Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 38
Filtrar
1.
Life Sci ; 285: 120018, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624321

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation during wound healing is both essential and critical for restoring tissue integrity. Participating cells secrete soluble factors to regulate the inflammatory phase and to induce the adjacent regenerative processes. If pro-inflammatory signals are overexpressed, the wound stagnates in the inflammatory phase, which decelerates regular wound healing. The endocannabinoid system is ascribed great significance in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. It mediates several effects through the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. MAIN METHODS: In order to clarify the role of these receptors in wound healing, excisional wounds were created on wildtype and CB1 and CB2 knockout mice. The wound closure was analyzed over a period of 14 days, and cytokine concentrations of tissue homogenisates were measured by ELISA. MSCs were isolated from the animals' subcutaneous adipose tissue and analyzed for viability and differentiation capacity, in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: Deletion of CB2 increased Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α but did not affect tissue regeneration. In CB1-deficient animals, wound closure was delayed during early phases of healing, which was accompanied by increased concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and TNF-α. CB1 and CB2 knockout MSCs presented altered viability and differentiation capacity compared to wildtype MSCs. The CB1-deficient MSCs released high levels of MCP-1 upon stimulation with TNF-α and IL-1ß. SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that both cannabinoid receptors regulate inflammation, and this study emphasizes the important role of CB1 in wound repair. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the secretome of CB1-deficient MSCs may contribute to the wound healing delay, in vivo.

2.
Bone ; 154: 116202, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534708

RESUMO

Contemporary intravenous iron formulations allow administration of high doses of elemental iron and enable correction of total iron deficit in one or two infusions. An important but underappreciated complication of certain formulations is hypophosphatemia caused by increased secretion of the phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The pathophysiology of FGF23-induced hypophosphatemia due to certain intravenous iron formulations has been recently investigated in prospective clinical trials. To reach the correct diagnosis, clinicians must recognize the typical clinical manifestations of intravenous iron-induced hypophosphatemia and identify a specific pattern of biochemical changes (hyperphosphaturic hypophosphatemia triggered by high FGF23 that causes low 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D, hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism). Physicians and patients should be aware of hypophosphatemia as a common complication of intravenous iron therapy and monitor serum phosphate concentrations in patients receiving repeated doses of specific intravenous iron formulations. Symptoms of hypophosphatemia are associated with severity and duration. Persistent hypophosphatemia can occur with iron therapy and can cause debilitating diseases including myopathy, osteomalacia and fractures. This review summarizes the current understanding of the iron-phosphate axis as well as complications of intravenous iron-induced hypophosphatemia.

3.
JAMA Surg ; 156(9): e213112, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259797

RESUMO

Importance: Living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) offers advantages over deceased-donor liver transplant (DDLT) of improved intention-to-treat outcomes and management of the shortage of deceased-donor allografts. However, conflicting data still exist on the outcomes of LDLT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Objective: To investigate the potential survival benefit of an LDLT in patients with HCC from the time of waiting list inscription. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study with an intention-to-treat design analyzed the data of patients aged 18 years or older who had an HCC diagnosis and were on a waiting list for a first transplant. Patients from 12 collaborative centers in Europe, Asia, and the US who were on a transplant waiting list between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2017, composed the international cohort. The Toronto cohort comprised patients from 1 transplant center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada who were on a waiting list between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015. The international cohort centers performed either an LDLT or a DDLT, whereas the Toronto cohort center was selected for its capability to perform both LDLT and DDLT. The benefit of LDLT was tested in the 2 cohorts before and after undergoing an inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis. Data were analyzed from February 1 to May 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intention-to-treat death was defined as a patient death that occurred for any reason and was calculated from the time of waiting list inscription for liver transplant to the last follow-up date (December 31, 2019). Four multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models for intention-to-treat death were created. Results: A total of 3052 patients were analyzed in the international cohort, of whom 2447 were men (80.2%) and the median (IQR) age at first referral was 58 (53-63) years. The Toronto cohort comprised 906 patients, of whom 743 were men (82.0%) and the median (IQR) age at first referral was 59 (53-63) years. In all the settings, LDLT was an independent protective factor, reducing the risk of overall death by 49% in the pre-IPTW analysis for the international cohort (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36-0.71; P < .001), 33% in the post-IPTW analysis for the international cohort (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.85; P = .001), 43% in the pre-IPTW analysis for the Toronto cohort (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.45-0.73; P < .001), and 48% in the post-IPTW analysis for the Toronto cohort (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.65; P < .001). The discriminatory ability of the mathematical models further improved in all of the cases in which LDLT was incorporated. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that having a potential live donor could decrease the intention-to-treat risk of death in patients with HCC who are on a waiting list for a liver transplant. This benefit is associated with the elimination of the dropout risk and has been reported in centers in which both LDLT and DDLT options are equally available.

