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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101601, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preclinical data suggest the combination of an anti-programmed death receptor 1 antibody plus dabrafenib and trametinib to have superior antitumor activity compared with dabrafenib plus trametinib alone. These observations are supported by translational evidence suggesting that immune checkpoint inhibitors plus targeted therapy may improve treatment outcomes in patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma. COMBI-i is a phase III trial evaluating spartalizumab, an anti-programmed death receptor 1 antibody, in combination with dabrafenib and trametinib (sparta-DabTram), versus placebo plus dabrafenib and trametinib (placebo-DabTram) in patients with BRAF V600-mutant unresectable or metastatic melanoma. METHODS: Patients received spartalizumab 400 mg intravenously every 4 weeks plus dabrafenib 150 mg orally twice daily and trametinib 2 mg orally once daily or placebo-DabTram. Participants were age ≥ 18 years with unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600-mutant melanoma. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Overall survival was a key secondary end point (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02967692). RESULTS: At data cutoff (July 1, 2020), the median progression-free survival was 16.2 months (95% CI, 12.7 to 23.9 months) in the sparta-DabTram arm versus 12.0 months (95% CI, 10.2 to 15.4 months) in the placebo-DabTram arm (hazard ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.66 to 1.03]; P = .042 [one-sided; nonsignificant]). The objective response rates were 69% (183 of 267 patients) versus 64% (170 of 265 patients), respectively. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 55% (146 of 267) of patients in the sparta-DabTram arm and 33% (88 of 264) in the placebo-DabTram arm. CONCLUSION: The study did not meet its primary end point; broad first-line use of sparta-DabTram is not supported by these results. Further biomarker-driven investigation may identify patient subpopulations who could benefit from checkpoint inhibitor plus targeted therapy combinations.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(1): 24-34, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) are distinct inhibitory immune checkpoints that contribute to T-cell exhaustion. The combination of relatlimab, a LAG-3-blocking antibody, and nivolumab, a PD-1-blocking antibody, has been shown to be safe and to have antitumor activity in patients with previously treated melanoma, but the safety and activity in patients with previously untreated melanoma need investigation. METHODS: In this phase 2-3, global, double-blind, randomized trial, we evaluated relatlimab and nivolumab as a fixed-dose combination as compared with nivolumab alone when administered intravenously every 4 weeks to patients with previously untreated metastatic or unresectable melanoma. The primary end point was progression-free survival as assessed by blinded independent central review. RESULTS: The median progression-free survival was 10.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.4 to 15.7) with relatlimab-nivolumab as compared with 4.6 months (95% CI, 3.4 to 5.6) with nivolumab (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62 to 0.92]; P = 0.006 by the log-rank test). Progression-free survival at 12 months was 47.7% (95% CI, 41.8 to 53.2) with relatlimab-nivolumab as compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 30.5 to 41.6) with nivolumab. Progression-free survival across key subgroups favored relatlimab-nivolumab over nivolumab. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 18.9% of patients in the relatlimab-nivolumab group and in 9.7% of patients in the nivolumab group. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of two immune checkpoints, LAG-3 and PD-1, provided a greater benefit with regard to progression-free survival than inhibition of PD-1 alone in patients with previously untreated metastatic or unresectable melanoma. Relatlimab and nivolumab in combination showed no new safety signals. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb; RELATIVITY-047 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03470922.).

