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1.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with breast cancer face cognitive impairment that affects their quality of life; partially attributable to treatment. Our aim was to detail the prevalence and change of cognitive impairment during the course of treatment. We also investigated the effect of therapy (chemotherapy [CT]) vs. radiotherapy and/or endocrine therapy vs. healthy controls). METHODS: This article reviews longitudinal cohort studies published to date in Medline and Embase that (i) assess cognition before and after therapy, (ii) report prevalence cognitive impairment or change, and (iii) use standardized and valid neuropsychological tests. We used the original authors' criteria for cognitive impairment. RESULTS: The title and abstract of 891 articles were screened, resulting in the identification of 90 potentially relevant articles while applying the eligibility criteria. After full-text examination, 17 studies were included. Prevalence of cognitive impairment range from 25% before therapy, through 24% after therapy to 21% at maximal 1-year follow-up (FU). Compared to their pretreatment cognitive functioning, 24% of patients decline after treatment and 24% at 1-year FU. Some studies also reported cognitive improvement showing that 15% and 31% of patients improve, respectively. In general, patients undergoing CT have a higher chance of cognitive impairment and decline than no-CT patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that one out of four breast cancer patients shows cognitive impairment prior to treatment administration CT and a significant number of patients decline during the course of disease, suggesting that cognitive impairment is not exclusively related to CT and/or no-CT therapies. This study shows that assessment of cognitive functioning, ideally over time, is crucial and may help the implementation of personalized rehabilitation pathways.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545387

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare neurocognitive functioning in Small Cell Lung Cancer patients(SCLC) who received prophylactic cranial irradiation(PCI) with or without hippocampus avoidance (HA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a multicenter randomized phase III trial (NCT01780675) patients with SCLC were randomized to standard PCI (25 Gy /10 fractions) or HA-PCI. Neuropsychological tests were performed at baseline and 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months after PCI. The primary endpoint was total recall on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test- Revised(HVLT-R) at 4 months; a decline of at least 5 points from baseline was considered a failure. Secondary endpoints included other cognitive outcomes, evaluation of the incidence and location of brain metastases and overall survival(OS). RESULTS: From April 2013 until March 2018 a total of 168 patients were randomized. The median follow-up time was 26 .6 months. In both treatment arms 70% of patients had limited disease and baseline characteristics were well balanced. Decline on the HVLT-R total recall score at 4 months was not significantly different between the arms: 29% of PCI patients dropped ≥5 points and 28% of HA-PCI patients (p=1.000). Performance on other cognitive tests measuring memory, executive function, attention, motor function and processing speed did not change significantly different over time between the groups. The OS was not significantly different. The cumulative incidence of brain metastases at 2 years was 20% (95% CI: 12% - 29%) for the PCI arm and 16% (95% CI: 7% - 24%) for the HA-PCI arm. CONCLUSION: This randomized phase III trial did not show lower probability of cognitive decline in SCLC patients receiving hippocampus avoidance PCI compared to conventional PCI. No increase in brain metastases at 2 years was observed in the HA- PCI arm.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e24414, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) at 35 to 45 years of age. RRSO substantially decreases ovarian cancer risk, but at the cost of immediate menopause. Knowledge about the potential adverse effects of premenopausal RRSO, such as increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive dysfunction, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO on cardiovascular disease, bone health, cognitive functioning, urological complaints, sexual functioning, and HRQoL in women with high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We will conduct a multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up, nested in a nationwide cohort of women at high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. A total of 500 women who have undergone RRSO before 45 years of age, with a follow-up period of at least 10 years, will be compared with 250 women (frequency matched on current age) who have not undergone RRSO or who have undergone RRSO at over 55 years of age. Participants will complete an online questionnaire on lifestyle, medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, osteoporosis, cognitive function, urological complaints, and HRQoL. A full cardiovascular assessment and assessment of bone mineral density will be performed. Blood samples will be obtained for marker analysis. Cognitive functioning will be assessed objectively with an online neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: This study was approved by the institutional review board in July 2018. In February 2019, we included our first participant. As of November 2020, we had enrolled 364 participants in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge from this study will contribute to counseling women with a high familial risk of breast/ovarian cancer about the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO. The results can also be used to offer health recommendations after RRSO. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03835793; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03835793. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24414.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer treatment has been associated with vascular pathology. It is unclear if such treatment is also associated with long-term cerebrovascular changes. We studied the association between radiotherapy and chemotherapy with carotid pathology and brain perfusion in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We included 173 breast cancer survivors exposed to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, assessed ± 21.2 years after cancer diagnosis, and 346 age-matched cancer-free women (1:2) selected from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Outcome measures were carotid plaque score, intima-media thickness (IMT), total cerebral blood flow (tCBF), and brain perfusion. Additionally, we investigated the association between inclusion of the carotid artery in the radiation field (no/small/large part), tumor location, and these outcome measures within cancer survivors. RESULTS: Cancer survivors had lower tCBF (- 19.6 ml/min, 95%CI - 37.3;- 1.9) and brain perfusion (- 2.5 ml/min per 100 ml, 95%CI - 4.3;- 0.7) than cancer-free women. No statistically significant group differences were observed regarding plaque score or IMT. Among cancer survivors, a large versus a small part of the carotid artery in the radiation field was associated with a higher IMT (0.05, 95%CI0.01;0.09). Also, survivors with a right-sided tumor had lower left carotid plaque score (- 0.31, 95%CI - 0.60;- 0.02) and higher brain perfusion (3.5 ml/min per 100 ml, 95%CI 0.7;6.2) than those with a left-sided tumor. CONCLUSIONS: On average two decades post-diagnosis, breast cancer survivors had lower tCBF and brain perfusion than cancer-free women. Also, survivors with a larger area of the carotid artery within the radiation field had a larger IMT. Future studies should confirm if these cerebrovascular changes underlie the frequently observed cognitive problems in cancer survivors.

