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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802509

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and potentially permanent adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents including taxanes such as paclitaxel and platinum-based compounds such as oxaliplatin and carboplatin. Previous studies have suggested that genetics may impact the risk of CIPN. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for CIPN in two independent populations who had completed European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ)-CIPN20 assessments (a CIPN-specific 20-item questionnaire which includes three scales that evaluate sensory, autonomic, and motor symptoms). The study population N08Cx included 692 participants from three clinical trials (North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) N08C1, N08CA, and N08CB) who had been treated with paclitaxel, paclitaxel plus carboplatin, or oxaliplatin. The primary endpoint for the GWAS was the change from pre-chemotherapy CIPN20 sensory score to the worse score over the following 18 weeks. Study population The Mayo Clinic Breast Disease Registry (MCBDR) consisted of 381 Mayo Clinic Breast Disease Registry enrollees who had been treated with taxane or platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoint for the GWAS assessed was the earliest CIPN20 sensory score available after the completion of chemotherapy. In multivariate model analyses, chemotherapy regimen (p = 3.0 × 10-8) and genetic ancestry (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with CIPN in the N08Cx population. Only age (p = 0.0004) was significantly associated with CIPN in the MCBDR population. The SNP most associated with CIPN was rs56360211 near PDE6C (p =7.92 × 10-8) in N08Cx and rs113807868 near TMEM150C in the MCBDR (p = 1.27 × 10-8). Due to a lack of replication, we cannot conclude that we identified any genetic predictors of CIPN.

2.
Eur J Immunol ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818775

RESUMO

Multiple factors linked to host genetics/inherent biology play a role in inter-individual variability in immune response outcomes after rubella vaccination. In order to identify these factors, we conducted a study of rubella-specific humoral immunity before (Baseline) and after (Day 28) a third dose of MMR-II vaccine in a cohort of 109 women of childbearing age. We performed mRNA-Seq profiling of PBMCs after rubella virus in vitro stimulation to delineate genes associated with post-vaccination rubella humoral immunity and to define genes mediating the association between prior immune response status (high or low antibody) and subsequent immune response outcome. Our study identified novel genes that mediated the association between prior immune response and neutralizing antibody titer after a third MMR vaccine dose. These genes included: CDC34; CSNK1D; APOBEC3F; RAD18; AAAS; SLC37A1; FAS and JAK2. The encoded proteins are involved in innate antiviral response, interferon/cytokine signaling, B cell repertoire generation, the clonal selection of B lymphocytes in germinal centers, and somatic hypermutation/antibody affinity maturation to promote optimal antigen-specific B cell immune function. These data advance our understanding of how subjects' prior immune status and/or genetic propensity to respond to rubella/MMR vaccination ultimately affects innate immunity and humoral immune outcomes after vaccination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578652

RESUMO

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important prognostic patient-reported outcome in oncology. Because prior studies suggest that HRQOL is, in part, heritable, we performed a GWAS to elucidate genetic factors associated with HRQOL in breast cancer survivors. Physical and mental HRQOL were measured via paper surveys that included the PROMIS-10 physical and mental health domain scales in 1442 breast cancer survivors participating in the Mayo Clinic Breast Disease Registry (MCBDR). In multivariable regression analyses, age and financial concerns were significantly associated with global physical health (age: p = 1.6 × 10-23; financial concerns: p = 4.8 × 10-40) and mental health (age: p = 3.5 × 10-7; financial concerns: p = 2.0 × 10-69). Chemotherapy was associated with worse global mental health (p = 0.01). In the GWAS, none of the SNPs reached the genome-wide association significance threshold of 5 × 10-8 for associations with either global physical or global mental health, however, a cluster of SNPs in SCN10A, particularly rs112718371, appeared to be linked to worse global physical health (p = 5.21 × 10-8). Additionally, SNPs in LMX1B, SGCD, PARP12 and SEMA5A were also moderately associated with worse physical and mental health (p < 10-6). These biologically plausible candidate SNPs warrant further study as possible predictors of HRQOL.