4.
Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139154

RESUMO

COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Proteoma/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Gasometria , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
5.
JAMA Surg ; 156(6): 559-567, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950167

RESUMO

Importance: Accurate preoperative prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after liver transplant is the mainstay of selection tools used by transplant-governing bodies to discern candidacy for patients with HCC. Although progress has been made, few tools incorporate objective measures of tumor biological characteristics, resulting in inclusion of patients with high recurrence rates and exclusion of others who could otherwise be cured. Objective: To externally validate the New York/California (NYCA) score, a recently published multi-institutional US HCC selection tool that was the first model incorporating a dynamic α-fetoprotein response (AFP-R) and compare the validated score with currently accepted HCC selection tools, namely, the Milan Criteria (MC), the French-AFP (F-AFP), and Metroticket 2.0 models. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, multicenter prognostic analysis of prospectively collected databases of 2236 adults undergoing liver transplant for HCC was conducted at 3 US, 1 Canadian, and 4 European centers from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2013. The AFP-R was measured as the difference between maximum and final pre-liver transplant AFP level. Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk regression analyses examined recurrence-free and overall survival. Receiver operating characteristic analyses and net reclassification index were used to compare NYCA with MC, F-AFP, and Metroticket 2.0. Data analysis was performed from June 2019 to April 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary study outcome was 5-year recurrence-free survival; overall survival was the secondary outcome. Results: Of 2236 patients, 1808 (80.9%) were men; mean (SD) age was 58.3 (7.96) years. A total of 545 patients (24.4%) did not meet the MC. The NYCA score proved valid on competing risk regression analysis, accurately predicting recurrence-free and overall survival (5-year cumulative incidence of recurrence risk in NYCA risk categories was 9.5% for low-, 20.5%, for acceptable-, and 40.5% for high-risk categories; P < .001 for all). The NYCA also predicted recurrence-free survival on a center-specific level: 453 of 545 patients (83.1%) who did not meet MC, 213 of 308 (69.2%) who did not meet the French-AFP, 292 of 384 (76.1%) who did not meet Metroticket 2.0 would be recategorized into NYCA low- and acceptable-risk groups (>75% 5-year recurrence-free survival). The Harrell C statistic for the validated NYCA score was 0.66 compared with 0.59 for the MC and 0.57 for the F-AFP models (P < .001). The net reclassification index for NYCA was 8.1 vs MC, 12.9 vs F-AFP, and 10.1 vs Metroticket 2.0. Conclusions and Relevance: This study appears to externally validate the importance of AFP-R in the selection of patients with HCC for liver transplant. The AFP-R represents one of the truly objective measures of biological characteristics available before transplantation. Incorporation of AFP-R into selection criteria allows safe expansion of MC and other models, offering liver transplant to patients with acceptable tumor biological characteristics who would otherwise be denied potential cure.

