. Only half of the cost-effectiveness studies used a generic preference-based measure of effectiveness, limiting broad comparison across diseases/disorders. The disease/disorder-specific cost-effectiveness measures vary widely, suggesting a lack of consensus on the value of substance use disorder treatment. CONCLUSION: We found studies that provide new evidence supporting the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine compared with no pharmacotherapy. We found a lack of evidence supporting superior economic value for buprenorphine versus methadone, suggesting that both are attractive alternatives. Further economic research is needed on XR-NTX, as well as other emerging pharmacotherapies, treatment modalities, and dosage forms.

8.
Med Care ; 59(9): 795-800, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains under-treated in the United States and treatment by nonspecialist providers can expand access. We compare HCV treatment provision and treatment completion between nonspecialist and specialist providers. METHODS: This retrospective study used claims data from the Healthcare Cost Institute from 2013 to 2017. We identified providers who prescribed HCV therapy between 2013 and 2017, and patients enrolled in private insurance or Medicare Advantage who had pharmacy claims for HCV treatment. We measured HCV treatment completion, determined based on prescription fills for the minimum expected duration of the antiviral regimen. Using propensity score-weighted regression, we compared the likelihood of early treatment discontinuation by the type of treating provider. RESULTS: The number of providers prescribing HCV treatment peaked in 2015 and then declined. The majority were gastroenterologists, although the proportion of general medicine providers increased to 17% by 2017. Among the 23,463 patients analyzed, 1008 (4%) discontinued before the expected minimum duration. In the propensity score-weighted analysis, patients treated by general medicine physicians had similar odds of treatment discontinuation compared with those treated by gastroenterologists [odds ratio (OR)=1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01, P=0.45]. Results were similar when comparing gastroenterologists to nonphysician providers (OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.99-1.01, P=0.53) and infectious diseases specialists (OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.99-1.01, P=0.71). CONCLUSIONS: HCV treatment providers remain primarily gastroenterologists, even in the current simplified treatment era. Patients receiving treatment from general medicine or nonphysician providers had a similar likelihood of treatment completion, suggesting that removing barriers to the scale-up of treatment by nonspecialists may help close treatment gaps for hepatitis C.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Addiction ; 116(12): 3444-3453, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a US randomized-effectiveness trial comparing extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) with buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX) for the prevention of opioid relapse among participants recruited during inpatient detoxification (CTN-0051), the requirement to complete opioid detoxification prior to initiating XR-NTX resulted in lower rates of initiation of XR-NTX (72% XR-NTX versus 94% BUP-NX). DESIGN: This was a retrospective secondary analysis of CTN-0051 trial data, including follow-up data over 24-36 weeks. SETTING: Eight community-based, inpatient-detoxification and follow-up outpatient treatment facilities in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 283 participants randomized to receive XR-NTX. MEASUREMENTS: Efficiency was estimated using a multivariable generalized structural equation model to explore simultaneous determinants of XR-NTX induction and induction duration (detoxification + residential days). Cost-effectiveness was estimated from the health-care sector perspective and included expected costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). FINDINGS: Treatment site was the only modifiable factor that simultaneously increased the likelihood of XR-NTX induction and decreased induction duration. Incorporating the higher predicted probability of XR-NTX induction, and fewer predicted days of detoxification and subsequent residential treatment into the cost-effectiveness framework, reduced the incremental average 24-week total cost of XR-NTX treatment from $5317 more than that of BUP-NX (P = 0.01) to a non-statistically-significant difference of $1016 (P = 0.63). QALYs gained remained similar across arms. CONCLUSION: Adopting an efficient model of extended-release naltrexone initiation could result in extended-release naltrexone and buprenorphine-naloxone being of comparable economic value from the health-care sector perspective over 24-36 weeks for patients seeking treatment for opioid use disorder at an inpatient detoxification facility.


Assuntos
Naltrexona , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Análise Custo-Benefício , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
10.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 32, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardization and harmonization of healthcare resource utilization data can improve evaluations of the economic impact of treating people with substance use disorder (SUD), including reductions in use of expensive hospital and emergency department (ED) services, and can ensure consistency with current cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis guidelines. METHODS: We examined self-reported healthcare and other resource utilization data collected at baseline from three National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain intervention studies of individuals living with/at risk for HIV with SUD. Costs were calculated by multiplying mean healthcare resource utilization measures by monetary conversion factors reflecting cost per unit of care. We normalized baseline recall timeframes to past 30 days and evaluated for missing data. RESULTS: We identified measures that are feasible and appropriate for estimating healthcare sector costs including ED visits, inpatient hospital and residential facility stays, and outpatient encounters. We also identified two self-reported measures to inform societal costs (days experiencing SUD problems, participant spending on substances). Missingness was 8% or less for all study measures and was lower for single questions measuring utilization in a recall period. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend including measures representing units of service with specific recall periods (e.g., 6 months vs. lifetime), and collecting healthcare resource utilization data using single-question measures to reduce missingness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037259, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587136

