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1.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 221-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine clinical characteristics of procedural and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing catheter ablation (CA) of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OT-VAs) over 16 years. BACKGROUND: CA is an effective treatment strategy for OT-VAs. METHODS: Patients undergoing CA for OT-VAs from 1999 to 2015 were divided into 3 periods: 1999 to 2004 (early), 2005 to 2010 (middle), and 2011 to 2015 (recent). Successful ablation site (right ventricular OT, aortic cusps/left ventricular OT, or coronary venous system/epicardium), VA morphology (right bundle branch block or left bundle branch block), and acute and clinical success rates were assessed. RESULTS: Six hundred eighty-two patients (336 female) were included (early: n = 97; middle: n = 204; recent: n = 381). Over time there was increase in use of irrigated ablation catheters and electroanatomic mapping, and more VAs were ablated from the aortic cusp/left ventricular OT or coronary venous system/epicardium (14% vs. 45% vs. 56%; p < 0.0001). Acute procedural success was achieved in 585 patients (86%) and was similar between groups (82% vs. 84% vs. 88%; p = 0.27). Clinical success was also similar between groups (86% vs. 87% vs. 88%; p = 0.94), but more patients in earlier periods required repeat ablation (18% vs. 17% vs. 9%; p = 0.02). Overall complication rate was 2% (similar between groups). CONCLUSIONS: Over a 16-year period there was an increase in patients undergoing CA for OT-VTs, with more ablations performed at non-right ventricular outflow tract locations using electroanatomic mapping and irrigated-tip catheters. Over time, single procedure success has improved and complications have remained limited.

2.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 231-240, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the prevalence, mapping features, and ablation outcomes of non-scar-related ventricular tachycardia (NonScar-VT) and Purkinje-related VT (Purkinje-VT) in patients with structural heart disease. BACKGROUND: VT in structural heart disease is typically associated with scar-related myocardial re-entry. NonScar-VTs arising from areas of normal myocardium or Purkinje-VTs originating from the conduction system are less common. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 690 patients with structural heart disease who underwent VT ablation between 2013 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 37 (5.4%) patients (16 [43%] with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 16 [43%] with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 [14%] others) demonstrated NonScar/Purkinje-VTs, which represented the clinical VT in 76% of cases. Among the 37 VTs, 31 (84%) were Purkinje-VTs (28 bundle branch re-entrant VT). The remaining 6 (16%) VTs were NonScar-VTs and included 4 idiopathic outflow tract VTs. A total of 16 patients had prior history of VT ablations: empirical scar substrate modification was performed in 6 (38%) patients and residual inducibility of VT had not been assessed in 7 (44%). In all 37 patients, the NonScar/Purkinje-VT was successfully ablated. After a median follow-up of 18 months, the targeted NonScar/Purkinje-VT did not recur in any patients, and 28 (76%) of patients were free from any recurrent VT episodes. CONCLUSIONS: NonScar/Purkinje-VTs can be identified in 5.4% of patients undergoing VT ablation in the setting of structural heart disease. Careful effort to induce, characterize, and map these VTs is important because substrate-based ablation strategies would fail to eliminate these types of VT.