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 161: 99-107, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 50% of cutaneous melanomas harbour therapeutically targetable BRAF V600 mutations. Reliable clinical biomarkers predicting duration of response to BRAF-targeted therapies are still lacking. Recent in vitro studies demonstrated that BRAF-MEK inhibitor therapy response is associated with tumour TERT promoter mutation status. We assessed this potential association in a clinical setting. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 232 patients with metastatic or unresectable BRAF V600-mutated melanoma receiving combined BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatment, including a single-centre retrospective discovery cohort (N = 120) and a prospectively collected multicenter validation cohort (N = 112). Patients were excluded if they received BRAF or MEK inhibitors in an adjuvant setting, as monotherapy, or in combination with immunotherapy. Kaplan-Meier and univariate/multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed as appropriate. RESULTS: median age at first diagnosis was 54 years (range 16-84 years). The majority of patients were men 147/232 (63.4%). Most tumours harboured TERT promoter mutations (72%, N = 167). A survival advantage was observed in both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with TERT promoter-mutant versus wild-type tumours in both the discovery cohort (mPFS of 9.6 months [N = 87] vs 5.0 months [N = 33]; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.33-0.96] and mOS of 33.6 months vs 15.0 months; HR = 0.47 [95%CI 0.32-0.70]) as well as the validation cohort (mPFS of 7.3 months [N = 80] vs 5.8 months [N = 32]; HR = 0.67 [95%CI 0.41-1.10] and mOS of 51.1 months vs 15.0 months; HR = 0.33 [95%CI 0.18-0.63]). In the pooled cohort of TERT promoter-mutant (N = 167) versus wild-type (N = 65) tumours, respectively, PFS was 8.9 versus 5.5 months, (HR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.45-0.87; P = 0.004), and OS was 33.6 versus 17.0 months, (HR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.35-0.75, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with melanoma receiving BRAF/MEK-targeted therapies, TERT promoter mutations are associated with longer survival. If validated in larger studies, TERT promoter mutation status should be included as a predictive biomarker in treatment algorithms for advanced melanoma.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutação/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Telomerase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 162: 22-33, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952480

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite remarkably improved outcomes with immune checkpoint inhibition, many patients with metastatic melanoma will eventually require further therapy. Chemotherapy has limited activity when used first-line but can alter the tumour microenvironment and does improve efficacy when used in combination with immunotherapy in lung cancer. Whether chemotherapy after checkpoint inhibitor failure has relevant activity in patients with metastatic melanoma is unknown. METHODS: Patients with metastatic melanoma treated with chemotherapy after progression on immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors were identified retrospectively from 24 melanoma centres. Objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety were examined. RESULTS: In total, 463 patients were treated between 2007 and 2017. Fifty-six per cent had received PD-1-based therapy before chemotherapy. Chemotherapy regimens included carboplatin + paclitaxel (32%), dacarbazine (25%), temozolomide (15%), taxanes (9%, nab-paclitaxel 4%), fotemustine (6%) and others (13%). Median duration of therapy was 7.9 weeks (0-108). Responses included 0.4% complete response (CR), 12% partial response (PR), 21% stable disease (SD) and 67% progressive disease (PD). Median PFS was 2.6 months (2.2, 3.0), and median PFS in responders was 8.7 months (6.3, 16.3), respectively. Twelve-month PFS was 12% (95% CI 2-15%). In patients who had received anti-PD-1 before chemotherapy, the ORR was 11%, and median PFS was 2.5 months (2.1, 2.8). The highest activity was achieved with single-agent taxanes (N = 40), with ORR 25% and median PFS 3.9 months (2.1, 6.2). Median OS from chemotherapy start was 7.1 months (6.5, 8.0). Subsequent treatment with checkpoint inhibitors achieved a response rate of 16% with a median PFS of 19.1 months (2.0-43.1 months). No unexpected toxicities were observed. CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy has a low response rate and short PFS in patients with metastatic melanoma who have failed checkpoint inhibitor therapy, although activity varied between regimens. Chemotherapy has a limited role in the management of metastatic melanoma.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2102229, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818112