RESUMO

Importance: The United States is experiencing a crisis of opioid overdose. In response, the US Department of Health and Human Services has defined a goal to reduce overdose mortality by 40% by 2022. Objective: To identify specific combinations of 3 interventions (initiating more people to medications for opioid use disorder [MOUD], increasing 6-month retention with MOUD, and increasing naloxone distribution) associated with at least a 40% reduction in opioid overdose in simulated populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical model used a dynamic population-level state-transition model to project outcomes over a 2-year horizon. Each intervention scenario was compared with the counterfactual of no intervention in simulated urban and rural communities in Massachusetts. Simulation modeling was used to determine the associations of community-level interventions with opioid overdose rates. The 3 examined interventions were initiation of more people to MOUD, increasing individuals' retention with MOUD, and increasing distribution of naloxone. Data were analyzed from July to November 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reduction in overdose mortality, medication treatment capacity needs, and naloxone needs. Results: No single intervention was associated with a 40% reduction in overdose mortality in the simulated communities. Reaching this goal required use of MOUD and naloxone. Achieving a 40% reduction required that 10% to 15% of the estimated OUD population not already receiving MOUD initiate MOUD every month, with 45% to 60%% retention for at least 6 months, and increased naloxone distribution. In all feasible settings and scenarios, attaining a 40% reduction in overdose mortality required that in every month, at least 10% of the population with OUD who were not currently receiving treatment initiate an MOUD. Conclusions and Relevance: In this modeling study, only communities with increased capacity for treating with MOUD and increased MOUD retention experienced a 40% decrease in overdose mortality. These findings could provide a framework for developing community-level interventions to reduce opioid overdose death.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Naloxona/provisão & distribuição , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribuição , Overdose de Opiáceos/mortalidade , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Retenção nos Cuidados/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Massachusetts , População Rural , População Urbana
12.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(7): 1898-1905, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma is a barrier to the uptake of buprenorphine to treat opioid use disorder. Harm reduction treatment models intend to minimize this stigma by organizing care around non-judgmental interactions with people who use drugs. There are few examples of implementing buprenorphine treatment using a harm reduction approach in a primary care setting in the USA. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study by interviewing leadership, staff, and external stakeholders at Respectful, Equitable Access to Compassionate Healthcare (REACH) Medical in Ithaca, NY. REACH is a freestanding medical practice that provides buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder since 2018. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 17 participants with the objective of describing REACH's model of care. We selected participants based on their position at REACH or in the community. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for themes using content analysis, guided by the CDC Evaluation Framework. RESULTS: REACH provided buprenorphine, primary care, and mental health services in a low-threshold model. We identified three themes related to delivery of buprenorphine treatment. First, an organizational mission to provide equitable and low-stigma healthcare, which was a key to organizational identity. Second, a low-threshold buprenorphine treatment approach that was critical, but caused concern about over-prescribing and presented logistical challenges. Third, creation and retention of a harm reduction-oriented workforce by offering value-based work and by removing administrative barriers providers may face elsewhere to providing buprenorphine treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A harm reduction primary care model can help reduce stigma for people who use drugs and engage in buprenorphine treatment. Further research is needed to evaluate whether this model leads to improved patient outcomes, can overcome community stakeholder concerns, and is sustainable.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e828-e834, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widespread viral and serological testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present a unique opportunity to also test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We estimated the potential impact of adding linked, opt-out HIV testing alongside SARS-CoV-2 testing on the HIV incidence and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in 6 US cities. METHODS: Using a previously calibrated dynamic HIV transmission model, we constructed 3 sets of scenarios for each city: (1) sustained current levels of HIV-related treatment and prevention services (status quo); (2) temporary disruptions in health services and changes in sexual and injection risk behaviors at discrete levels between 0%-50%; and (3) linked HIV and SARS-CoV-2 testing offered to 10%-90% of the adult population in addition to Scenario 2. We estimated the cumulative number of HIV infections between 2020-2025 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of linked HIV testing over 20 years. RESULTS: In the absence of linked, opt-out HIV testing, we estimated a total of a 16.5% decrease in HIV infections between 2020-2025 in the best-case scenario (50% reduction in risk behaviors and no service disruptions), and a 9.0% increase in the worst-case scenario (no behavioral change and 50% reduction in service access). We estimated that HIV testing (offered at 10%-90% levels) could avert a total of 576-7225 (1.6%-17.2%) new infections. The intervention would require an initial investment of $20.6M-$220.7M across cities; however, the intervention would ultimately result in savings in health-care costs in each city. CONCLUSIONS: A campaign in which HIV testing is linked with SARS-CoV-2 testing could substantially reduce the HIV incidence and reduce direct and indirect health care costs attributable to HIV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19 , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Urban Health ; 98(4): 563-569, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016914