4.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline ATM mutations are suggested to contribute to predisposition to prostate cancer (PrCa). Previous studies have had inadequate power to estimate variant effect sizes. OBJECTIVE: To precisely estimate the contribution of germline ATM mutations to PrCa risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed next-generation sequencing data from 13 PRACTICAL study groups comprising 5560 cases and 3353 controls of European ancestry. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Variant Call Format files were harmonised, annotated for rare ATM variants, and classified as tier 1 (likely pathogenic) or tier 2 (potentially deleterious). Associations with overall PrCa risk and clinical subtypes were estimated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: PrCa risk was higher in carriers of a tier 1 germline ATM variant, with an overall odds ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-9.5). There was also evidence that PrCa cases with younger age at diagnosis (<65 yr) had elevated tier 1 variant frequencies (pdifference = 0.04). Tier 2 variants were also associated with PrCa risk, with an OR of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of pathogenic ATM variants have an elevated risk of developing PrCa and are at an increased risk for earlier-onset disease presentation. These results provide information for counselling of men and their families. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we estimated that men who inherit a likely pathogenic mutation in the ATM gene had an approximately a fourfold risk of developing prostate cancer. In addition, they are likely to develop the disease earlier.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 567348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154747

RESUMO

We conducted a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the immune responses to primary smallpox vaccination in a combined cohort of 1,653 subjects. We did not observe any polymorphisms associated with standard vaccine response outcomes (e.g., neutralizing antibody, T cell ELISPOT response, or T cell cytokine production); however, we did identify a cluster of SNPs on chromosome 5 (5q31.2) that were significantly associated (p-value: 1.3 x 10-12 - 1.5x10-36) with IFNα response to in vitro poxvirus stimulation. Examination of these SNPs led to the functional testing of rs1131769, a non-synonymous SNP in TMEM173 causing an Arg-to-His change at position 232 in the STING protein-a major regulator of innate immune responses to viral infections. Our findings demonstrate differences in the ability of the two STING variants to phosphorylate the downstream intermediates TBK1 and IRF3 in response to multiple STING ligands. Further downstream in the STING pathway, we observed significantly reduced expression of type I IFNs (including IFNα) and IFN-response genes in cells carrying the H232 variant. Subsequent molecular modeling of both alleles predicted altered ligand binding characteristics between the two variants, providing a potential mechanism underlying differences in inter-individual responses to poxvirus infection. Our data indicate that possession of the H232 variant may impair STING-mediated innate immunity to poxviruses. These results clarify prior studies evaluating functional effects of genetic variants in TMEM173 and provide novel data regarding genetic control of poxvirus immunity.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159444

RESUMO

Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is a promising biomarker for ovarian reserve. In this study, we assessed AMH before and one year after initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy on NSABP/NRG Oncology B-47 in female participants aged 42 years and younger (with median age 39 years). At baseline, median AMH was 1.2 ng/mL; 13 (4.7%) values were <0.1ng/mL (the threshold for detectable levels, in the perimenopause/menopause range), and 57 values (20.6%) were less than 0.5 ng/mL. At 1 year, 215 (77.6%) were less than 0.1ng/mL, and 264 (95.3%) were less than 0.5 ng/mL. Post-chemotherapy menses were reported by 46.2% of participants. Multivariable logistic regression found that the odds of having post-chemotherapy menses increased with younger age, higher BMI, and higher pre-chemotherapy AMH, but not by trastuzumab administration or by the choice of chemotherapy (doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel vs. docetaxel-cyclophosphamide). We conclude that higher pre-chemotherapy AMH predicts a lower risk of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, and that AMH one year after chemotherapy initiation is not informative in this setting because it is likely to be very low.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097489