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the phase III CheckMate 067 trial, durable clinical benefit was demonstrated previously with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and nivolumab alone versus ipilimumab. Here, we report 6.5-year efficacy and safety outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with previously untreated unresectable stage III or stage IV melanoma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks (four doses) followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks (n = 314), nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks (n = 316), or ipilimumab 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks (four doses; n = 315). Coprimary end points were progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab versus ipilimumab. Secondary end points included objective response rate, descriptive efficacy assessments of nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus nivolumab alone, and safety. Melanoma-specific survival (MSS; descriptive analysis), which excludes deaths unrelated to melanoma, was also evaluated. RESULTS: Median OS (minimum follow-up, 6.5 years) was 72.1, 36.9, and 19.9 months in the combination, nivolumab, and ipilimumab groups, respectively. Median MSS was not reached, 58.7, and 21.9 months, respectively; 6.5-year OS rates were 57%, 43%, and 25% in patients with BRAF-mutant tumors and 46%, 42%, and 22% in those with BRAF-wild-type tumors, respectively. In patients who discontinued treatment, the median treatment-free interval was 27.6, 2.3, and 1.9 months, respectively. Since the 5-year analysis, no new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSION: These 6.5-year CheckMate 067 results, which include the longest median OS in a phase III melanoma trial reported to date and the first report of MSS, showed durable, improved clinical outcomes with nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab versus ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma and, in descriptive analyses, with the combination over nivolumab monotherapy.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1244, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BOLT study for sonidegib, a Hedgehog pathway inhibitor (HHI) approved for patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (laBCC) not amenable to curative surgery or radiotherapy, used modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) for laBCC tumor evaluation. The ERIVANCE study for vismodegib, another HHI, used a composite RECIST endpoint of ≥30% reduction in externally visible tumor or radiographic dimension, or complete ulceration resolution. This preplanned sensitivity BOLT analysis evaluated efficacy outcomes using ERIVANCE-like criteria in patients with laBCC who received sonidegib 200 mg once daily. METHODS: This phase 2, double-blind study randomized patients 1:2 to sonidegib 200:800 mg daily, respectively. Key endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD). laBCC tumors were assessed by both mRECIST and ERIVANCE-like criteria. Per mRECIST, an overall response of CR was based on negative histology; photographic assessment of CR, PR (scar/fibrosis only), SD (scar/fibrosis only), or not available (NA); and a magnetic resonance imaging response of CR or NA. An overall response of CR was primarily based on negative histology using ERIVANCE-like criteria. RESULTS: Per mRECIST criteria, ORR (95% confidence interval [CI]) by central and investigator review for patients with laBCC (n = 66) was 56.1% (43.3-68.3%) and 71.2% (58.7-81.7%), respectively. CR per central review was achieved in 3 (4.5%) patients and PR, SD, and PD occurred in 34 (51.5%), 23 (34.8%), and 1 (1.5%) patient, respectively. Median (95% CI) DOR was 26.1 months (not estimable [NE]). Using ERIVANCE-like criteria, efficacy outcomes per central and investigator review were higher, with an ORR (95% CI) of 60.6% (47.8-72.4%) and 74.2% (62.0-84.2%), respectively. CR per central review was reached in 14 (21.2%) patients and PR, SD, and PD occurred in 26 (39.4%), 20 (30.3%), and 1 (1.5%) patient, respectively. DOR was unchanged with a median (95% CI) of 26.1 months (NE). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, applying ERIVANCE-like criteria to patients with laBCC receiving sonidegib 200 mg daily yielded higher response rates vs mRECIST criteria. TRIAL REGISTRATION: BOLT registration: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01327053 ) on March 30, 2011.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 159: 113-124, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NF1-mutated tumours represent a small subset (10-15%) of melanomas, not sufficiently analysed in large clinical cohorts. This study investigated the largest multicentre collection of NF1-mutated melanomas to date. METHODS: This study analysed a multicentre tumour tissue sample cohort from 266 patients with NF1-mutated melanoma. Targeted next-generation sequencing of the TERT promoter and 29 relevant melanoma genes was performed. Survival was compared with NF1 wild-type cohorts from the Tissue Registry in Melanoma project (n = 432). RESULTS: Most NF1-mutated melanoma arose in the head-and-neck region of patients >60 years. NF1 alterations were frequently inactivating, primarily non-sense, less frequently truncating mutations. Non-inactivating NF1 mutations more frequently co-occurred with activating BRAF and RAS mutations. NF1-mutated tumours had higher numbers of gene mutations and UV signature C>T and CC>TT transitions than BRAF, RAS and triple wild-type melanomas. NF1-mutated acral and mucosal melanomas harboured a different mutation signature and were frequent in women (69% and 83%, respectively), differing from non-acral cutaneous NF1-mutated melanomas (men 73%, women 27%). Overall survival in stage IV disease was comparable for patients with NF1-mutated or wild-type melanoma. However, in patients receiving first-line immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment, better median overall survival (mOS) was observed for NF1-mutated than wild-type tumours (mOS = not reached vs mOS = 25.82, p = 0.0154, n = 80 and 432, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous, acral and mucosal NF1-mutated melanomas vary in clinical and genetic characteristics and demonstrate a favourable outcome on immune checkpoint inhibition therapy.