3.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(2): 423-431, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of a nurse-led risk factor modification (RFM) program for improving weight loss and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) care among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: We now report its impact on arrhythmia outcomes in a subgroup of patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: Participating patients with obesity and/or need for OSA management (high risk per Berlin Questionnaire or untreated OSA) underwent in-person consultation and monthly telephone calls with the nurse for up to 1 year. Arrhythmias were assessed by office ECGs and ≥2 wearable monitors. Outcomes, defined as Arrhythmia control (0-6 self-terminating recurrences, with ≤1 cardioversion for nonparoxysmal AF) and Freedom from arrhythmias (no recurrences on or off antiarrhythmic drugs), were compared at 1 year between patients undergoing catheter ablation who enrolled and declined RFM. RESULTS: Between 1 November 2016 and 1 April 2018, 195 patients enrolled and 196 declined RFM (body mass index, 35.1 ± 6.7 vs 34.3 ± 6.3 kg/m2 ; 50% vs 50% paroxysmal AF; P = NS). At 1 year, enrolled patients demonstrated significant weight loss (4.7% ± 5.3% vs 0.3% ± 4.4% in declined patients; P < .0001) and improved OSA care (78% [n = 43] of patients diagnosed with OSA began treatment). However, outcomes were similar between enrolled and declined patients undergoing ablation (arrhythmia control in 80% [n = 48] vs 79% [n = 38]; freedom from arrhythmia in 58% [n = 35] vs 71% [n = 34]; P = NS). CONCLUSION: Despite improving weight loss and OSA care, our nurse-led RFM program did not impact 1-year arrhythmia outcomes in patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(1): 21-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate incidence of left atrial appendage (LAA) triggers of atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or organized atrial tachycardias (OAT) in patients undergoing AF ablation and to evaluate outcomes after ablation. BACKGROUND: Although LAA isolation is being increasingly performed during AF ablation, the true incidence of LAA triggers for AF remains unclear. METHODS: All patients with LAA triggers of AF and/or OAT during AF ablation from 2001 to 2017 were included. LAA triggers were defined as atrial premature depolarizations from the LAA, which initiated sustained AF and/or OAT. RESULTS: Out of 7,129 patients undergoing AF ablation over 16 years, LAA triggers were observed in 21 (0.3%) subjects (age 60 ± 9 years; 57% males; 52% persistent AF). Twenty (95%) patients were undergoing repeat ablation. The LAA was the only nonpulmonary vein trigger in 3 patients; the remaining 18 patients had both LAA and other nonpulmonary vein triggers. LAA triggers were eliminated in all patients (focal ablation in 19 patients; LAA isolation in 2 patients). Twelve months after ablation, 47.6% remained free from recurrent arrhythmia. After overall follow-up of 5.0 ± 3.6 years (median: 3.7 years; interquartile range: 1.4 to 8.9 years), 38.1% were arrhythmia-free. All 3 patients with triggers limited to the LAA remained free of AF recurrence. One patient undergoing LAA isolation developed LAA thrombus during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of true LAA triggers is very low (0.3%). Most patients with LAA triggers have additional nonpulmonary vein triggers, and despite elimination of LAA triggers, long-term arrhythmia recurrence rates remain high. Potential risks of empiric LAA isolation during AF ablation (especially first-time AF ablation) may outweigh benefits.

5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(1): e007611, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data characterizing structural changes of arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy are limited. METHODS: Patients presenting with left bundle branch block ventricular tachycardia in the setting of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy with procedures separated by at least 9 months were included. RESULTS: Nineteen consecutive patients (84% males; mean age 39±15 years [range, 20-76 years]) were included. All 19 patients underwent 2 detailed sinus rhythm electroanatomic endocardial voltage maps (average 385±177 points per map; range, 93-847 points). Time interval between the initial and repeat ablation procedures was mean 50±37 months (range, 9-162). No significant progression of voltage was observed (bipolar: 38 cm2 [interquartile range (IQR), 25-54] versus 53 cm2 [IQR, 25-65], P=0.09; unipolar: 116 cm2 [IQR, 61-209] versus 159 cm2 [IQR, 73-204], P=0.36) for the entire study group. There was a significant increase in RV volumes (percentage increase, 28%; 206 mL [IQR, 170-253] versus 263 mL [IQR, 204-294], P<0.001) for the entire study population. Larger scars at baseline but not changes over time were associated with a significant increase in RV volume (bipolar: Spearman ρ, 0.6965, P=0.006; unipolar: Spearman ρ, 0.5743, P=0.03). Most patients with progressive RV dilatation (8/14, 57%) had moderate (2 patients) or severe (6 patients) tricuspid regurgitation recorded at either initial or repeat ablation procedure. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy presenting with recurrent ventricular tachycardia, >10% increase in RV endocardial surface area of bipolar voltage consistent with scar is uncommon during the intermediate term. Most recurrent ventricular tachycardias are localized to regions of prior defined scar. Voltage indexed scar area at baseline but not changes in scar over time is associated with progressive increase in RV size and is consistent with adverse remodeling but not scar progression. Marked tricuspid regurgitation is frequently present in patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy who have progressive RV dilation.