RESUMO

Endocrine therapy (ET) is underutilized to reduce breast cancer (BC) incidence among women at increased risk. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) assessing 77 BC genetic susceptibility loci personalizes risk estimates. We examined effect of personalized PRS BC risk prediction on intention to take and ET uptake among women recruited from BC clinics. Eligible participants had a 10-year BC risk >5% by Tyrer-Cuzick model (International Breast Cancer Intervention Study [IBIS]) or >3.0 % 5-year Gail Model risk with no BC history or hereditary BC syndrome. At baseline, BC calculators estimated risk, ET options were reviewed, and questionnaires assessed ET intent. After genotyping, PRS-updated BC risk estimates, ET options, and intent to take ET were reassessed; ET uptake was assessed during follow-up. From March 2016 to October 2017, 151 patients were enrolled (median [range] age, 56.1 [36.0-76.4] years). Median 10-year and lifetime IBIS risks were 7.9% and 25.3%. Inclusion of PRS increased lifetime IBIS BC risk estimates for 81 patients (53.6%) and reduced risk for 70 (46.4%). Of participants with increased BC risk by PRS, 39 (41.9%) had greater intent to take ET; of those with decreased BC risk by PRS, 28 (46.7%) had less intent to take ET (P<.001). On multivariable regression, increased BC risk by PRS was associated with greater intent to take ET (P<.001). ET uptake was greater among participants with increased BC risk by PRS (53.4%) than with decreased risk (20.9%) (P<.001). PRS testing influenced intent to take and ET uptake. Assessing PRS effect on ET adherence is needed.

8.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history of prostate cancer (PCa) is a well-known risk factor, and both common and rare genetic variants are associated with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To detect new genetic variants associated with PCa, capitalizing on the role of family history and more aggressive PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A two-stage design was used. In stage one, whole-exome sequencing was used to identify potential risk alleles among affected men with a strong family history of disease or with more aggressive disease (491 cases and 429 controls). Aggressive disease was based on a sum of scores for Gleason score, node status, metastasis, tumor stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, systemic recurrence, and time to PCa death. Genes identified in stage one were screened in stage two using a custom-capture design in an independent set of 2917 cases and 1899 controls. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Frequencies of genetic variants (singly or jointly in a gene) were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Eleven genes previously reported to be associated with PCa were detected (ATM, BRCA2, HOXB13, FAM111A, EMSY, HNF1B, KLK3, MSMB, PCAT1, PRSS3, and TERT), as well as an additional 10 novel genes (PABPC1, QK1, FAM114A1, MUC6, MYCBP2, RAPGEF4, RNASEH2B, ULK4, XPO7, and THAP3). Of these 10 novel genes, all but PABPC1 and ULK4 were primarily associated with the risk of aggressive PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach demonstrates the advantage of gene sequencing in the search for genetic variants associated with PCa and the benefits of sampling patients with a strong family history of disease or an aggressive form of disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Multiple genes are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) among men with a strong family history of this disease or among men with an aggressive form of PCa.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1731-1738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polygenic hazard score (PHS), the weighted sum of 54 SNP genotypes, was previously validated for association with clinically significant prostate cancer and for improved prostate cancer screening accuracy. Here, we assess the potential impact of PHS-informed screening. METHODS: United Kingdom population incidence data (Cancer Research United Kingdom) and data from the Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer were combined to estimate age-specific clinically significant prostate cancer incidence (Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥10, or nodal/distant metastases). Using HRs estimated from the ProtecT prostate cancer trial, age-specific incidence rates were calculated for various PHS risk percentiles. Risk-equivalent age, when someone with a given PHS percentile has prostate cancer risk equivalent to an average 50-year-old man (50-year-standard risk), was derived from PHS and incidence data. Positive predictive value (PPV) of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer was calculated using PHS-adjusted age groups. RESULTS: The expected age at diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer differs by 19 years between the 1st and 99th PHS percentiles: men with PHS in the 1st and 99th percentiles reach the 50-year-standard risk level at ages 60 and 41, respectively. PPV of PSA was higher for men with higher PHS-adjusted age. CONCLUSIONS: PHS provides individualized estimates of risk-equivalent age for clinically significant prostate cancer. Screening initiation could be adjusted by a man's PHS. IMPACT: Personalized genetic risk assessments could inform prostate cancer screening decisions.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1467-1475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514134

RESUMO

We determined the effect of sample size on performance of polygenic hazard score (PHS) models in prostate cancer. Age and genotypes were obtained for 40,861 men from the PRACTICAL consortium. The dataset included 201,590 SNPs per subject, and was split into training and testing sets. Established-SNP models considered 65 SNPs that had been previously associated with prostate cancer. Discovery-SNP models used stepwise selection to identify new SNPs. The performance of each PHS model was calculated for random sizes of the training set. The performance of a representative Established-SNP model was estimated for random sizes of the testing set. Mean HR98/50 (hazard ratio of top 2% to average in test set) of the Established-SNP model increased from 1.73 [95% CI: 1.69-1.77] to 2.41 [2.40-2.43] when the number of training samples was increased from 1 thousand to 30 thousand. Corresponding HR98/50 of the Discovery-SNP model increased from 1.05 [0.93-1.18] to 2.19 [2.16-2.23]. HR98/50 of a representative Established-SNP model using testing set sample sizes of 0.6 thousand and 6 thousand observations were 1.78 [1.70-1.85] and 1.73 [1.71-1.76], respectively. We estimate that a study population of 20 thousand men is required to develop Discovery-SNP PHS models while 10 thousand men should be sufficient for Established-SNP models.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 707-716, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386537