10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 765608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746007

RESUMO

Introduction: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are increasingly being used to treat numerous cancer types. Together with improved recognition of toxicities, this has led to more frequent identification of rare immune-related adverse events (irAE), for which specific treatment strategies are needed. Neutropenia is a rare hematological irAE that has a potential for a high mortality rate because of its associated risk of sepsis. Prompt recognition and timely treatment of this life-threatening irAE are therefore critical to the outcome of patients with immune-related neutropenia. Methods: This multicenter international retrospective study was conducted at 17 melanoma centers to evaluate the clinical characteristics, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes of melanoma patients with grade 4 neutropenia (<500 neutrophils/µl blood) treated with ICI between 2014 and 2020. Some of these patients received metamizole in addition to ICI (ICI+/met+). Bone marrow biopsies (BMB) of these patients were compared to BMB from non-ICI treated patients with metamizole-induced grade 4 neutropenia (ICI-/met+). Results: In total, 10 patients (median age at neutropenia onset: 66 years; seven men) with neutropenia were identified, equating to an incidence of 0.14%. Median onset of neutropenia was 6.4 weeks after starting ICI (range 1.4-49.1 weeks). Six patients showed inflammatory symptoms, including fever (n=3), erysipelas (n=1), pharyngeal abscess (n=1), and mucositis (n=1). Neutropenia was diagnosed in all patients by a differential blood count and additionally performed procedures including BMB (n=5). Nine of 10 patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) to treat their grade 4 neutropenia. Four patients received systemic steroids (including two in combination with G-CSF, and one in combination with G-CSF and additional ciclosporin A). Four patients were treated with one or more antibiotic treatment lines, two with antimycotic treatment, and one with additional antiviral therapy. Five patients received metamizole concomitantly with ICI. One fatal outcome was reported. BMB indicated a numerically lower CD4+ to CD8+ T cells ratio in patients with irNeutropenia than in those with metamizole-induced neutropenia. Conclusion: Grade 4 neutropenia is a rare but potentially life-threatening side effect of ICI treatment. Most cases were sufficiently managed using G-CSF; however, adequate empiric antibiotic, antiviral, and antimycotic treatments should be administered if neutropenic infections are suspected. Immunosuppression using corticosteroids may be considered after other causes of neutropenia have been excluded.

11.
Eur J Cancer ; 159: 182-193, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773902

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many cancer guidelines include sentinel lymph node (SLN) staging to identify microscopic metastatic disease. Current SLN analysis of melanoma patients is effective but has the substantial drawback that only a small representative portion of the node is sampled, whereas most of the tissue is discarded. This might explain the high clinical false-negative rate of current SLN diagnosis in melanoma. Furthermore, the quantitative assessment of metastatic load and microanatomical localisation might yield prognosis with higher precision. Thus, methods to analyse entire SLNs with cellular resolution apart from tedious sequential physical sectioning are required. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven melanoma patients eligible to undergo SLN biopsy were included in this prospective study. SLNs were fixed, optically cleared, whole-mount stained and imaged using light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM). Subsequently, compatible and unbiased gold standard histopathological assessment allowed regular patient staging. This enabled intrasample comparison of LSFM and histological findings. In addition, the development of an algorithm, RAYhance, enabled easy-to-handle display of LSFM data in a browsable histologic slide-like fashion. RESULTS: We comprehensively quantify total tumour volume while simultaneously visualising cellular and anatomical hallmarks of the associated SLN architecture. In a first-in-human study of 21 SLN of melanoma patients, LSFM not only confirmed all metastases identified by routine histopathological assessment but also additionally revealed metastases not detected by routine histology alone. This already led to additional therapeutic options for one patient. CONCLUSION: Our three-dimensional digital pathology approach can increase sensitivity and accuracy of SLN metastasis detection and potentially alleviate the need for conventional histopathological assessment in the future. GERMAN CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTER: (DRKS00015737).