5.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042813

RESUMO

Background: Atherosclerosis and cancer share multiple disease pathways. Yet, it is unclear if atherosclerosis is associated with a subsequent higher cancer risk. We determined the association of atherosclerotic calcification in the aortic arch, as proxy for systemic atherosclerosis, with the risk of cancer. Methods: Between 2003 and 2006, 2,404 participants (mean age: 69.5 years, 52.5% women) from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study underwent computed tomography to quantify calcification in the aortic arch. Participants were followed for the onset of cancer, death, loss to follow-up, or January 1st, 2015, whichever came first. We computed sex-specific tertiles of aortic arch calcification volumes. Next, we examined the association between the volume and severity (i.e., tertiles) of aortic arch calcification and the risk of cancer using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 9.6 years (8.9-10.5), 348 participants were diagnosed with cancer. Participants with the greatest severity of aortic arch calcification had a higher risk of cancer [hazard ratio for the third tertile compared to the first tertile of aortic arch calcification volume in the total population is 1.39 (95% CI = 1.04-1.86)]. Conclusions: Individuals with the most severe aortic arch calcification had a higher risk of cancer. While this could reflect the impact of long-term exposure to shared risk factors, it might also point toward the co-occurrence of both conditions.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To establish trajectories of cognitive and motor function, and to determine the sequence of change across individual tests in community-dwelling individuals aged 45-90 years. METHODS: Between 1997-2016, we repeatedly assessed cognitive function with five tests in 9,514 participants aged 45-90 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. Between 1999-2016, we measured motor function with three tests in 8,297 participants. All participants were free from dementia, stroke, and parkinsonism. We assessed overall and education-specific cognitive and motor trajectories using linear mixed models with age as time scale. Next, we determined the sequence of change across individual tests. RESULTS: The number of assessments per participant ranged between 1-6 (mean interval, years[SD]: 5.1[1.4]) for cognitive function, and 1-4 (5.4[1.4]) for motor function. Cognitive and motor trajectories declined linearly between ages 45-65 years, followed by steeper declines after ages 65-70 years. Lower educated participants had lower cognitive function at age 45 years (baseline), and declined faster on most cognitive, but not on motor tests than higher educated participants. Up to a 25-year age difference between the fastest and slowest declining test scores was observed. CONCLUSIONS: On a population-level, cognitive and motor function decline similarly. Compared to higher educated individuals, lower educated individuals had lower cognitive function at baseline, and a faster rate of decline thereafter. These educational-effects were not seen for motor function. These findings benefit the understanding of the natural course of cognitive and motor function during aging, and highlight the role of education in the preservation of cognitive but not motor function.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 1993-2001, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various studies show an inverse relation between Alzheimer disease and cancer, but findings are likely to be biased by surveillance and survival bias. Plasma amyloid-ß (Aß) is defined as a preclinical feature of Alzheimer disease, with lower levels of Aß42 being associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer disease. To get more insight into the biological link between Alzheimer disease and cancer, we investigated plasma Aß levels in relation to the risk of cancer. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2005, we measured plasma Aß40 and Aß42 levels in 3,949 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study. These participants were followed until the onset of cancer, all-cause dementia, death, loss to follow-up, or January 1, 2014, whichever came first. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association between plasma Aß40 and Aß42 levels, and the risk of cancer. Analyses were stratified by cancer site. RESULTS: During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 9.0 years (6.9-10.1), 560 participants were diagnosed with cancer. Higher levels of log2 plasma Aß40 and Aß42 were associated with a higher risk of cancer [hazard ratio per standard deviation increase for Aß40 = 1.12 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.02-1.23) and Aß42 = 1.12 (95% CI = 1.03-1.23)]. These effect estimates were most pronounced for hematologic cancers, urinary tract cancers, and cancers of unknown primary origin. CONCLUSIONS: We found that higher levels of both plasma Aß40 and Aß42 were associated with a higher risk of cancer. IMPACT: Our study suggests a potential biological link between Alzheimer disease and cancer. The pathophysiologic role of Aß in cancer and its causality warrant further investigation.

