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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829478

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) may remain clinically silent until they enlarge and patients present with a potentially lethal rupture. This necessitates early detection and elective treatment. The goal of this study was to develop an easy-to-train algorithm which is capable of automated AAA screening in CT scans and can be applied to an intra-hospital environment. Three deep convolutional neural networks (ResNet, VGG-16 and AlexNet) were adapted for 3D classification and applied to a dataset consisting of 187 heterogenous CT scans. The 3D ResNet outperformed both other networks. Across the five folds of the first training dataset it achieved an accuracy of 0.856 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.926. Subsequently, the algorithms performance was verified on a second data set containing 106 scans, where it ran fully automated and resulted in an accuracy of 0.953 and an AUC of 0.971. A layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) made the decision process interpretable and showed that the network correctly focused on the aortic lumen. In conclusion, the deep learning-based screening proved to be robust and showed high performance even on a heterogeneous multi-center data set. Integration into hospital workflow and its effect on aneurysm management would be an exciting topic of future research.

2.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To design and manufacture a pelvis phantom for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided prostate interventions, such as MRGB (MR-guided biopsy) or brachytherapy seed placement. METHODS: The phantom was designed to mimic the human pelvis incorporating bones, bladder, prostate with four lesions, urethra, arteries, veins, and six lymph nodes embedded in ballistic gelatin. A hollow rectum enables transrectal access to the prostate. To demonstrate the feasibility of the phantom for minimal invasive MRI-guided interventions, a targeted inbore MRGB was performed. The needle probe was rectally inserted and guided using an MRI-compatible remote controlled manipulator (RCM). RESULTS: The presented pelvis phantom has realistic imaging properties for MR imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US). In the targeted inbore MRGB, a prostate lesion was successfully hit with an accuracy of 3.5 mm. The experiment demonstrates that the limited size of the rectum represents a realistic impairment for needle placements. CONCLUSION: The phantom provides a valuable platform for evaluating the performance of MRGB systems. Interventionalists can use the phantom to learn how to deal with challenging situations, without risking harm to patients.

3.
Z Med Phys ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711477

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure multi-quantum coherence (MQC) 23Na signals for noninvasive cell physiological information in the whole-brain, the 2D-CRISTINA method was extended to 3D. This experimental study investigated the use and results of a new sequence, 3D-CRISTINA, on a phantom and healthy volunteers. METHODS: The 3D Cartesian single and triple-quantum imaging of 23Na (3D-CRISTINA) was developed and implemented at 7T, favoring a non-selective volume excitation for increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and lower energy deployment than its 2D counterpart. Two independent phase cycles were used in analogy to the 2D method. A comparison of 6-steps cycles and 12-steps cycles was performed. We used a phantom composed of different sodium and agarose concentrations, 50mM to 150mM Na+, and 0-5% agarose for sequence validation. Four healthy volunteers were scanned at 7T for whole brain MQC imaging. The sequence 3D-CRISTINA was developed and tested at 7T. RESULTS: At 7T, the 3D-CRISTINA acquisition allowed to reduce the TR to 230ms from the previous 390ms for 2D, resulting in a total acquisition time of 53min for a 3D volume of 4×4×8mm resolution. The phase cycle evaluation showed that the 7T acquisition time could be reduced by 4-fold with moderate single and triple-quantum signals SNR loss. The healthy volunteers demonstrated clinical feasibility at 7T and showed a difference in the MQC signals ratio of White Matter (WM) and Grey Matter (GM). CONCLUSION: Volumetric CRISTINA multi-quantum imaging allowed whole-brain coverage. The non-selective excitation enabled a faster scan due to a decrease in energy deposition which enabled a lower repetition time. Thus, it should be the preferred choice for future in vivo multi-quantum applications compared to the 2D method. A more extensive study is warranted to explore WM and GM MQC differences.