6.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(11): 1292-1299, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare efficacy and safety of the septal mitral isthmus line (SMIL) with that of the lateral mitral isthmus line (LMIL) for treatment of mitral annular flutter (MAF). BACKGROUND: MAF is the most common left atrial macro-re-entrant organized atrial tachycardia (OAT) occurring after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. The 2 most common lesion sets for treating MAF include linear ablation from the anteroseptal mitral annulus to the right superior pulmonary vein (SMIL) and from the lateral mitral annulus to left inferior pulmonary vein (LMIL). METHODS: The study included all mitral isthmus ablations performed at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in 2016 and 2017. Acute procedural results and long-term arrhythmia-free survival were compared between groups. RESULTS: Of 114 total MILs, conduction block was achieved across 73 (93.6%) SMILs compared with 29 (80.6%) LMILs (p = 0.05). Although the length of the SMIL was longer (48.9 ± 12.8 cm vs. 38.7 ± 12.8 cm; p = 0.001), time required to achieve block was shorter (25.2 ± 15.9 min vs. 36.6 ± 21.3 min; p = 0.03). Coronary sinus ablation was required in 58.3% of LMILs due to inability to achieve conduction block with left atrial ablation alone. In multivariate analysis, only failure to achieve acute MIL block remained significantly associated with subsequent OAT recurrence (hazard ratio: 6.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 29.9; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The SMIL requires less time to complete and more frequently results in acute MIL block than the LMIL. Additionally, ablation is rarely required outside the left atrium. Failure to achieve acute MIL block is strongly associated with subsequent OAT recurrence.

7.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(9): 1059-1067, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine outcomes of our approach to managing a large cohort of patients with Sprint Fidelis (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) leads. BACKGROUND: The optimal management approach for patients with leads under advisory is unknown. Concerns regarding the risk of device infection and complications associated with delaying lead extraction have recently been suggested to argue against abandoning leads under advisory. METHODS: All patients with a Sprint Fidelis lead implanted at our institute were included. Lead management options were discussed with patients who presented for device surgery at the time of device upgrade, lead fracture, or elective replacement indicator. Implantation of a new lead with abandonment of the Sprint Fidelis lead was the recommended strategy. Patients were subsequently followed at the device clinic at 6-month intervals and were enrolled prospectively in a longitudinal registry. RESULTS: A total of 520 patients had Sprint Fidelis leads implanted between December 2003 and October 2007 at the study center; 217 patients underwent lead replacement (213 underwent a lead abandonment strategy and 4 underwent a lead extraction strategy). Mean follow-up after lead replacement was 55 ± 33 months. In patients undergoing lead abandonment, 10 of 213 (4.7%) had a procedural complication and 3 of 213 (1.4%) developed subsequent device infection requiring system extraction. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a Sprint Fidelis lead, implanting a new lead without prophylactic extraction may be a feasible and safe strategy but requires longer follow-up.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440875

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), abnormal electroanatomic mapping (EAM) areas are proportional to extent of T-wave inversion on 12-lead ECG. We aimed to evaluate local repolarization changes and their relationship to EAM substrate in ARVC. METHODS: Using unipolar recordings, we analyzed the proportion of negative T waves ≥ 1 mV in depth (NegT), NegT area, Q-Tpeak (QTP), Tpeak-Tend (TPE) intervals and their relationship to bipolar (< 1.5 mV ENDO, < 1.0 mV EPI) and unipolar (< 5.5 mV) endocardial (ENDO) and epicardial (EPI) low-voltage area (LVA) in 21 pts. (15 men, mean age 39 ± 14) with ARVC. Control group included 5 pts. with normal hearts and idiopathic PVCs. RESULTS: On ENDO, the % of NegT (7 ± 5% vs 30 ± 20%, p = 0.004) and the NegT area (12.9 ± 9.7 c m2 vs 61.4 ± 30.0 cm2, p = 0.001) were smaller in ARVC compared to controls. On EPI, the % of NegT was similar (5 ± 7% vs 3 ± 4%, p = 0.323) and the NegT area, larger (11.0 ± 8.4 cm2 vs 2.7 ± 0.9 cm2, p = 0.027) in ARVC group. In ARVC group, the % of NegT area inside LVA was larger on EPI compared to ENDO for both bipolar (81 ± 27% vs 31 ± 33%, p < 0.001) and unipolar (90 ± 19% vs 73 ± 28%, p = 0.036) recordings. Compared to normal voltage regions, QTP inside ENDO abnormal LVA was on average 58 ± 26 ms shorter and TPE, 25 ± 56 ms longer (97 ± 26 ms and 56 ± 86 ms on EPI, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In ARVC, NegT areas are more closely associated with abnormal depolarization LVA on the EPI and QTP is shorter and TPE longer inside ENDO and EPI abnormal LVA compared to normal voltage regions. The results add to our understanding of ARVC arrhythmia substrate.