RESUMO

Immediately after the approval of direct-acting antiviral medications for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 2013, state Medicaid programs limited access to these expensive treatments based on liver disease stage, absence of active alcohol or substance use, and prescriber limitations. New York State fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid eliminated these requirements in May 2016, but the effect on providers and patients obtaining prior authorization (PA) from Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs) was unknown. We used a mixed methods approach to assess whether the removal of HCV treatment restrictions was associated with changes in Medicaid MCOs' PA approval processes and length of time to treatment initiation at two large urban New York City provider organizations participating in Project INSPIRE, an HCV care coordination demonstration project. At baseline, the top criteria for clinic care coordinators ranking MCOs as being "most difficult" were liver staging criteria, delayed treatment, and requiring a urine toxicology test. At follow-up, liver staging criteria were replaced by medication formulary limitations. Univariate analysis of the Project INSPIRE participant data suggests a decrease in the percentage of participants with insurance/PA-related treatment delays pre- versus post-policy change (23% versus 15%, p value = 0.02). Interrupted time series analysis found a 2 percentage point decrease (p value = 0.02) in the proportion of PAs each month with insurance-related treatment delays that was attributable to policy change. These results from two urban clinics indicate New York State FFS Medicaid's policy change for HCV treatment may have been associated with some changes in Medicaid MCO PA decisions, but MCO PA denials and treatment delays were still observed "on the ground" by clinic staff.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Medicaid , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estados Unidos
16.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(4): 393-402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346582

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Few substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs provide on-site human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing, despite evidence that these tests are cost-effective. OBJECTIVE: To understand how methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs that offer on-site HIV/HCV testing have integrated testing services, and the challenges related to offering on-site HIV/HCV testing. DESIGN: We used the 2014 National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey to identify outpatient SUD treatment programs that reported offering on-site HIV/HCV testing to 75% or more of their clients. We stratified the sample to identify programs based on combinations of funding source, type of drug treatment offered, and Medicaid-managed care arrangements. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with leadership and staff in 2017-2018 using a directed content analysis approach to identify dominant themes. SETTING: Seven MMT programs located in 6 states in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen leadership and staff from 7 MMT programs with on-site HIV/HCV testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Themes related to integration of on-site HIV/HCV testing. RESULTS: Methadone maintenance treatment programs identified 3 domains related to the integration of HIV/HCV testing on-site at MMT programs: (1) payment and billing, (2) internal and external stakeholders, and (3) medical and SUD treatment coordination. Programs identified the absence of state policies that facilitate medical billing and inconsistent grant funding as major barriers. Testing availability was limited by the frequency at which external organizations could provide services on-site, the reliability of those external relationships, and MMT staffing. Poor electronic health record systems and privacy policies that prevent medical information sharing between medical and SUD treatment providers also limited effective care coordination. CONCLUSION: Effective and sustainable integration of on-site HIV/HCV testing by MMT programs in the United States will require more consistent funding, improved billing options, technical assistance, electronic health record system enhancement and coordination, and policy changes related to privacy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029676, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320266