9.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705463

RESUMO

Chemotherapy for non-central nervous system cancers is associated with abnormalities in brain structure and function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for studying in vivo microstructural changes in brain white matter. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) is a widely used processing pipeline in which DTI data are typically normalized to a generic DTI template and then 'skeletonized' to compensate for misregistration effects. However, this approach greatly reduces the overall white matter volume that is subjected to statistical analysis, leading to information loss. Here, we present a re-analysis of longitudinal data previously analyzed with standard TBSS (Menning et al., BIB 2018, 324-334). For our current approach, we constructed a pipeline with an optimized registration method in Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) where DTI data are registered to a study-specific, high-resolution T1 template and the skeletonization step is omitted. In a head to head comparison, we show that with our novel approach breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy plus or minus endocrine therapy (BC + SYST, n = 26) showed a global decline in overall FA that was not present in breast cancer survivors who did not receive systemic therapy (BC-SYST, n = 23) or women without a cancer diagnosis (no cancer controls, NC, n = 30). With the standard TBSS approach we did not find any group differences. Moreover, voxel-based analysis for our novel pipeline showed a widespread decline in FA in the BC + SYST compared to the NC group. Interestingly, the BC-SYST group also showed a decline in FA compared to the NC group, although in much less voxels. These results were not found with the standard TBSS approach. We demonstrate that a modified processing pipeline makes DTI data more sensitive to detecting changes in white matter integrity in non-CNS cancer patients after treatment, particularly chemotherapy.

10.
Trials ; 21(1): 664, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive problems are common in non-central nervous system cancer survivors. These problems are perceived as an important contributor to decline in work performance and work ability. Various interventions for cognitive problems have been proposed, but effectiveness regarding work-related outcomes has not yet been established. Effective treatment options to alleviate the adverse influence of cognitive problems on work performance are needed for working cancer survivors. In this paper, we will describe the design of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial that evaluates the (cost-)effectiveness of an Internet-based cognitive rehabilitation program for occupationally active cancer survivors confronted with cognitive problems. METHODS/ DESIGN: A three-armed randomized controlled trial will be conducted, including two intervention groups (i.e., basic and extensive cognitive rehabilitation program) and one waitlist control group. In total, 261 cancer survivors (18-65 years) who have returned to work and who experience cognitive problems will be recruited. Patients with and without cognitive impairment as established in a neuropsychological assessment will be eligible; stratification will take place based on the presence of this cognitive impairment. The extensive intervention arm will contain a comprehensive training program (including psycho-education, fatigue management, and cognitive strategy training) with individual guidance (blended intervention). The basic intervention arm will contain a brief cognitive training program (including psycho-education and fatigue management) without individual guidance. The primary outcome will be accomplishment of an individually defined work-related treatment goal. Secondary outcomes include, among others, subjective cognitive functioning, work functioning, and quality of life. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline (T0) and at 12 weeks (T1) and 26 weeks (T2) post-randomization. DISCUSSION: About 40-50% of the cancer patients worldwide are of working age at time of diagnosis. Many of the occupationally active cancer survivors experience cognitive problems. Both from an individual and a societal perspective, it is important to sustain cancer survivors' employability. An effective treatment to alleviate the impact of cognitive decline and to improve work ability might help cancer survivors to sustain employability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03900806 . Registered on 03 April 2019 (current status: ongoing).