6.
Hepatology ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High serum ferritin is frequent among patients with chronic liver disease and commonly associated with hepatic iron overload. Genetic causes of high liver iron include homozygosity for the p.Cys282Tyr variant in homeostatic iron regulator (HFE) and rare variants in non-HFE genes. The aims of the present study were to describe the landscape and frequency of mutations in hemochromatosis genes and determine whether patient selection by noninvasive hepatic iron quantification using MRI improves the diagnostic yield of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in patients with hyperferritinemia. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A cohort of 410 unselected liver clinic patients with high serum ferritin (defined as ≥200 µg/L for women and ≥300 µg/L for men) was investigated by HFE genotyping and abdominal MRI R2*. Forty-one (10%) patients were homozygous for the p.Cys282Tyr variant in HFE. Of the remaining 369 patients, 256 (69%) had high transferrin saturation (TSAT; ≥45%) and 199 (53%) had confirmed hepatic iron overload (liver R2* ≥70 s-1 ). NGS of hemochromatosis genes was carried out in 180 patients with hepatic iron overload, and likely pathogenic variants were identified in 68 of 180 (38%) patients, mainly in HFE (79%), ceruloplasmin (25%), and transferrin receptor 2 (19%). Low spleen iron (R2* <50 s-1 ), but not TSAT, was significantly associated with the presence of mutations. In 167 patients (93%), no monogenic cause of hepatic iron overload could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: In patients without homozygosity for p.Cys282Tyr, coincident pathogenic variants in HFE and non-HFE genes could explain hyperferritinemia with hepatic iron overload in a subset of patients. Unlike HFE hemochromatosis, this type of polygenic hepatic iron overload presents with variable TSAT. High ferritin in blood is an indicator of the iron storage disease, hemochromatosis. A simple genetic test establishes this diagnosis in the majority of patients affected. MRI of the abdomen can guide further genetic testing.

7.
J Pathol ; 254(1): 80-91, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586163

RESUMO

Protein accumulation is the hallmark of various neuronal, muscular, and other human disorders. It is also often seen in the liver as a major protein-secretory organ. For example, aggregation of mutated alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), referred to as PiZ, is a characteristic feature of AAT deficiency, whereas retention of hepatitis B surface protein (HBs) is found in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. We investigated the interaction of both proteotoxic stresses in humans and mice. Animals overexpressing both PiZ and HBs (HBs-PiZ mice) had greater liver injury, steatosis, and fibrosis. Later they exhibited higher hepatocellular carcinoma load and a more aggressive tumor subtype. Although PiZ and HBs displayed differing solubility properties and distinct distribution patterns, HBs-PiZ animals manifested retention of AAT/HBs in the degradatory pathway and a marked accumulation of the autophagy adaptor p62. Isolation of p62-containing particles revealed retained HBs/AAT and the lipophagy adapter perilipin-2. p62 build-up led to activation of the p62-Nrf2 axis and emergence of reactive oxygen species. Our results demonstrate that the simultaneous presence of two prevalent proteotoxic stresses promotes the development of liver injury due to protein retention and activation of the p62-Nrf2 axis. In humans, the PiZ variant was over-represented in CHB patients with advanced liver fibrosis (unadjusted odds ratio = 9.92 [1.15-85.39]). Current siRNA approaches targeting HBs/AAT should be considered for these individuals. © 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

8.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a common, potentially lethal inborn disorder caused by mutations in alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). Homozygosity for the 'Pi*Z' variant of AAT (Pi*ZZ genotype) causes lung and liver disease, whereas heterozygous 'Pi*Z' carriage (Pi*MZ genotype) predisposes to gallstones and liver fibrosis. The clinical significance of the more common 'Pi*S' variant remains largely undefined and no robust data exist on the prevalence of liver tumours in AATD. DESIGN: Baseline phenotypes of AATD individuals and non-carriers were analysed in 482 380 participants in the UK Biobank. 1104 participants of a multinational cohort (586 Pi*ZZ, 239 Pi*SZ, 279 non-carriers) underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Among UK Biobank participants, Pi*ZZ individuals displayed the highest liver enzyme values, the highest occurrence of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (adjusted OR (aOR)=21.7 (8.8-53.7)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=44.5 (10.8-183.6)). Subjects with Pi*MZ genotype had slightly elevated liver enzymes and moderately increased odds for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=1.7 (1.2-2.2)) and cholelithiasis (aOR=1.3 (1.2-1.4)). Individuals with homozygous Pi*S mutation (Pi*SS genotype) harboured minimally elevated alanine aminotransferase values, but no other hepatobiliary abnormalities. Pi*SZ participants displayed higher liver enzymes, more frequent liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=3.1 (1.1-8.2)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=6.6 (1.6-26.9)). The higher fibrosis burden was confirmed in a multinational cohort. Male sex, age ≥50 years, obesity and the presence of diabetes were associated with significant liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Our study defines the hepatobiliary phenotype of individuals with the most relevant AATD genotypes including their predisposition to liver tumours, thereby allowing evidence-based advice and individualised hepatological surveillance.