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751438

RESUMO

Angiogenesis plays an important role during tumor growth and metastasis. We could previously show that Type I interferon (IFN)-deficient tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) show strong pro-angiogenic activity, and stimulate tumor angiogenesis and growth. However, the exact mechanism responsible for their pro-angiogenic shift is not clear. Here, we set out to delineate the molecular mechanism and factors regulating pro-angiogenic properties of neutrophils in the context of Type I IFN availability. We demonstrate that neutrophils from IFN-deficient (Ifnar1-/- ) mice efficiently release pro-angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, MMP9 or BV8, and thus significantly support the vascular normalization of tumors by increasing the maturation of perivascular cells. Mechanistically, we could show here that the expression of pro-angiogenic factors in neutrophils is controlled by the transcription factor forkhead box protein O3a (FOXO3a), which activity depends on its post-translational modifications, such as deacetylation or phosphorylation. In TANs isolated from Ifnar1-/- mice, we observe significantly elevated SIRT1, resulting in SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of FOXO3a, its nuclear retention and activation. Activated FOXO3a supports in turn the transcription of pro-angiogenic genes in TANs. In the absence of SIRT1, or after its inhibition in neutrophils, elevated kinase MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT activity is observed, leading to FOXO3a phosphorylation, cytoplasmic transfer and inactivation. In summary, we have found that FOXO3a is a key transcription factor controlling the angiogenic switch of neutrophils. Post-translational FOXO3a modifications regulate its transcriptional activity and, as a result, the expression of pro-angiogenic factors supporting development of vascular network in growing tumors. Therefore, targeting FOXO3a activity could provide a novel strategy of antiangiogenic targeted therapy for cancer.

14.
Front Oncol ; 11: 741993, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621681

RESUMO

Background: PD-1-based immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is a highly effective therapy in metastatic melanoma. However, 40-60% of patients are primarily resistant, with valid predictive biomarkers currently missing. This study investigated the digitally quantified tumor PD-L1 expression for ICB therapy outcome prediction. Patients and Methods: Tumor tissues taken prior to PD-1-based ICB for unresectable metastatic disease were collected within the prospective multicenter Tissue Registry in Melanoma (TRIM). PD-L1 expression (clone 28-8; cut-off=5%) was determined by digital and physician quantification, and correlated with therapy outcome (best overall response, BOR; progression-free survival, PFS; overall survival, OS). Results: Tissue samples from 156 patients were analyzed (anti-PD-1, n=115; anti-CTLA-4+anti-PD-1, n=41). Patients with PD-L1-positive tumors showed an improved response compared to patients with PD-L1-negative tumors, by digital (BOR 50.5% versus 32.2%; p=0.026) and physician (BOR 54.2% versus 36.6%; p=0.032) quantification. Tumor PD-L1 positivity was associated with a prolonged PFS and OS by either digital (PFS, 9.9 versus 4.6 months, p=0.021; OS, not reached versus 13.0 months, p=0.001) or physician (PFS, 10.6 versus 5.6 months, p=0.051; OS, not reached versus 15.6 months, p=0.011) quantification. Multivariable Cox regression revealed digital (PFS, HR=0.57, p=0.007; OS, HR=0.44, p=0.001) and physician (OS, HR=0.54, p=0.016) PD-L1 quantification as independent predictors of survival upon PD-1-based ICB. The combination of both methods identified a patient subgroup with particularly favorable therapy outcome (PFS, HR=0.53, p=0.011; OS, HR=0.47, p=0.008). Conclusion: Pre-treatment tumor PD-L1 positivity predicted a favorable outcome of PD-1-based ICB in melanoma. Herein, digital quantification was not inferior to physician quantification, and should be further validated for clinical use.