4.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 107, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a regression neural network for the reconstruction of lesion probability maps on Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting using echo-planar imaging (MRF-EPI) in addition to [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], NAWM, and GM- probability maps. METHODS: We performed MRF-EPI measurements in 42 patients with multiple sclerosis and 6 healthy volunteers along two sites. A U-net was trained to reconstruct the denoised and distortion corrected [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] maps, and to additionally generate NAWM-, GM-, and WM lesion probability maps. RESULTS: WM lesions were predicted with a dice coefficient of [Formula: see text] and a lesion detection rate of [Formula: see text] for a threshold of 33%. The network jointly enabled accurate [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] times with relative deviations of 5.2% and 5.1% and average dice coefficients of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for NAWM and GM after binarizing with a threshold of 80%. CONCLUSION: DL is a promising tool for the prediction of lesion probability maps in a fraction of time. These might be of clinical interest for the WM lesion analysis in MS patients.

5.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(8): 1277-1285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sparsity of annotated data is a major limitation in medical image processing tasks such as registration. Registered multimodal image data are essential for the diagnosis of medical conditions and the success of interventional medical procedures. To overcome the shortage of data, we present a method that allows the generation of annotated multimodal 4D datasets. METHODS: We use a CycleGAN network architecture to generate multimodal synthetic data from the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and real patient data. Organ masks are provided by the XCAT phantom; therefore, the generated dataset can serve as ground truth for image segmentation and registration. Realistic simulation of respiration and heartbeat is possible within the XCAT framework. To underline the usability as a registration ground truth, a proof of principle registration is performed. RESULTS: Compared to real patient data, the synthetic data showed good agreement regarding the image voxel intensity distribution and the noise characteristics. The generated T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography (CT), and cone beam CT images are inherently co-registered. Thus, the synthetic dataset allowed us to optimize registration parameters of a multimodal non-rigid registration, utilizing liver organ masks for evaluation. CONCLUSION: Our proposed framework provides not only annotated but also multimodal synthetic data which can serve as a ground truth for various tasks in medical imaging processing. We demonstrated the applicability of synthetic data for the development of multimodal medical image registration algorithms.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Humanos
6.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(7): 2392-2395, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been an increasing interest in chronic active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions as a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of disease progression. Chronic active lesions are characterized by progressive tissue matrix damage, axonal loss and chronic inflammation. Sodium (23 Na) MRI provides a biochemical marker of cell integrity and tissue viability in a quantitative manner. The aim of this study was to investigate with 23 Na MRI tissue abnormalities in chronic active lesions as indicators of tissue destruction. METHODS: To identify chronic active lesions, two 3D magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo datasets obtained 12 months apart were processed using the voxel-guided morphometry algorithm. Cross-sectional 23 Na MRI was performed during the 12-month follow-up period. Total sodium concentration was calculated in chronic active lesions compared to shrinking, chronic stable and acute contrast-enhancing lesions. RESULTS: Overall, 70 MS lesions (21 chronic active, 10 shrinking, 29 chronic stable lesions, 10 acute contrast-enhancing lesions) in 12 patients were included. Total sodium concentration in chronic active lesions (49.57 ± 8.47 mM) was significantly higher than in shrinking (42.16 ± 3.9 mM; p = 0.03) and chronic stable lesions (39.92 ± 4.82 mM; p < 0.001). Chronic active lesions showed similar sodium values compared to acute contrast-enhancing lesions (48.06 ± 6.65 mM; p = 0.97). No differences between shrinking and chronic stable lesions were observed (p = 0.89). CONCLUSION: High sodium values in chronic active MS lesions may be an indicator of ongoing inflammation and tissue damage.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Sódio , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 347-355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sodium MRI (23Na MRI) derived biomarkers such as tissue sodium concentration (TSC) provide valuable information on cell function and brain tissue viability and has become a reliable tool for the assessment of brain tumors and ischemic stroke beyond pathoanatomical morphology. Patients with major stroke often suffer from different degrees of underlying white matter lesions (WMLs) attributed to chronic small vessel disease. This study aimed to evaluate the WM TSC in patients with an acute ischemic stroke and to correlate the TSC with the extent of small vessel disease. Furthermore, the reliability of relative TSC (rTSC) compared to absolute TSC in these patients was analyzed. METHODOLOGY: We prospectively examined 62 patients with acute ischemic stroke (73 ± 13 years) between November 2016 and August 2019 from which 18 patients were excluded and thus 44 patients were evaluated. A 3D 23Na MRI was acquired in addition to a T2-TIRM and a diffusion-weighted image. Coregistration and segmentation were performed with SPM 12 based on the T2-TIRM image. The extension of WM T2 hyperintense lesions in each patient was classified using the Fazekas scale of WMLs. The absolute TSC in the WM region was correlated to the Fazekas grades. The stroke region was manually segmented on the coregistered absolute diffusion coefficient image and absolute, and rTSC was calculated in the stroke region and compared to nonischemic WM region. Statistical significance was evaluated using the Student t-test. RESULTS: For patients with Fazekas grade I (n = 25, age: 68.5 ± 15.1 years), mean TSC in WM was 55.57 ± 7.43 mM, and it was not statistically significant different from patients with Fazekas grade II (n = 7, age: 77.9 ± 6.4 years) with a mean TSC in WM of 53.9 ± 6.4 mM, p = 0.58. For patients with Fazekas grade III (n = 9, age: 81.4 ± 7.9 years), mean TSC in WM was 68.7 ± 10.5 mM, which is statistically significantly higher than the TSC in patients with Fazekas grade I and II (p < 0.001 and p = 0.05, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the TSC in WM and the Fazekas grade with r = 0.48 p < 0.001. The rTSC in the stroke region was statistically significant difference between low (0 and I) and high (2 and 3) Fazekas grades (p = 0.0353) whereas there was no statistically significant difference in absolute TSC in the stroke region between low (0 and I) and high (2 and 3) Fazekas grades. CONCLUSION: The significant difference in absolute TSC in WM in patients with severe small vessel disease; Fazekas grade 3 can lead to inaccuracies using rTSC quantification for evaluation of acute ischemic stroke using 23 Na MRI. The study, therefore, emphasizes the importance of absolute tissue sodium quantification.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Isótopos de Sódio/metabolismo , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/metabolismo , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , AVC Isquêmico/metabolismo , Leucoencefalopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substância Branca/metabolismo
8.
Magn Reson Med ; 86(3): 1226-1240, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780037