9.
Gut ; 70(3): 585-594, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a global healthcare problem with limited treatment options. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT, encoded by SERPINA1) shows potent anti-inflammatory activities in many preclinical and clinical trials. In our study, we aimed to explore the role of AAT in ALD. DESIGN: An unselected cohort of 512 patients with cirrhosis was clinically characterised. Survival, clinical and biochemical parameters including AAT serum concentration were compared between patients with ALD and other aetiologies of liver disease. The role of AAT was evaluated in experimental ALD models. RESULTS: Cirrhotic ALD patients with AAT serum concentrations less than 120 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk for death/liver transplantation as compared with patients with AAT serum concentrations higher than 120 mg/dL. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low AAT serum concentration was a NaMELD-independent predictor of survival/transplantation. Ethanol-fed wild-type (wt) mice displayed a significant decline in hepatic AAT compared with pair-fed mice. Therefore, hAAT-Tg mice were ethanol-fed, and these mice displayed protection from liver injury associated with decreased steatosis, hepatic neutrophil infiltration and abated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. To test the therapeutic capability of AAT, ethanol-fed wt mice were treated with human AAT. Administration of AAT ameliorated hepatic injury, neutrophil infiltration and steatosis. CONCLUSION: Cirrhotic ALD patients with AAT concentrations less than 120 mg/dL displayed an increased risk for death/liver transplantation. Both hAAT-Tg mice and AAT-treated wt animals showed protection from ethanol-induced liver injury. AAT could reflect a treatment option for human ALD, especially for alcoholic hepatitis.

10.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(5): 2256-2273, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188534

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypophosphataemia is an increasingly recognized side-effect of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and possibly iron isomaltoside/ferric derisomaltose (IIM), which are used to treat iron deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine frequency, severity, duration and risk factors of incident hypophosphataemia after treatment with FCM and IIM. METHODS: A systematic literature search for articles indexed in EMBASE, PubMed and Web of Science in years 2005-2020 was carried out using the search terms 'ferric carboxymaltose' OR 'iron isomaltoside'. Prospective clinical trials reporting outcomes on hypophosphataemia rate, mean nadir serum phosphate and/or change in mean serum phosphate from baseline were selected. Hypophosphataemia rate and severity were compared for studies on IIM vs. FCM after stratification for chronic kidney disease. Meta-regression analysis was used to investigate risk factors for hypophosphataemia. RESULTS: Across the 42 clinical trials included in the meta-analysis, FCM induced a significantly higher incidence of hypophosphataemia than IIM (47%, 95% CI 36-58% vs. 4%, 95% CI 2-5%), and significantly greater mean decreases in serum phosphate (0.40 vs. 0.06 mmol/L). Hypophosphataemia persisted at the end of the study periods (maximum 3 months) in up to 45% of patients treated with FCM. Meta-regression analysis identified low baseline serum ferritin and transferrin saturation, and normal kidney function as significant predictors of hypophosphataemia. CONCLUSION: FCM is associated with a high risk of hypophosphataemia, which does not resolve for at least 3 months in a large proportion of affected patients. More severe iron deficiency and normal kidney function are risk factors for hypophosphataemia.

11.
Hepatology ; 74(2): 1117-1120, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316133

RESUMO

Clinical presentation of Wilson disease (WD) includes hepatic and neurologic manifestations. This study compares subcortical brain regions by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with WD and without neurological symptoms. Distinct atrophy affecting the basal ganglia, accumbens, and hippocampus was present in neurological WD. Cerebellar atrophy was observed in hepatic WD without neurological symptoms.