RESUMO

Because polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for coronary heart disease (CHD) are derived from mainly European ancestry (EA) cohorts, their validity in African ancestry (AA) and Hispanic ethnicity (HE) individuals is unclear. We investigated associations of "restricted" and genome-wide PRSs with CHD in three major racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. The eMERGE cohort (mean age 48 ± 14 years, 58% female) included 45,645 EA, 7,597 AA, and 2,493 HE individuals. We assessed two restricted PRSs (PRSTikkanen and PRSTada; 28 and 50 variants, respectively) and two genome-wide PRSs (PRSmetaGRS and PRSLDPred; 1.7 M and 6.6 M variants, respectively) derived from EA cohorts. Over a median follow-up of 11.1 years, 2,652 incident CHD events occurred. Hazard and odds ratios for the association of PRSs with CHD were similar in EA and HE cohorts but lower in AA cohorts. Genome-wide PRSs were more strongly associated with CHD than restricted PRSs were. PRSmetaGRS, the best performing PRS, was associated with CHD in all three cohorts; hazard ratios (95% CI) per 1 SD increase were 1.53 (1.46-1.60), 1.53 (1.23-1.90), and 1.27 (1.13-1.43) for incident CHD in EA, HE, and AA individuals, respectively. The hazard ratios were comparable in the EA and HE cohorts (pinteraction = 0.77) but were significantly attenuated in AA individuals (pinteraction= 2.9 × 10-3). These results highlight the potential clinical utility of PRSs for CHD as well as the need to assemble diverse cohorts to generate ancestry- and ethnicity PRSs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
12.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 408-424, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342572

RESUMO

Mediation analysis attempts to determine whether the relationship between an independent variable (e.g., exposure) and an outcome variable can be explained, at least partially, by an intermediate variable, called a mediator. Most methods for mediation analysis focus on one mediator at a time, although multiple mediators can be jointly analyzed by structural equation models (SEMs) that account for correlations among the mediators. We extend the use of SEMs for the analysis of multiple mediators by creating a sparse group lasso penalized model such that the penalty considers the natural groupings of parameters that determine mediation, as well as encourages sparseness of the model parameters. This provides a way to simultaneously evaluate many mediators and select those that have the most impact, a feature of modern penalized models. Simulations are used to illustrate the benefits and limitations of our approach, and application to a study of DNA methylation and reactive cortisol stress following childhood trauma discovered two novel methylation loci that mediate the association of childhood trauma scores with reactive cortisol stress levels. Our new methods are incorporated into R software called regmed.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Software , Criança , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo
13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008684, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226016

RESUMO

Lipid levels are important markers for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Although hundreds of associated loci have been identified through genetic association studies, the contribution of genetic factors to variation in lipids is not fully understood, particularly in U.S. minority groups. We performed genome-wide association analyses for four lipid traits in over 45,000 ancestrally diverse participants from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, followed by a meta-analysis with several European ancestry studies. We identified nine novel lipid loci, five of which showed evidence of replication in independent studies. Furthermore, we discovered one novel gene in a PrediXcan analysis, minority-specific independent signals at eight previously reported loci, and potential functional variants at two known loci through fine-mapping. Systematic examination of known lipid loci revealed smaller effect estimates in African American and Hispanic ancestry populations than those in Europeans, and better performance of polygenic risk scores based on minority-specific effect estimates. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of lipid traits and highlight the importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations in the era of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(7): 665-675, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463755