15.
Eur J Cancer ; 158: 225-233, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab (an anti-programmed death-1 antibody) is an adjuvant standard of care for patients with high-risk resected melanoma, although a watch-and-wait strategy remains an option. In the absence of head-to-head evidence, an indirect treatment comparison (ITC) of adjuvant nivolumab versus placebo, the proxy for a watch-and-wait strategy, was conducted in patients with high-risk resected melanoma. METHODS: An ITC using the Bucher method compared nivolumab with placebo using intention-to-treat population data from the phase III CheckMate 238 (nivolumab vs ipilimumab; minimum follow-up, 4 years; NCT02388906) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18071 (ipilimumab vs placebo; minimum follow-up, ≈4.5 years; NCT00636168) trials. The end-points were recurrence-free survival (RFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS). To account for cross-trial differences in staging and subsequent therapy, additional analyses examined patients with stage IIIB/IIIC disease and adjusted post-recurrence survival in EORTC 18071, respectively. RESULTS: Nivolumab versus placebo was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.68) and OS (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.89). Nivolumab versus placebo was also associated with clinically meaningful improvements in RFS (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.40-0.69), DMFS (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.46-0.83) and OS (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.97) in patients with stage IIIB/IIIC disease and in OS (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92) in the overall population after adjusting post-recurrence survival in EORTC 18071. CONCLUSION: This ITC shows that adjuvant nivolumab provides clinically meaningful improvements in RFS, DMFS and OS versus a watch-and-wait strategy in high-risk resected melanoma.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 158: 72-84, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitors (MAPKi) has been proposed to enhance the durability of anti-tumour responses induced by MAPKi. Here, we present phase I safety results from an open-label, phase I/II study of pembrolizumab (PEM), encorafenib (ENC) and binimetinib (BIN) triplet therapy in advanced, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF)V600-mutated melanoma (IMMU-TARGET, NCT02902042). METHODS: The dose finding phase I part used a 3 + 3 design, starting with the approved doses of PEM (200 mg every three weeks), ENC (450 mg once daily [QD]) and BIN (45 mg twice daily [BID]) as dose level (DL) 0. Reduction of the ENC and BIN doses (300 mg QD and 30 mg BID at DL-1 and 200 mg QD and 30 mg BID at DL-2) was preplanned in case of ≥2 dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). Primary objectives were to estimate the recommended phase II dose of the triplet combination, DLT and safety. As per the sponsor's decision, the study was terminated after the phase I part, as the clinical efficacy of the combination is currently being investigated in a pivotal, placebo-controlled (PEM mono), double-blinded phase III trial (STARBOARD,NCT04657991). RESULTS: Fifteen patients were enrolled. DLTs of DL0 were creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation plus cytokine release syndrome (n = 1) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) increase (n = 1). No DLT was observed in further 3 + 3 patients at DL-1. One (isolated GGT elevations) DLT of DL0 was questionable, as the patient had further episodes of isolated GGT elevations after treatment discontinuation. Hence, further 6 patients were enrolled at DL0: here, no DLT occurred. In total, 13 of 15 patients (87%) experienced a treatment-related adverse event (TRAE) and 8 patients (53%), a grade ≥III TRAE; there were no TRAE-related deaths. Increases in aspartate aminotransferases, GGT (6/15 patients) and CPK elevations (4/15) were the most common grade III-IV TRAE. In median, patients received triplet therapy for 24 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 12-45). Of the 14 patients evaluable for efficacy, the overall response rate was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-87). At a median follow-up of 25 months (IQR, 9-28), progression-free survival at 12 months was 41% (95% CI, 13-68). CONCLUSIONS: Triplet therapy with PEM, ENC and BIN as used in the study was feasible and safe and led to clinically meaningful disease control.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670835

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) have revolutionized the treatment of melanoma patients. Based on early studies addressing the mechanism of action, it was assumed that PD-1 blockade mostly influences T cell responses at the tumor site. However, recent work has demonstrated that PD-1 blockade can influence the T cell compartment in peripheral blood. If the activation of circulating, tumor-reactive T cells would form an important mechanism of action of PD-1 blockade, it may be predicted that such blockade would alter either the frequency and/or the breadth of the tumor-reactive CD8 T cell response. To address this question, we analyzed CD8 T cell responses toward 71 melanoma-associated epitopes in peripheral blood of 24 melanoma patients. We show that both the frequency and the breadth of the circulating melanoma-reactive CD8 T cell response was unaltered upon PD-1 blockade. In contrast, a broadening of the circulating melanoma-reactive CD8 T cell response was observed upon CTLA-4 blockade, in concordance with our prior data. Based on these results, we conclude that PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade have distinct mechanisms of action. In addition, the data provide an argument in favor of the hypothesis that anti-PD-1 therapy may primarily act at the tumor site.

20.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475234

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine cancer of the skin. For patients who are refractory to immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI), treatment options are limited. Few cases of MCCs with high somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression were reported to show responses upon SSTR-directed peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). A combination of PRRT and ICI has not been reported in MCC to date. A 60-year old man with metastatic MCC, who was primarily resistant to the anti-PD-L1 ICI with avelumab and secondarily resistant to the anti-CTLA4 plus anti-PD-1 ICI therapy with ipilimumab plus nivolumab (IPI/NIVO) with additional RT, presented with multiple bone and lymph node metastases. After confirmation of SSTR expression, the patient was treated with a salvage therapy of additional four doses of IPI/NIVO combined with two cycles of PRRT. Treatment was well tolerated with transient hematoxicity and mild nausea. Re-staging three months after therapy start showed an exceptional good response. This case report demonstrates the feasibility of a combined treatment with IPI/NIVO and PRRT as a salvage option for MCC patients progressing under ICI therapy. Prospective evidence confirming the additive value of combining ICI and radionuclide therapy in a larger cohort is needed.

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