12.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(9): 1239-1241, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923830
13.
Mol Aspects Med ; 75: 100862, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444112

RESUMO

Intravenous infusions of iron have evolved from a poorly effective and dangerous intervention to a safe cornerstone in the treatment of iron deficiency. Modern iron formulations are composite nanoparticles composed of carbohydrate ferric oxy-hydroxides. Iron dextran, iron derisomaltose (formely known as iron isomaltoside 1000), ferric carboxymaltose, ferrumoxytol, iron sucrose and sodium ferric gluconate can be infused at different doses and allow correction of total iron deficit with single or repeated doses in 1-2 weeks depending on the specific formulation. All iron preparations are associated with a risk of severe infusion reactions. In recent prospective clinical trials, the risk of moderate to severe infusion reactions was comparable among all modern preparations affecting <1% of patients. Hence, intravenous iron therapy is reserved for iron deficiency anemia patients with intolerance or unresponsiveness of oral iron. As per European drug label, intravenous iron may also be preferred when rapid correction of the iron deficit is required. In patients with inflammation, iron-deficiency should also be suspected as anemia cause when transferrin saturation is low because serum ferritin can be spuriously normal. The main treatment target for i.v. iron is an improvement of the quality of life, for which hemoglobin is a surrogate marker. An emerging complication affecting 50-74% of patients treated with ferric carboxymaltose in prospective clinical trials is hypophosphatemia - or more accurately the 6H syndrome (hyperphosphaturic hypophosphatemia triggered by high fibroblast growth factor 23 that causes hypovitaminosis D, hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism). These biochemical changes can cause severe and potentially irreversible clinical complications, such a bone pain, osteomalacia and fractures. Individual selection of the appropriate iron therapy and evaluation of treatment response are mandatory to safely deliver improved outcome through intravenous iron therapies.

14.
Liver Int ; 40(8): 1941-1951, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ferroportin disease (FD) and hemochromatosis type 4 (HH4) are associated with variants in the ferroportin-encoding gene SLC40A1. Both phenotypes are characterized by iron overload despite being caused by distinct variants that either mediate reduced cellular iron export in FD or resistance against hepcidin-induced inactivation of ferroportin in HH4. The aim of this study was to assess if reduced iron export also confers hepcidin resistance and causes iron overload in FD associated with the R178Q variant. METHODS: The ferroportin disease variants R178Q andA77D and the HH4-variant C326Y were overexpressed in HEK-293T cells and subcellular localization was characterized by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Iron export and cytosolic ferritin were measured as markers of iron transport and radioligand binding studies were performed. The hepcidin-ferroportin axis was assessed by ferritin/hepcidin correlation in patients with different iron storage diseases. RESULTS: In the absence of hepcidin, the R178Q and A77D variants exported less iron when compared to normal and C326Y ferroportin. In the presence of hepcidin, the R178Q and C326Y, but not the A77D-variant, exported more iron than cells expressing normal ferroportin. Regression analysis of serum hepcidin and ferritin in patients with iron overload are compatible with hepcidin deficiency in HFE hemochromatosis and hepcidin resistance in R178Q FD. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a novel concept that in certain FD variants reduced iron export and hepcidin resistance could be interlinked. Evasion of mutant ferroportin from hepcidin-mediated regulation could result in uncontrolled iron absorption and iron overload despite reduced transport function.


Assuntos
Hemocromatose , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions , Hemocromatose/genética , Hepcidinas/genética , Humanos , Ferro
15.
Gastroenterology ; 159(2): 534-548.e11, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Homozygosity for the Pi∗Z variant of the gene that encodes the alpha-1 antitrypsin peptide (AAT), called the Pi∗ZZ genotype, causes a liver and lung disease called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Heterozygosity (the Pi∗MZ genotype) is a risk factor for cirrhosis in individuals with liver disease. Up to 4% of Europeans have the Pi∗MZ genotype; we compared features of adults with and without Pi∗MZ genotype among persons without preexisting liver disease. METHODS: We analyzed data from the European Alpha-1 Liver Cohort, from 419 adults with the Pi∗MZ genotype, 309 adults with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, and 284 individuals without the variant (noncarriers). All underwent a comprehensive evaluation; liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) were made by transient elastography. Liver biopsies were analyzed to define histologic and biochemical features associated with the Pi∗Z variant. Levels of serum transaminases were retrieved from 444,642 participants, available in the United Kingdom biobank. RESULTS: In the UK biobank database, levels of serum transaminases were increased in subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype compared with noncarriers. In the Alpha-1 Liver Cohort, adults with Pi∗MZ had lower levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase in serum and lower LSMs than adults with the Pi∗ZZ variant, but these were higher than in noncarriers. Ten percent of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype vs 4% of noncarriers had LSMs of 7.1 kPa or more (adjusted odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-11.8). Obesity and diabetes were the most important factors associated with LSMs ≥7.1 kPa in subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype. AAT inclusions were detected in liver biopsies of 63% of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype, vs 97% of subjects with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, and increased with liver fibrosis stages. Subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype did not have increased hepatic levels of AAT, whereas levels of insoluble AAT varied among individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with the Pi∗MZ genotype have lower levels of serum transaminases, fewer AAT inclusions in liver, and lower liver stiffness than adults with the Pi∗ZZ genotype, but higher than adults without the Pi∗Z variant. These findings should help determine risk of subjects with the Pi∗MZ genotype and aid in counseling.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Fígado/patologia , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Testes de Função Hepática , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/sangue , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/patologia
16.
Surg Technol Int ; 36: 41-47, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243565