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To implement a free-breathing sequence for simultaneous quantification of T 1 , T 2 , and T 2 ∗ for comprehensive tissue characterization of the myocardium in a single scan using a multi-gradient-echo readout with saturation and T 2 preparation pulses. METHODS: In the proposed Saturation And T 2 -prepared Relaxometry with Navigator-gating (SATURN) technique, a series of multi-gradient-echo (GRE) images with different magnetization preparations was acquired during free breathing. A total of 35 images were acquired in 26.5 ± 14.9 seconds using multiple saturation times and T 2 preparation durations and with imaging at 5 echo times. Bloch simulations and phantom experiments were used to validate a 5-parameter fit model for accurate relaxometry. Free-breathing simultaneous T 1 , T 2 , and T 2 ∗ measurements were performed in 10 healthy volunteers and 2 patients using SATURN at 3T and quantitatively compared to conventional single-parameter methods such as SASHA for T 1 , T 2 -prepared bSSFP, and multi-GRE for T 2 ∗ . RESULTS: Simulations confirmed accurate fitting with the 5-parameter model. Phantom measurements showed good agreement with the reference methods in the relevant range for in vivo measurements. Compared to single-parameter methods comparable accuracy was achieved. SATURN produced in vivo parameter maps that were visually comparable to single-parameter methods. No significant difference between T 1 , T 2 , and T 2 ∗ times acquired with SATURN and single-parameter methods was shown in quantitative measurements (SATURN T 1 = 1573 ± 86 ms , T 2 = 33.2 ± 3.6 ms , T 2 ∗ = 25.3 ± 6.1 ms ; conventional methods: T 1 = 1544 ± 107 ms , T 2 = 33.2 ± 3.6 ms , T 2 ∗ = 23.8 ± 5.5 ms ; P > . 2 ) CONCLUSION: SATURN enables simultaneous quantification of T 1 , T 2 , and T 2 ∗ in the myocardium for comprehensive tissue characterization with co-registered maps, in a single scan with good agreement to single-parameter methods.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Respiração
9.
Magn Reson Med ; 86(1): 471-486, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547656