RESUMO

Variance component models have gained popularity for genetic analyses, driven by their flexibility to simultaneously analyze multiple genetic variants in a gene by kernel statistics, and their ability to account for population stratification via genomic relationship matrices. For exploratory analyses with modest sample sizes and a potentially large number of variance components, it can be challenging to use standard maximum-likelihood or restricted maximum-likelihood methods to estimate variance components, because these iterative methods often fail to converge when likelihood surfaces are fairly flat, and standard-likelihood ratio statistical tests are not adequate. To overcome these limitations, we developed a penalized-likelihood model, whereby the penalty function follows the popular elastic-net approach, applying both L1 and L2 penalties to the variance components. By simulations, we demonstrate the potential gain in power by using both L1 and L2 penalties, and results from our simulations suggest that assigning 80% of the penalty parameter to the L1 penalty and 20% to the L2 penalty provides a reasonable balance between false-positive and false-negative results. Larger sample size improves the properties of our methods, at the cost of longer computation time. Application of our methods to a study of the influence of DNA methylation on levels of cortisol in reaction to stress testing shows how our method can be used to prioritize findings for further functional studies.

15.
Fertil Steril ; 112(4): 731-739.e1, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study how genetics may play a role in determining risk of chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) in young women with breast cancer. DESIGN: Genome-wide association study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Premenopausal women ≤45 years of age enrolled in one of these three trials were included if they had at least one menstrual case report form after chemotherapy ended and if they were of European ancestry. Forms during and up to 3 months after receipt of GnRH agonist were excluded. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with post-chemotherapy menstruation adjusted for trial and arm, age, tamoxifen use, and nodal status. RESULT(S): The median age of the 1,168 women was 41 years (range 19-45). Among these, 457 (39%) never resumed menses after chemotherapy. Older age, tamoxifen use, and node-negative disease were associated with increased risk of CRA. Adjusting for these, rs147451859, in an intron of PPCDC (phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase), and rs17587029, located 5' upstream of RPS20P11 (ribosomal protein S20 pseudogene 11), were associated with post-chemotherapy menstruation. CONCLUSION(S): Genetic variation may contribute to risk of CRA. Better prediction of who will experience CRA may inform reproductive and treatment decision making in young women with cancer.


Assuntos
Amenorreia/induzido quimicamente , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Amenorreia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(6): 1227-1233, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070467

RESUMO

Objective- It is unclear to what extent genetic susceptibility variants are shared between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD), both manifestations of atherosclerotic vascular disease. We investigated whether common and low-frequency/rare variants in loci associated with CHD are also associated with PAD. Approach and Results- Targeted sequencing of 41 genomic regions associated with CHD in genome-wide association studies was performed in 1749 PAD cases (65±11 years, 61% men) and 1855 controls (60±11 years, 56% men) of European ancestry. PAD cases had a resting/postexercise ankle-brachial index ≤0.9, or history of lower extremity revascularization; controls had no history of PAD. We tested the association of common (defined as minor allele frequency ≥5%) variants with PAD assuming an additive genetic model with adjustment for age and sex. To identify low-frequency/rare variants (minor allele frequency <5%) associated with PAD, we conducted gene-level analyses using sequence kernel association test and permutation test. After Bonferroni correction, we found common variants in SH2B3, ABO, and ZEB2 to be associated with PAD ( P<4.5×10-5). At the gene level, the strongest associations were for LPL and SH2B3. Conclusions- Targeted sequencing of 41 genomic regions associated with CHD revealed several common variants/genes to be associated with PAD, highlighting the basis of shared genetic susceptibility between CHD and PAD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/etnologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 395, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many genome-wide association studies have detected genomic regions associated with traits, yet understanding the functional causes of association often remains elusive. Utilizing systems approaches and focusing on intermediate molecular phenotypes might facilitate biologic understanding. RESULTS: The availability of exome sequencing of two populations of African-Americans and European-Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study allowed us to investigate the effects of annotated loss-of-function (LoF) mutations on 122 serum metabolites. To assess the findings, we built metabolomic causal networks for each population separately and utilized structural equation modeling. We then validated our findings with a set of independent samples. By use of methods based on concepts of Mendelian randomization of genetic variants, we showed that some of the affected metabolites are risk predictors in the causal pathway of disease. For example, LoF mutations in the gene KIAA1755 were identified to elevate the levels of eicosapentaenoate (p-value = 5E-14), an essential fatty acid clinically identified to increase essential hypertension. We showed that this gene is in the pathway to triglycerides, where both triglycerides and essential hypertension are risk factors of metabolomic disorder and heart attack. We also identified that the gene CLDN17, harboring loss-of-function mutations, had pleiotropic actions on metabolites from amino acid and lipid pathways. CONCLUSION: Using systems biology approaches for the analysis of metabolomics and genetic data, we integrated several biological processes, which lead to findings that may functionally connect genetic variants with complex diseases.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Metaboloma/genética , Metabolômica , Mutação , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Afro-Americanos/genética , Algoritmos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958860