11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(3): 845-851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568210

RESUMO

There is an ongoing debate about how cancer and dementia relate to each other, and whether their relation is biologically determined or caused by surveillance and survival bias. We aimed to circumvent these biases by determining the relation between the tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and the risk of dementia in 6,692 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We found that higher levels of CEA were associated with a higher risk of dementia (HR per standard deviation increase in CEA = 1.11, 95% CI 1.04; 1.18). This finding may indicate that cancer and dementia are positively associated, but the mechanisms underlying the relation between CEA and dementia warrant further investigation.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239149

RESUMO

There is a need to better identify impaired cognitive processes to increase our understanding of cognitive dysfunction caused by cancer and cancer treatment, and improve interventions. The Trail Making Test is frequently used for evaluating information processing speed (part A) and executive function (part B), but interpretation of its outcomes is challenging because performance depends on many cognitive processes. To disentangle processes, we collected high-resolution data from 192 non-central nervous system cancer patients who received systemic therapy and 192 cancer-free controls, and fitted a Shifted-Wald computational model. Results show that cancer patients were more cautious than controls (Cohen's d: 0.16). Patients were cognitively slower than controls when the task required task switching (Cohen's d: 0.16). Our results support the idea that cancer and cancer treatment accelerate cognitive aging. Our approach allows more precise assessment of cognitive dysfunction in cancer patients and can be extended to other instruments and patient populations.

13.
Assessment ; : 1073191120911098, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148072

RESUMO

Objective: Since computerized cognitive test performance may be influenced by computer experience, correction for this measure might be needed. This study examined how to correct for computer experience by examining its influence on online and traditional tests. Method: 248 healthy adults completed an online neuropsychological test battery and 70 adults completed traditional equivalents of the tests. Computer experience was assessed by a performance-based and a self-report measure. Regression analyses were applied to examine their influence on the online and traditional tests. Results: After correction for demographics, the performance-based measure was associated with online and traditional, predominantly speed-based, tests. The self-report measure was also associated with speed-based online tests but not with most traditional tests. Conclusions: Correcting computerized neuropsychological tests using a performance-based measure of computer experience would be unwise, because this measure also seems to tap into cognitive functions. A correction using a self-report measure might be better and is appropriate.

14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154164

RESUMO

Background: Although improvements in medical treatment lead to a steadily rising survival rate of breast cancer patients (BCP), it is associated with a decrease in cognitive and affective function. The hippocampus, a brain region with a high influence on both cognitive and affective function, is increasingly becoming the focus of current research because of its high vulnerability to adverse direct (chemotherapeutic agents, endocrine therapeutic agents, and radiation) or indirect (stress and other psycho-social factors) treatment-related effects. Methods: This systematic review analyses current data from literature combining hippocampus-related brain changes due to breast cancer treatment with associated cancer-related cognitive and affective impairments (CRCI/CRAI). The seven studies that met the inclusion criteria consisted of six cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study. Results: The study results indicate hippocampal differences across all types of treatment. Those differences include volume loss, deformation, and changes in functional connectivity. They are associated with CRCI, revealing executive function as well as working memory, episodic memory, and prospective memory as the most affected domains. Although an interaction between hippocampus-related brain changes, CRCI, and CRAI can be hypothesized, CRAI are less reflected in current research. Discussion: More research including longitudinal assessments with better overall methodology is needed to fully understand the interaction between hippocampal alterations and both CRCI and CRAI due to breast cancer treatment.