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an accelerated postprocessing pipeline for reproducible and efficient assessment of white matter lesions using quantitative magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) and deep learning. METHODS: MRF using echo-planar imaging (EPI) scans with varying repetition and echo times were acquired for whole brain quantification of T 1 and T 2 ∗ in 50 subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 healthy volunteers along 2 centers. MRF T 1 and T 2 ∗ parametric maps were distortion corrected and denoised. A CNN was trained to reconstruct the T 1 and T 2 ∗ parametric maps, and the WM and GM probability maps. RESULTS: Deep learning-based postprocessing reduced reconstruction and image processing times from hours to a few seconds while maintaining high accuracy, reliability, and precision. Mean absolute error performed the best for T 1 (deviations 5.6%) and the logarithmic hyperbolic cosinus loss the best for T 2 ∗ (deviations 6.0%). CONCLUSIONS: MRF is a fast and robust tool for quantitative T 1 and T 2 ∗ mapping. Its long reconstruction and several postprocessing steps can be facilitated and accelerated using deep learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
In Vivo ; 35(1): 429-435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Sodium (23Na) MR imaging is a noninvasive MRI technique that has been shown to be sensitive to visualize biochemical information about tissue viability, their cell integrity, and cell function in various studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in regional brain 23Na signal intensity between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls to preliminarily evaluate the capability of 23Na imaging as a biomarker for AD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients diagnosed with AD were included: 12 in the state of dementia and 2 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 12 healthy controls (HC); they were all scanned on a 3T clinical scanner with a double tuned 1H/23Na birdcage head coil. After normalizing the signal intensity with that of the vitreous humor, relative tissue sodium concentration (rTSC) was measured after automated segmentation in the hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) in both cerebral hemispheres. RESULTS: Patients with AD showed a significant increase in rTSC in comparison to healthy controls in the following brain regions: WM 13.6%; p=0.007, hippocampus 12.9%; p=0.003, amygdala 18.9%; p=0.0007. CONCLUSION: 23Na-MRI has the potential to be developed as a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Sódio
11.
NMR Biomed ; 34(4): e4474, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480128

RESUMO

Quantitative 23 Na magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides tissue sodium concentration (TSC), which is connected to cell viability and vitality. Long acquisition times are one of the most challenging aspects for its clinical establishment. K-space undersampling is an approach for acquisition time reduction, but generates noise and artifacts. The use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is increasing in medical imaging and they are a useful tool for MRI postprocessing. The aim of this study is 23 Na MRI acquisition time reduction by k-space undersampling. CNNs were applied to reduce the resulting noise and artifacts. A retrospective analysis from a prospective study was conducted including image datasets from 46 patients (aged 72 ± 13 years; 25 women, 21 men) with ischemic stroke; the 23 Na MRI acquisition time was 10 min. The reconstructions were performed with full dataset (FI) and with a simulated dataset an image that was acquired in 2.5 min (RI). Eight different CNNs with either U-Net-based or ResNet-based architectures were implemented with RI as input and FI as label, using batch normalization and the number of filters as varying parameters. Training was performed with 9500 samples and testing included 400 samples. CNN outputs were evaluated based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and structural similarity (SSIM). After quantification, TSC error was calculated. The image quality was subjectively rated by three neuroradiologists. Statistical significance was evaluated by Student's t-test. The average SNR was 21.72 ± 2.75 (FI) and 10.16 ± 0.96 (RI). U-Nets increased the SNR of RI to 43.99 and therefore performed better than ResNet. SSIM of RI to FI was improved by three CNNs to 0.91 ± 0.03. CNNs reduced TSC error by up to 15%. The subjective rating of CNN-generated images showed significantly better results than the subjective image rating of RI. The acquisition time of 23 Na MRI can be reduced by 75% due to postprocessing with a CNN on highly undersampled data.