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PrCa) is highly heritable; 284 variants have been identified to date that are associated with increased prostate cancer risk, yet few genes contributing to its development are known. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies link variants with affected genes, helping to determine how these variants might regulate gene expression and may influence prostate cancer risk. In the current study, we performed eQTL analysis on 471 normal prostate epithelium samples and 249 PrCa-risk variants in 196 risk loci, utilizing RNA sequencing transcriptome data based on ENSEMBL gene definition and genome-wide variant data. We identified a total of 213 genes associated with known PrCa-risk variants, including 141 protein-coding genes, 16 lncRNAs, and 56 other non-coding RNA species with differential expression. Compared to our previous analysis, where RefSeq was used for gene annotation, we identified an additional 130 expressed genes associated with known PrCa-risk variants. We detected an eQTL signal for more than half (n = 102, 52%) of the 196 loci tested; 52 (51%) of which were a Group 1 signal, indicating high linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the peak eQTL variant and the PrCa-risk variant (r2>0.5) and may help explain how risk variants influence the development of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Controle de Qualidade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873150

RESUMO

Background: Sex differences in immune responses to influenza vaccine may impact efficacy across populations. Methods: In a cohort of 138 older adults (50-74 years old), we measured influenza A/H1N1 antibody titers, B-cell ELISPOT response, PBMC transcriptomics, and PBMC cell compositions at 0, 3, and 28 days post-immunization with the 2010/11 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine. Results: We identified higher B-cell ELISPOT responses in females than males. Potential mechanisms for sex effects were identified in four gene clusters related to T, NK, and B cells. Mediation analysis indicated that sex-dependent expression in T and NK cell genes can be partially attributed to higher CD4+ T cell and lower NK cell fractions in females. We identified strong sex effects in 135 B cell genes whose expression correlates with ELISPOT measures, and found that cell subset differences did not explain the effect of sex on these genes' expression. Post-vaccination expression of these genes, however, mediated 41% of the sex effect on ELISPOT responses. Conclusions: These results improve our understanding of sexual dimorphism in immunity and influenza vaccine response.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , ELISPOT , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Influenza Humana/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vacinação
20.
NPJ Genom Med ; 4: 3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774981

RESUMO

We conducted an electronic health record (EHR)-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to discover pleiotropic effects of variants in three lipoprotein metabolism genes PCSK9, APOB, and LDLR. Using high-density genotype data, we tested the associations of variants in the three genes with 1232 EHR-derived binary phecodes in 51,700 European-ancestry (EA) individuals and 585 phecodes in 10,276 African-ancestry (AA) individuals; 457 PCSK9, 730 APOB, and 720 LDLR variants were filtered by imputation quality (r 2 > 0.4), minor allele frequency (>1%), linkage disequilibrium (r 2 < 0.3), and association with LDL-C levels, yielding a set of two PCSK9, three APOB, and five LDLR variants in EA but no variants in AA. Cases and controls were defined for each phecode using the PheWAS package in R. Logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model was used with adjustment for age, sex, and the first two principal components. Significant associations were tested in additional cohorts from Vanderbilt University (n = 29,713), the Marshfield Clinic Personalized Medicine Research Project (n = 9562), and UK Biobank (n = 408,455). We identified one PCSK9, two APOB, and two LDLR variants significantly associated with an examined phecode. Only one of the variants was associated with a non-lipid disease phecode, ("myopia") but this association was not significant in the replication cohorts. In this large-scale PheWAS we did not find LDL-C-related variants in PCSK9, APOB, and LDLR to be associated with non-lipid-related phenotypes including diabetes, neurocognitive disorders, or cataracts.

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