RESUMO

Importance: Whereas outpatient treatment with medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) is evidence based, there is a large network of inpatient facilities in the US that are reimbursed by commercial insurers and do not typically offer MOUD. Objective: To compare the rates of opioid-related overdose and all-cause hospitalization after outpatient MOUD treatment vs inpatient care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness research study used deidentified claims of commercially insured individuals in the US from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2017, to obtain a sample of 37 090 individuals with opioid use disorder who initiated treatment with inpatient care and/or MOUD. Data were analyzed from October 1, 2019, to May 1, 2020. To address nonrandom treatment assignment, individuals with opioid use disorder who initiated MOUD or who entered inpatient care were matched 1:1 based on propensity scores. Exposures: The independent variable of interest was the type of treatment initiated. Individuals could initiate 1 of 5 potential treatments: (1) outpatient MOUD, (2) short-term inpatient care, (3) short-term inpatient care followed by outpatient MOUD within 30 days, (4) long-term inpatient care, or (5) long-term inpatient care followed by outpatient MOUD within 30 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: Opioid-related overdose and all-cause hospitalization at any point within the 12 months after treatment of opioid use disorder. The hazard for each outcome was estimated using a time-to-event Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: The cohort included 37 090 individuals matched 1:1 between inpatient and outpatient treatment (20 723 [56%] were younger than 30 years; 23 250 [63%] were male). After propensity score matching, compared with the inpatient treatments, initiation of outpatient MOUD alone was followed by the lowest 1-year overdose rate (2.2 [95% CI, 2.0-2.5] per 100 person-years vs 3.5 [95% CI, 2.7-4.4] to 7.0 [95% CI, 4.6-10.7] per 100 person-years) and hospitalization rate (39 [95% CI, 38-40] per 100 person-years vs 57 [95% CI, 54-61] to 74 [95% CI, 73-76] per 100 person-years). Outpatient MOUD was also associated with the lowest hazard of these events compared with inpatient care, which had hazard ratios ranging from 1.71 (95% CI, 1.35-2.17) to 2.67 (95% CI, 1.68-4.23) for overdose and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.23-1.44) to 1.90 (95% CI, 1.83-1.97) for hospitalizations. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this comparative effectiveness research study suggest that lower rates of subsequent overdose and hospitalization are associated with outpatient MOUD compared with short- or long-term inpatient care. When patients and clinicians have a choice of treatment, outpatient MOUD treatment may be associated with lower overdose and hospitalization on balance. Future research should assess which patients benefit most from inpatient care and how best to leverage existing inpatient treatment infrastructure.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Overdose de Drogas , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Overdose de Drogas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 217: 108336, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HEALing Communities Study (HCS) is designed to implement and evaluate the Communities That HEAL (CTH) intervention, a conceptually driven framework to assist communities in selecting and adopting evidence-based practices to reduce opioid overdose deaths. The goal of the HCS is to produce generalizable information for policy makers and community stakeholders seeking to implement CTH or a similar community intervention. To support this objective, one aim of the HCS is a health economics study (HES), the results of which will inform decisions around fiscal feasibility and sustainability relevant to other community settings. METHODS: The HES is integrated into the HCS design: an unblinded, multisite, parallel arm, cluster randomized, wait list-controlled trial of the CTH intervention implemented in 67 communities in four U.S. states: Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, and Ohio. The objectives of the HES are to estimate the economic costs to communities of implementing and sustaining CTH; estimate broader societal costs associated with CTH; estimate the cost-effectiveness of CTH for overdose deaths avoided; and use simulation modeling to evaluate the short- and long-term health and economic impact of CTH, including future overdose deaths avoided and quality-adjusted life years saved, and to develop a simulation policy tool for communities that seek to implement CTH or a similar community intervention. DISCUSSION: The HCS offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct health economics research on solutions to the opioid crisis and to increase understanding of the impact and value of complex, community-level interventions.


Assuntos
Overdose de Opiáceos/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Overdose de Drogas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Massachusetts , New York , Ohio , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(11): 2307-2315, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a leading indication for liver transplantation. METHODS: State consumption of spirits, wine, and beer was determined from published sources. Excise and ad valorem alcohol taxes of spirits, wine, and beer were calculated following standard practices and correlated using multiple logistic regression models to 2002 to 2015 ALD transplant listing data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database. RESULTS: 21.22% (29,161/137,440) of transplant listings were for ALD. Increased consumption of spirits was associated with increased ALD transplant listings (odds ratio [OR]: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.49, p = 0.01), but wine and beer consumption did not have a statistically significant association with ALD transplant listings. Spirits excise taxes on- and off-premise were inversely associated with ALD transplant listing (OR: 0.79 and 0.82, respectively, both p < 0.02). Beer and wine taxes were not significantly associated with ALD transplant listings. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant listings for ALD are directly associated with spirit consumption and inversely associated with spirits excise taxes. These findings suggest a possible public health benefit of increasing excise taxes for spirits.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Cerveja/economia , Cerveja/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vinho/economia , Vinho/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
J Infect Dis ; 222(Suppl 5): S301-S311, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection. We aimed to determine the highest-valued combination implementation strategies to reduce the burden of HIV among PWID in 6 US cities. METHODS: Using a dynamic HIV transmission model calibrated for Atlanta, Baltimore, Los Angeles, Miami, New York City, and Seattle, we assessed the value of implementing combinations of evidence-based interventions at optimistic (drawn from best available evidence) or ideal (90% coverage) scale-up. We estimated reduction in HIV incidence among PWID, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each city (10-year implementation; 20-year horizon; 2018 $ US). RESULTS: Combinations that maximized health benefits contained between 6 (Atlanta and Seattle) and 12 (Miami) interventions with ICER values ranging from $94 069/QALY in Los Angeles to $146 256/QALY in Miami. These strategies reduced HIV incidence by 8.1% (credible interval [CI], 2.8%-13.2%) in Seattle and 54.4% (CI, 37.6%-73.9%) in Miami. Incidence reduction reached 16.1%-75.5% at ideal scale. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based interventions targeted to PWID can deliver considerable value; however, ending the HIV epidemic among PWID will require innovative implementation strategies and supporting programs to reduce social and structural barriers to care.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Medicina Preventiva/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/reabilitação , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias/economia , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Teste de HIV/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/economia , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/economia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/organização & administração , Prevalência , Medicina Preventiva/organização & administração , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/economia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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