9.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(11): 2326-2333, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation (CA) of idiopathic premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) is typically guided by both activation and pace-mapping, with ablation ideally delivered at the site of the earliest local activation. However, activation mapping requires sufficient intraprocedural quantity of PVCs. This study aimed to investigate the outcome of CA of infrequent PVCs guided exclusively by pace-mapping. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all patients undergoing CA of idiopathic PVCs between 2014 and 2017. RESULTS: Among 327 patients, 24 (7.3%) had low intraprocedural PVC burden despite isoproterenol, including two patients with zero PVCs, rendering activation mapping impractical/impossible. All 24 had a history of symptomatic PVCs. During ablation, a median of 27 (17-55) pace-maps were performed, with best median PASO score of 97 (96-98)%. A median of 12 (8.75-18.75) radiofrequency (RF) lesions were delivered with 11.4 (8.5-17.6) minutes of total RF time. Clinical success, defined as more than 80% reduction in the burden of previously frequent PVCs and/or absence of symptoms as well as any documented clinical PVCs among those with infrequent or exercise-induced PVCs, was achieved in 19 (79%) patients over 9.2 (2.0-15.0) months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: When activation mapping cannot be performed due to inadequate intraprocedural PVC burden, detailed pace-mapping can frequently identify the precise arrhythmia site of origin, thereby guiding successful CA.

11.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(7): e007249, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been increasing awareness of the 3-dimensional nature of ventricular tachycardia (VT) circuits. VT circuits in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM) and non-ICM (NICM) may differ in this regard. METHODS: Among patients with structural heart disease and at least 1 hemodynamically tolerated VT undergoing ablation, we retrospectively analyzed responses to all entrainment maneuvers. RESULTS: Of 445 patients (ICM 228, NICM 217) undergoing VT ablation, detailed entrainment mapping of at least 1 tolerated VT was performed in 111 patients (ICM 71, NICM 40). Of 89 ICM VTs, the isthmus could be identified by endocardial entrainment in 55 (62%), compared with only 8 of 47 (17%) NICM VTs ( P<0.01). With combined endocardial and epicardial mapping, the isthmus could be identified in 56 (63%) ICM VTs and 12 (26%) NICM VTs ( P<0.01), whereas any critical component (defined as entrance, isthmus or exit) could be identified in 76 (85%) ICM VTs and 37 (79%) NICM VTs ( P=0.3). Complete success (no inducible VT at the end of ablation, 82% versus 65%, P=0.04) and 1-year, single-procedure VT-free survival (82% versus 55%, P<0.01) were both higher among patients with ICM. CONCLUSIONS: Among mappable ICM VTs, critical circuit components can usually be identified on the endocardium. In contrast, among mappable NICM VTs, although some critical component can typically be identified with the addition of epicardial mapping, the isthmus is less commonly identified, possibly due to midmyocardial location.

12.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(7): 833-842, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize ventricular arrhythmia (VA) ablated from the basal inferoseptal left ventricular endocardium (BIS-LVe) and identify electrocardiographic characteristics to differentiate from inferobasal crux (IBC) VA. BACKGROUND: The inferior basal septum is an uncommon source of idiopathic VAs, which can arise from its endocardial or epicardial (crux) aspect. Because the latter are often targeted from the coronary venous system or epicardium, distinguishing between the 2 is important for successful ablation. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing ablation of idiopathic VA from the BIS-LVe or IBC from 2009 to 2018 were identified and clinical characteristics and electrocardiographs of VA were compared. RESULTS: Of 931 patients undergoing idiopathic VA ablation, Virginia was eliminated from the BIS-LVe in 19 patients (2%) (17 male, age 63.7 ± 9.2 years, LV ejection fraction: 45.0 ± 9.3%). QRS complexes typically manifested right bundle branch block morphology with "reverse V2 pattern break" and left superior axis (more negative in lead III than II). VA elimination was achieved after median of 2 lesions (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-6; range 1 to 20) (radiofrequency ablation time: 123 s [IQR: 75-311]). Compared with 7 patients with IBC VA (3 male, age 51.9 ± 20.1 years, LV ejection fraction: 51.4 ± 17.7%), BIS-LVe VA less frequently had initial negative forces (QS pattern) in leads II, III, and/or aVF (p < 0.001), R-S ratio <1 in lead V1 (p = 0.005), and notching in lead II (p = 0.006) were narrower (QRS duration: 178.2 ± 22.4 vs. 221.1 ± 41.9 ms; p = 0.04) and more frequently had maximum deflection index of <0.55 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The BIS-LVe region is an uncommon source of idiopathic VA. Distinguishing these from IBC VA is important for procedural planning and ablation success.