15.
J Cancer Surviv ; 14(2): 158-167, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940106

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cognitive symptoms are reported to affect cancer survivors' functioning at work. However, little is known about the type of cancer treatment and cognitive symptoms in working cancer survivors. We examined the longitudinal association between type of cancer treatment and cognitive symptoms in cancer survivors post return to work, and whether the course of cognitive symptoms over 18 months differed per type of cancer treatment. METHODS: Data from the Dutch longitudinal "Work-Life after Cancer" study were used. The study population consisted of 330 working cancer survivors who completed questionnaires at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months follow-up. Cognitive symptoms were assessed with the cognitive symptom checklist-work and linked with cancer treatment data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Cancer survivors who received chemotherapy reported comparable memory symptom levels (b: - 2.3; 95% CI = - 7.1, 2.5) to those receiving locoregional treatment. Executive function symptom levels (b: - 4.1; 95% CI = - 7.8, - 0.4) were significantly lower for cancer survivors who received chemotherapy, compared with those receiving locoregional treatment. In cancer survivors who received other systemic therapy, memory (b: 0.4; 95% CI = 0.1, 0.7) and executive function symptom levels (b: 0.4; 95% CI = 0.0, 0.7) increased over time. In cancer survivors who received chemotherapy and locoregional treatment, memory and executive function symptom scores were persistent during the first 18 months after return to work. CONCLUSIONS: The contradictory finding that cancer patients receiving chemotherapy report fewer cognitive symptoms warrants further research. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Working cancer survivors may have cognitive symptom management needs irrespective of the type of cancer treatment they received.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cognição/fisiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 633-640, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642518

RESUMO

Complete and accurate registration of cancer is needed to provide reliable data on cancer incidence and to investigate aetiology. Such data can be derived from national cancer registries, but also from large population-based cohort studies. Yet, the concordance and discordance between these two data sources remain unknown. We evaluated completeness and accuracy of cancer registration by studying the concordance between the population-based Rotterdam Study (RS) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) between 1989 and 2012 using the independent case ascertainment method. We compared all incident cancers in participants of the RS (aged ≥45 years) to registered cancers in the NCR in the same persons based on the date of diagnosis and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code. In total, 2,977 unique incident cancers among 2,685 persons were registered. Two hundred eighty-eight cancers (9.7%) were coded by the RS that were not present in the NCR. These were mostly nonpathology-confirmed lung and haematological cancers. Furthermore, 116 cancers were coded by the NCR, but not by the RS (3.9%), of which 20.7% were breast cancers. Regarding pathology-confirmed cancer diagnoses, completeness was >95% in both registries. Eighty per cent of the cancers registered in both registries were coded with the same date of diagnosis and ICD code. Of the remaining cancers, 344 (14.5%) were misclassified with regard to date of diagnosis and 72 (3.0%) with regard to ICD code. Our findings indicate that multiple sources on cancer are complementary and should be combined to ensure reliable data on cancer incidence.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(6): 557-565, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863226