12.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 49: 102752, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In multiple sclerosis (MS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) frequently shows ill-defined areas with intermediate signal intensity between the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and focal T2-hyperintense lesions, termed "diffusely appearing white matter" (DAWM). Even though several advanced MRI techniques have shown the potential to detect and quantify subtle commonly not visible microscopic tissue changes, to date only a few advanced MRI studies investigated DAWM changes in a quantitative manner. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify tissue abnormalities in the DAWM in comparison to focal lesions and the NAWM in MS patients by sodium (23Na) MRI. METHODS: 23Na and conventional MRI were performed in 25 MS patients with DAWM (DAWM+) and in 25 sex- and age matched MS patients without DAWM (DAWM-), as well as in ten healthy controls (HC). Mean total sodium concentrations (TSC) were quantified in the DAWM, NAWM, normal appearing grey matter (NAGM) and in focal MS lesions. RESULTS: In MS DAWM+and DAWM-, TSC values were increased in the NAGM (DAWM+: 44.61 ± 4.09 mM; DAWM-: 45.37 ± 3.8 mM) and in the NAWM (DAWM+: 39.85 ± 3.89 mM; DAWM-: 39.82 ± 4.25 mM) compared to normal grey and white matter in HC (GM 40.87 ± 3.25 mM, WM 35.9 ± 1.81 mM; p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Interestingly, the DAWM showed similar sodium concentrations (39.32 ± 4.59 mM) to the NAWM (39.85 ± 3.89 mM), whereas TSC values in T1 hypointense (46.53 ± 7.87 mM) and T1 isointense (41.99 ± 6.10 mM) lesions were significantly higher than in the DAWM (p < 0.001 and 0.017 respectively). CONCLUSION: 23Na MRI is confirmed as a sensitive marker of even subtle tissue abnormalities. DAWM sodium levels are increased and comparable to the abnormalities in NAWM, suggesting pathological changes less severe than in focal lesions comparable to what is expected in the NAWM.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Substância Branca , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Sódio , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 68(5): 1518-1526, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional (3D) blood vessel structure information is important for diagnosis and treatment in various clinical scenarios. We present a fully automatic method for the extraction and differentiation of the arterial and venous vessel trees from abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) volumes using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). METHODS: We used a novel ratio-based sampling method to train 2D and 3D versions of the U-Net, the V-Net and the DeepVesselNet. Networks were trained with a combination of the Dice and cross entropy loss. Performance was evaluated on 20 IRCAD subjects. Best performing networks were combined into an ensemble. We investigated seven different weighting schemes. Trained networks were additionally applied to 26 BTCV cases to validate the generalizability. RESULTS: Based on our experiments, the optimal configuration is an equally weighted ensemble of 2D and 3D U- and V-Nets. Our method achieved Dice similarity coefficients of 0.758 ± 0.050 (veins) and 0.838 ± 0.074 (arteries) on the IRCAD data set. Application to the BTCV data set showed a high transfer ability. CONCLUSION: Abdominal vascular structures can be segmented more accurately using ensembles than individual CNNs. 2D and 3D networks have complementary strengths and weaknesses. Our ensemble of 2D and 3D U-Nets and V-Nets in combination with ratio-based sampling achieves a high agreement with manual annotations for both artery and vein segmentation. Our results surpass other state-of-the-art methods. SIGNIFICANCE: Our segmentation pipeline can provide valuable information for the planning of living donor organ transplantations.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
14.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 297-305, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To date, treatment response to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in brain metastases (BM) can only be determined by MRI evaluation of contrast-enhancing lesions in a long-time follow-up. Sodium MRI has been a subject of immense interest in imaging research as the measure of tissue sodium concentration (TSC) can give valuable quantitative information on cell viability. We aimed to analyze the longitudinal changes of TSC in BM measured with 23 Na MRI before and after SRS for assessment of early local tumor effects. METHODS: Seven patients with a total of 12 previously untreated BM underwent SRS with 22 Gy. In addition to a standard MRI protocol including dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion, a 23 Na MRI was performed at three time points: (I) 2 days before, (II) 5 days, and (III) 40 days after SRS. Nine BMs were evaluated. The absolute TSC in the BM, the respective peritumoral edemas, and the normal-appearing corresponding contralateral brain area were assessed and the relative TSC were correlated to the changes in BM longest axial diameters. RESULTS: TSC was elevated in nine BM at baseline before SRS with a mean of 73.4 ± 12.3 mM. A further increase in TSC was observed 5 days after SRS in all the nine BM with a mean of 86.9 ± 13 mM. Eight of nine BM showed a mean 60.6 ± 13.3% decrease in the longest axial diameter 40 days after SRS; at this time point, the TSC also had decreased to a mean 65.1 ± 7.9 mM. In contrast, one of the nine BM had a 13.4% increase in the largest axial diameter at time point III. The TSC of this BM showed a further TSC increase of 80.1 mM 40 days after SRS. CONCLUSION: Changes in TSC using 23 Na MRI shows the possible capability to detect radiobiological changes in BM after SRS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Radiocirurgia , Sódio/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Magn Reson Med ; 85(2): 1047-1061, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiac stimulation (CS) limits to gradient coil switching speed are difficult to measure in humans; instead, current regulatory guidelines (IEC 60601-2-33) are based on animal experiments and electric field-to-dB/dt conversion factors computed for a simple, homogeneous body model. We propose improvement to this methodology by using more detailed CS modeling based on realistic body models and electrophysiological models of excitable cardiac fibers. METHODS: We compute electric fields induced by a solenoid, coplanar loops, and a commercial gradient coil in two human body models and a canine model. The canine simulations mimic previously published experiments. We generate realistic fiber topologies for the cardiac Purkinje and ventricular muscle fiber networks using rule-based algorithms, and evaluate CS thresholds using validated electrodynamic models of these fibers. RESULTS: We were able to reproduce the average measured canine CS thresholds within 5%. In all simulations, the Purkinje fibers were stimulated before the ventricular fibers, and therefore set the effective CS threshold. For the investigated gradient coil, simulated CS thresholds for the x-, y-, and z-axis were at least one order of magnitude greater than the International Electrotechnical Commission limit. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate an approach to simulate gradient-induced CS using a combination of electromagnetic and electrophysiological modeling. Pending additional validation, these simulations could guide the assessment of CS limits to MRI gradient coil switching speed. Such an approach may lead to less conservative, but still safe, operation limits, enabling the use of the maximum gradient amplitude versus slew rate parameter space of recent, powerful gradient systems.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Algoritmos , Animais , Eletrofisiologia Cardíaca , Cães , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Humanos
16.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 75: 116-123, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987123