14.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(6): 719-727, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the impact of repeat catheter ablation (CA) prior to hospital discharge based on inducibility of clinical ventricular tachycardia (VT) during noninvasive programmed ventricular stimulation (NIPS). BACKGROUND: Inducibility of clinical VT during NIPS performed several days after CA identifies patients at high risk of recurrence. The impact of NIPS-guided repeat CA has not been reported. METHODS: Consecutive patients with structural heart disease undergoing CA of VT followed by NIPS were studied. Clinical VT was defined by comparison with 12-lead electrocardiograms and stored implantable cardioverter-defibrillator electrograms from spontaneous VT episodes. Among those with inducible clinical VT at NIPS, VT-free survival was compared between those in whom ablation was repeated (group 1) versus those in whom ablation was not repeated (group 2) prior to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Among 469 patients (64 ± 12 years of age; 85% males; 60% ischemic), 216 patients (46%) underwent NIPS 3 days (interquartile range: 2 to 4 days) after CA. Clinical VT was induced in 45 patients (21%). Among those 45, CA was repeated in 11 patients (24%). There were no significant differences in baseline clinical or index CA characteristics between groups 1 and 2. Over a median 36-month follow-up, only 1 patient (9%) in group 1 experienced VT recurrence compared to 24 patients (71%) in group 2 (p < 0.01). In univariate Cox regression, repeat CA guided by NIPS (hazard ratio: 0.07; 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.58; p = 0.01) was the only predictor of VT-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with inducible clinical VT during post-ablation NIPS, repeat CA was associated with significantly lower risk of subsequent recurrence.

16.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(9): 1421-1428, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The slow pathway region (SPR) is commonly targeted during ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. However, its role in idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (IVAs) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the electrocardiographic and electrophysiological characteristics of IVAs that were successfully ablated from the SPR. METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients undergoing ablation of IVAs in the para-Hisian region between 2010 and 2018 were reviewed to identify subjects whose ventricular arrhythmias were targeted from the SPR. RESULTS: Among 63 patients with para-Hisian IVAs undergoing ablation, the SPR was targeted in 12 (20%; mean age 64 ± 7 years; 9 men). All patients presented with ventricular premature depolarizations manifesting left bundle branch block morphology with variable precordial transition (leads V2-V5) and a mean QRS duration of 131 ± 11 ms. In all cases, leads I and aVL had positive forces (R or Rs) and lead aVR had negative forces (QS or Qr). In the majority of cases, lead II had positive forces (R or Rs; n = 9 [75%]) and lead III had negative forces (rS or QS; n = 9 [75%]). Mean activation at the SPR was 31 ± 5 ms pre-QRS. All patients had initial ablation with radiofrequency, resulting in junctional rhythm in 9 (75%); 3 (25%) patients required additional cryoablation. Ablation was successful in 11 patients (92%). One patient required a permanent pacemaker for heart block but subsequently recovered intrinsic conduction. CONCLUSION: The SPR can be a source of IVAs, which can be safely and successfully ablated in most cases using radiofrequency energy. IVAs arising from this location manifest unique electrocardiographic features.

17.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 3(2): 226-230, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193904

RESUMO

A 49-year-old woman presented with exercise-induced chest discomfort during long-distance running that was occasionally present during rest. Significant coronary artery disease was excluded and a diagnosis of "painful left bundle branch block (LBBB) syndrome" was made after correlation of LBBB aberrancy with symptoms during Holter monitoring. The patient underwent confirmatory testing consisting of rapid atrial pacing below and above 130 beats per minute, the rate cut-off for LBBB manifestation. His bundle pacing implantation was performed resulting in both non-selective and selective morphologies depending on output, both of which manifested with a painless narrow QRS regardless of rate. She was rendered completely pain free during long-distance running and remains so 6-months later. Her pain at rest, now thought to be due to severe anxiety secondary to her painful LBBB, has also subsided. Exercise-induced, painful LBBB is a rare phenomenon that manifests as chest discomfort when LBBB is present. This disease is frequently misdiagnosed as coronary angina, has limited medical treatment options, and can be disabling. HBP is an attractive treatment for this syndrome in an effort to avoid electromechanical dyssynchrony, the presumed mechanism of discomfort. This case report adds to the growing literature of painful LBBB syndrome and its effective treatment with HBP, with the added caveat that it can present with persistent symptoms at rest, in the setting of enhanced anxiety. HBP should be considered early on in the treatment of such patients.