RESUMO

Cancer diagnoses which are not confirmed by pathology are often under-registered in cancer registries compared to pathology-confirmed diagnoses. It is unknown how many patients have a non pathology-confirmed cancer diagnosis, and whether their characteristics and survival differ from patients with a pathology-confirmed diagnosis. Participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study were followed between 1989 and 2013 for the diagnosis of cancer. Cancer diagnoses were classified into pathology-confirmed versus non pathology-confirmed (i.e., based on imaging or tumour markers). We compared participant characteristics and the distribution of cancers at different sites. Furthermore, we investigated differences in overall survival using survival curves adjusted for age and sex. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 10.7 (6.3-15.9) years, 2698 out of 14,024 participants were diagnosed with cancer, of which 316 diagnoses (11.7%) were non pathology-confirmed. Participants with non pathology-confirmed diagnoses were older, more often women, and had a lower education. Most frequently non pathology-confirmed cancer sites included central nervous system (66.7%), hepato-pancreato-biliary (44.5%), and unknown primary origin (31.2%). Survival of participants with non pathology-confirmed diagnoses after 1 year was lower compared to survival of participants with pathology-confirmed diagnoses (32.6% vs. 63.4%; risk difference of 30.8% [95% CI 25.2%; 36.2%]). Pathological confirmation of cancer is related to participant characteristics and cancer site. Furthermore, participants with non pathology-confirmed diagnoses have worse survival than participants with pathology-confirmed diagnoses. Missing data on non pathology-confirmed diagnoses may result in underestimation of cancer incidence and in an overestimation of survival in cancer registries, and may introduce bias in aetiological research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
J Cancer Surviv ; 14(2): 168-178, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer-related cognitive problems (cancer-related cognitive problems) in working cancer survivors are found to affect work outcomes. We aimed to generate in-depth information regarding cancer-related cognitive problems in working cancer survivors, strategies used to cope with cancer-related cognitive problems at work, and needs of cancer survivors and professionals regarding cancer-related cognitive problems at work. METHODS: Five focus groups were formed, amongst which three focus groups with cancer survivors (n = 8, n = 7, and n = 8) and two focus groups with professionals (n = 7, n = 8). Thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed to create concepts. RESULTS: Both cancer survivors and professionals confirmed that cancer-related cognitive problems, which occurred in several domains of neurocognitive functioning, affect work functioning. Cancer survivors used several strategies (e.g., applying practical adjustments, re-organization of work, and accepting limitations) to cope with cancer-related cognitive problems at work, as did professionals in their attempt at supporting cancer survivors facing these problems. Various needs of cancer survivors (e.g., supportive care options, acknowledgment by others) and professionals (e.g., improvement of expertise, clarity about referral pathways) regarding cancer-related cognitive problems at work were mentioned. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the growing number of working cancer survivors dealing with cancer-related cognitive problems, it is essential to sustain their employability. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation interventions should be developed, taking functioning at work into account. Knowledge amongst professionals regarding cancer-related cognitive problems, as well as coordination of care for cancer-related cognitive problems, should be improved. Ensuring professional education regarding cancer-related cognitive problems, within both the healthcare and occupational setting, is of utmost importance. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Support for working cancer survivors who experience cancer-related cognitive problems might increase their employability in the longer term.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Grupos Focais/métodos , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(5): 480-488, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An emerging body of research suggests that noncentral nervous system cancer may negatively impact the brain apart from effects of cancer treatment. However, studies assessing cognitive function in newly diagnosed cancer patients cannot exclude selection bias and psychological effects of cancer diagnosis. To overcome these limitations, we investigated trajectories of cognitive function of patients before cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Between 1989 and 2013, a total of 2059 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study were diagnosed with noncentral nervous system cancer. Cognitive assessments were performed every 3 to 5 years using a neuropsychological battery. The general cognitive factor was composed of individual cognitive tests to assess global cognition. Using linear mixed models, we compared change in cognitive function of cancer case patients before diagnosis with cognitive change of age-matched cancer-free control subjects (1:2). In addition, we performed sensitivity analyses by discarding assessments of control subjects 5 years before the end of follow-up to exclude effects from potential undiagnosed cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The Word Learning Test immediate recall declined faster among case patients than among control subjects (-0.05, 95% confidence interval = -0.09 to -0.01 vs 0.01, 95% confidence interval = -0.01 to 0.03; P for difference = .003). However, this difference was not statistically significant in sensitivity analyses. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were observed in change of other individual cognitive tests and of the general cognitive factor. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we evaluated cognitive function in a large group of cancer patients prior to diagnosis, thereby excluding the psychological impact of cancer diagnosis and biased patient selection. In contrast to previous studies shortly after cancer diagnosis, we found no difference in change of cognitive function between cancer patients and control subjects.

20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 28: 102466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395962

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many studies have shown that patients with non-central nervous system (CNS) cancer can have brain abnormalities, such as reduced gray matter volume and cerebral microbleeds. These abnormalities can sometimes be present even before start of treatment, suggesting a potential detrimental effect of non-CNS cancer itself on the brain. In these previous studies, psychological factors associated with a cancer diagnosis and selection bias may have influenced results. To overcome these limitations, we investigated brain structure with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to cancer diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2005 and 2014, 4,622 participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study who were free of cancer, dementia, and stroke, underwent brain MRI and were subsequently followed for incident cancer until January 1st, 2015. We investigated the association between brain MRI measurements, including cerebral small vessel disease, volumes of global brain tissue, lobes, and subcortical structures, and global white matter microstructure, and the risk of non-CNS cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. Age was used as time scale. Models were corrected for e.g. sex, intracranial volume, educational level, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, alcohol use, and depression sum-score. RESULTS: During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 7.0 years (4.9-8.1), 353 participants were diagnosed with non-CNS cancer. Results indicated that persons who develop cancer do not have more brain abnormalities before clinical manifestation of the disease than persons who remain free of cancer. The largest effect estimates were found for the relation between presence of lacunar infarcts and the risk of cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39 [0.97-1.98]) and for total brain volume (HR [95%CI] per standard deviation increase in total brain volume = 0.76 [0.55-1.04]). CONCLUSION: We did not observe associations between small vessel disease, brain tissue volumes, and global white matter microstructure, and subsequent cancer risk in an unselected population. These findings deviate from previous studies indicating brain abnormalities among patients shortly after cancer diagnosis.

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