RESUMO

Development of a deterministic algorithm for automated detection of the Arterial Input Function (AIF) in DCE-MRI of colorectal cancer. Using a filter pipeline to determine the AIF region of interest. Comparison to algorithms from literature with mean squared error and quantitative perfusion parameter Ktrans. The AIF found by our algorithm has a lower mean squared error (0.0022 ±â€¯0.0021) in reference to the manual annotation than comparable algorithms. The error of Ktrans (21.52 ±â€¯17.2%) is lower than that of other algorithms. Our algorithm generates reproducible results and thus supports a robust and comparable perfusion analysis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/fisiopatologia , Circulação Sanguínea , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Automação , Meios de Contraste , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163987

RESUMO

Metal artifacts are a major confounding factor for image quality in CT, especially in image-guided surgery scenarios where surgical tools and implants frequently occur in the field-of-view. Traditional metal artifact correction methods typically use algorithmic solutions to interpolate over the highly attenuated projection measurements where metal is present but cannot recover the missing information obstructed by the metal. In this work, we treat metal artifacts as a missing data problem and employ noncircular orbits to maximize data completeness in the presence of metal. We first implement a local data completeness metric based on Tuy's condition as the percentage of great circles sampled by a particular orbit and accounted for the presence of metal by discounting any rays that pass through metal. We then compute the metric over many locations and many possible metal locations to reflect data completeness for arbitrary metal placements within a volume of interest. We used this metric to evaluate the effectiveness of sinusoidal orbits of different magnitudes and frequencies in metal artifact reduction. We also evaluated noncircular orbits in two imaging systems for phantoms with different metal objects and metal arrangements. Among a circular, tilted circular, and a sinusoidal orbit of two cycles per rotation, the latter is shown to most effectively remove metal artifacts. The noncircular orbit not only reduce the extent of streaks, but allows better visualization of spatial frequencies that cannot be recovered by metal artifact correction algorithms. These results illustrate the potential of relatively simple noncircular orbits to be robust against metal implants which ordinarily present significant challenges in interventional imaging.