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle represents the largest mass of tissue in the body and is essential for motion and posture. Traumatic injury, tumor ablation, prolonged denervation or genetic defects lead to skeletal myopathies. The loss of muscle function or its regenerative properties often results in pain, deformity, and joint malfunction. The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles depends on adult muscle stem cells, the so-called satellite cells; however, the population of these myogenic precursors, and thus their potential to restore large muscle tissue defects, is strongly limited. On the other hand, surgical treatment of skeletal muscle loss is hampered by the scarcity of functional replacement tissue. Only a few options currently exist to provide functional and aesthetic restoration of lost muscle tissues, other than free muscle flap transfer. While this reconstructive technique is a common practice, it involves the risk of significant donor-site morbidity. Therefore, alternative cells with the potential to regenerate muscle tissue need to be examined. Recently, many surgeons have studied the potential clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are an adult stem cell population that can undergo differentiation along the mesodermal lineage and secrete growth factors that can enhance tissue regeneration processes by promoting neovascularization. The regenerative potential of MSCs has been widely studied in vitro and in vivo in animal models. MSCs from adipose tissue as well as bone marrow have been shown to bear myogenic potential, which makes them ideal candidate stem cells for skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications. When compared to reconstructive procedures using autograft tissues, MSC therapy offers the potential of reducing or even eliminating donor-site morbidity. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the use of MSCs in in vitro muscle generation and in vivo muscle regeneration.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Regeneração , Engenharia Tecidual
18.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(2): 188-194, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596996

RESUMO

Sustained virological response (SVR) after interferon-based therapy is associated with improvement of insulin resistance (IR) in HCV-infected patients. Few data are available in the direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) era, especially in cirrhotic patients. We prospectively evaluated the long-term effect of DAAs on IR. Patients treated with DAAs between May 2015 and December 2016 in 3 tertiary care centres were recruited. Patients with diabetes were excluded. Biochemical and virological data were collected at baseline, 12/24/48 weeks (W) after the end of therapy (EOT). Presence of IR was defined by a 'homeostasis model assessment index for IR' [HOMA-IR])> 2.5. Liver fibroscan was performed at baseline, at 24/48W after EOT. Hundred and thirty-eight patients were enrolled (mean age 58 years, M/F 85/53, GT1 61%, 68.8% cirrhotic). Sixty-eight patients (94/138) had IR. Patients with IR had significantly higher stiffness than patients without it (23 ± 12 vs 15 ± 8; P < .0001). SVR12 was achieved in 135 (98%) patients, and 124 (90%) patients reached the 48W post-EOT. At this time point, the percentage of patients with IR significantly decreased to 49% (P = 0,01). HOMA-IR was significantly lower than baseline (1.8 vs 3; P < .001), and this was related to a significant reduction of insulin level (11.7 ± 6.3 vs 16.4 ± 8.3). High BMI was associated with a significantly lower probability of achieving a non-IR status at 24W (P = .05) and 48W (P = .03).In conclusion, SVR following DAAs led to a significant reduction of IR, even in patients with cirrhosis. Nevertheless, IR can persist after the achievement of SVR, especially in patients with high BMI.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...