18.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(9): 1727-1731, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac implantable electronic device pocket infections require complete system removal. However, postoperative bleeding and hematoma can occur after extensive debridement and an optimal management strategy has yet to be defined. METHODS: Following system removal and debridement, all pockets were treated with the Aquamantys bipolar sealer until hemostasis of the underlying tissue was achieved. Clinical characteristics, sealer application time, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirteen consecutive patients were included with an average age of 61.6 years and 8/13 were male. One patient had both pocket infection and systemic bacteremia. Explanted devices included three pacemakers, nine transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), and one subcutaneous ICD. The average number of leads extracted was 2.08 ± 1.04 with a median lead dwell time of 75 months (range, 1-265). Pocket tissue culture yielded Streptococcus anginosus (1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1), Staphylococcus aureus (1), and no growth (8). Average time using the Aquamantys was 5.6 ± 2.75 minutes per patient. Twelve out of thirteen pockets were closed by primary intention with one pocket packed and left to heal via secondary intention. A Jackson-Pratt drain was used in three patients and removed within 3 days. There were no hematomas noted during the acute hospitalization or during follow up and all of the wounds healed completely. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a novel bipolar sealing device in lieu of traditional electrocautery provided rapid and durable hemostasis with the ability to close almost all of the pockets via primary intention.

19.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(8): 1174-1181, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT), substrate may be "protected" by the posteromedial papillary muscle (PMPM), explaining failure of endocardial-only ablation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the arrhythmogenic substrate and ablation approach in patients with ischemic VT mapped to the inferior left ventricle in which endocardial ablation failed because of inaccessible substrate underlying the PMPM. METHODS: We included 10 patients with recurrent ischemic VT, evidence of inferior scar, and failed endocardial ablation. In all patients, epicardial mapping was performed via a percutaneous (n = 9) or surgical (n = 1) approach, and VT elimination was achieved by ablation opposite to the PMPM. Clinical characteristics, electrocardiographic characteristics, and procedural data were analyzed. RESULTS: In all patients, intracardiac echocardiography showed hyperechoic scar below the PMPM, and 5 exhibited a pattern characterized by subendocardial basal scar that became intramural and epicardial at distal segments. In 4 patients, VT remained inducible despite endocardial scar isolation, manifested by the absence of electrograms, dissociated potentials, and/or exit block. Eleven inducible VTs were mapped to the epicardium underlying the PMPM: 8 had a right bundle branch block configuration with variable transition, while 3 exhibited left bundle branch block with negative concordance. An inferior QS pattern was present in 10 of 11 VTs. Noninducibility was achieved in 8 patients, and 7 patients remained arrhythmia-free after a mean follow-up of 27 ± 23 months. CONCLUSION: In patients with inferior ischemic scar, VT may arise from the area underneath the PMPM, limiting endocardial ablation. Intracardiac echocardiography accurately defines the substrate distribution, and an epicardial approach may eliminate VT. A pattern of "basal-endocardial/apical-epicardial" ischemic involvement is described.

20.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(9): 1414-1420, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation in structural heart disease have been reported to differ by sex. Whether this is due to differences in the underlying arrhythmogenic substrates among patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of arrhythmogenic substrates between women and men with NICM. METHODS: We analyzed 160 consecutive patients (26 women) with NICM who were undergoing VT ablation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Of these 160 patients, 59 (13 women) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) before the ablation procedure. The arrhythmogenic substrate was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by CMR and/or detailed electroanatomic mapping. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in left ventricular scar percentage as defined by CMR (9.5% ± 7.8% in women vs 11.2% ± 8.6% in men; P = .5), endocardial bipolar voltage (<1.5 mV; 11.3% ± 19.3% in women vs 11.5% ± 16.3% in men; P = .4), endocardial unipolar voltage (<8.3 mV; 38.0% ± 30.8% in women vs 45.6% ± 30.9% in men; P = .2), or epicardial bipolar voltage (<1.0 mV; 21.5% ± 38.9% in women vs 10.7% ± 13.9% in men; P = .6). There were no significant differences in scar transmurality as defined by CMR (5 categories: endocardial, midwall, epicardial, transmural, and right ventricular endocardial). Similarly, there were no significant differences in scar distribution as defined by CMR or electroanatomic mapping (anteroseptal vs inferolateral). CONCLUSION: Scar percentage, transmurality, and distribution are similar between women and men with NICM.

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