18.
NMR Biomed ; 33(10): e4367, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656956

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate possible sodium triple-quantum (TQ) signal dependence on pH variation and protein unfolding which may happen in vivo. The model system, composed of bovine serum albumin (BSA), was investigated over a wide pH range of 0.70 to 13.05 and during urea-induced unfolding. In both experimental series, the sodium and BSA concentration were kept constant so that TQ signal changes solely arose from an environmental change. The experiments were performed using unique potential to detect weak TQ signals by implementing a TQ time proportional phase increment pulse sequence. At a pH of 0.70, in which case the effect of the negatively charged groups was minimized, the minimum TQ percentage relative to single-quantum of 1.34% ± 0.05% was found. An increase of the pH up to 13.05 resulted in an increase of the sodium TQ signal by 225%. Urea-induced unfolding of BSA, without changes in pH, led to a smaller increase in the sodium TQ signal of up to 40%. The state of BSA unfolding was verified by fluorescence microscopy. Results of both experiments were well fitted by sigmoid functions. Both TQ signal increases were in agreement with an increase of the availability of negatively charged groups. The results point to vital contributions of the biochemical environment to the TQ MR signals. The sodium TQ signal in vivo could be a valuable biomarker of cell viability, and therefore possible effects of pH and protein unfolding need to be considered for a proper interpretation of changes in sodium TQ signals.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Sódio/química , Animais , Bovinos , Fluorescência , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imagens de Fantasmas , Conformação Proteica , Desdobramento de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática , Ureia/farmacologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11118, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632120

RESUMO

CEST-MRI of the rNOE signal has been demonstrated in vitro to be closely linked to the protein conformational state. As the detectability of denaturation and aggregation processes on a physiologically relevant scale in living organisms has yet to be verified, the aim of this study was to perform heat-shock experiments with living cells to monitor the cellular heat-shock response of the rNOE CEST signal. Cancer cells (HepG2) were dynamically investigated after a mild, non-lethal heat-shock of 42 °C for 20 min using an MR-compatible bioreactor system at 9.4 T. Reliable and fast high-resolution CEST imaging was realized by a relaxation-compensated 2-point contrast metric. After the heat-shock, a substantial decrease of the rNOE CEST signal by 8.0 ± 0.4% followed by a steady signal recovery within a time of 99.1 ± 1.3 min was observed in two independent trials. This continuous signal recovery is in coherence with chaperone-induced refolding of heat-shock induced protein aggregates. We demonstrated that protein denaturation processes influence the CEST-MRI signal on a physiologically relevant scale. Thus, the protein folding state is, along with concentration changes, a relevant physiological parameter for the interpretation of CEST signal changes in diseases that are associated with pathological changes in protein expression, like cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Algoritmos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Desnaturação Proteica
20.
Magn Reson Med ; 84(5): 2412-2428, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463978

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To capture the multiquantum coherence (MQC) 23 Na signal. Different phase-cycling options and sequences are compared in a unified theoretical layout, and a novel sequence is developed. METHODS: An open source simulation overview is provided with graphical explanations to facilitate MQC understanding and access to techniques. Biases such as B0 inhomogeneity and stimulated echo signal were simulated for 4 different phase-cycling options previously described. Considerations for efficiency and accuracy lead to the implementation of a 2D Cartesian single and triple quantum imaging of sodium (CRISTINA) sequence employing two 6-step cycles in combination with a multi-echo readout. CRISTINA was compared to simultaneous single-quantum and triple-quantum-filtered MRI of sodium (SISTINA) under strong static magnetic gradient. CRISTINA capabilities were assessed on 8 × 60 mL, 0% to 5% agarose phantom with 50 to 154 mM 23 Na concentration at 7 T. CRISTINA was demonstrated subsequently in vivo in the brain. RESULTS: Simulation of B0 inhomogeneity showed severe signal dropout, which can lead to erroneous MQC measurement. Stimulated echo signal was highest at the time of triple-quantum coherences signal maximum. However, stimulated echo signal is separated by Fourier Transform as an offset and did not interfere with MQC signals. The multi-echo readout enabled capturing both single-quantum coherences and triple-quantum coherences signal evolution at once. Signal combination of 2 phase-cycles with a corresponding B0 map was found to recover the signal optimally. Experimental results confirm and complement the simulations. CONCLUSION: Considerations for efficient MQC measurements, most importantly avoiding B0 signal loss, led to the design of CRISTINA. CRISTINA captures triple-quantum coherences and single-quantum coherences signal evolution to provide complete sodium signal characterization including T 2 ∗ fast, T 2 ∗ slow, MQC amplitudes, and sodium concentration.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Sódio , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Fourier , Imagens de Fantasmas
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