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1.
Theranostics ; 11(17): 8430-8447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373751

RESUMO

Self-assembly of solid organs from single cells would greatly expand applicability of regenerative medicine. Stem/progenitor cells can self-organize into micro-sized organ units, termed organoids, partially modelling tissue function and regeneration. Here we demonstrated 3D self-assembly of adult and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial progenitors into both, planar human skin in vivo and a novel type of spheroid-shaped skin organoids in vitro, under the aegis of human platelet lysate. Methods: Primary endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), skin fibroblasts (FBs) and keratinocytes (KCs) were isolated from human tissues and polyclonally propagated under 2D xeno-free conditions. Human tissue-derived iPSCs were differentiated into endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs), fibroblasts (hiPSC-FBs) and keratinocytes (hiPSC-KCs) according to efficiency-optimized protocols. Cell identity and purity were confirmed by flow cytometry and clonogenicity indicated their stem/progenitor potential. Triple cell type floating spheroids formation was promoted by human platelet-derived growth factors containing culture conditions, using nanoparticle cell labelling for monitoring the organization process. Planar human skin regeneration was assessed in full-thickness wounds of immune-deficient mice upon transplantation of hiPSC-derived single cell suspensions. Results: Organoids displayed a distinct architecture with surface-anchored keratinocytes surrounding a stromal core, and specific signaling patterns in response to inflammatory stimuli. FGF-7 mRNA transfection was required to accelerate keratinocyte long-term fitness. Stratified human skin also self-assembled within two weeks after either adult- or iPSC-derived skin cell-suspension liquid-transplantation, healing deep wounds of mice. Transplant vascularization significantly accelerated in the presence of co-transplanted endothelial progenitors. Mechanistically, extracellular vesicles mediated the multifactorial platelet-derived trophic effects. No tumorigenesis occurred upon xenografting. Conclusion: This illustrates the superordinate progenitor self-organization principle and permits novel rapid 3D skin-related pharmaceutical high-content testing opportunities with floating spheroid skin organoids. Multi-cell transplant self-organization facilitates development of iPSC-based organ regeneration strategies using cell suspension transplantation supported by human platelet factors.

2.
Brain Pathol ; 31(2): 333-345, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220123

RESUMO

Iron accumulation in the CNS is associated with many neurological diseases via amplification of inflammation and neurodegeneration. However, experimental studies on iron overload are challenging, since rodents hardly accumulate brain iron in contrast to humans. Here, we studied LEWzizi rats, which present with elevated CNS iron loads, aiming to characterise choroid plexus, ependymal, CSF and CNS parenchymal iron loads in conjunction with altered blood iron parameters and, thus, signifying non-classical entry sites for iron into the CNS. Non-haem iron in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue was detected via DAB-enhanced Turnbull Blue stainings. CSF iron levels were determined via atomic absorption spectroscopy. Ferroportin and aquaporin-1 expression was visualised using immunohistochemistry. The analysis of red blood cell indices and serum/plasma parameters was based on automated measurements; the fragility of red blood cells was manually determined by the osmotic challenge. Compared with wild-type animals, LEWzizi rats showed strongly increased iron accumulation in choroid plexus epithelial cells as well as in ependymal cells of the ventricle lining. Concurrently, red blood cell macrocytosis, low-grade haemolysis and significant haemoglobin liberation from red blood cells were apparent in the peripheral blood of LEWzizi rats. Interestingly, elevated iron accumulation was also evident in kidney proximal tubules, which share similarities with the blood-CSF barrier. Our data underscore the importance of iron gateways into the CNS other than the classical route across microvessels in the CNS parenchyma. Our findings of pronounced choroid plexus iron overload in conjunction with peripheral iron overload and increased RBC fragility in LEWzizi rats may be seminal for future studies of human diseases, in which similar constellations are found.

3.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(2): 752-764, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471878

RESUMO

PPARGC1A encodes a transcriptional co-activator also termed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) which orchestrates multiple transcriptional programs. We have recently identified CNS-specific transcripts that are initiated far upstream of the reference gene (RG) promoter. The regulation of these isoforms may be relevant, as experimental and genetic studies implicated the PPARGC1A locus in neurodegenerative diseases. We therefore studied cis- and trans-regulatory elements activating the CNS promoter in comparison to the RG promoter in human neuronal cell lines. A naturally occurring variable guanidine thymidine (GT) repeat polymorphism within a microsatellite region in the proximal CNS promoter increases promoter activity in neuronal cell lines. Both the RG and the CNS promoters are activated by ESRRA, and the PGC-1α isoforms co-activate ESRRA on their own promoters suggesting an autoregulatory feedback loop. The proximal CNS, but not the RG, promoter is induced by FOXA2 and co-activated by PGC-1α resulting in robust activation. Furthermore, the CNS, but not the RG, promoter is targeted by the canonical hypoxia response involving HIF1A. Importantly, the transactivation by HIF1A is modulated by the size of the GT polymorphism. Increased expression of CNS-specific transcripts in response to hypoxia was observed in an established rat model, while RG transcripts encoding the full-length reference protein were not increased. These results suggest a role of the CNS region of the PPARGC1A locus in ischemia and warrant further studies in humans as the activity of the CNS promoter as well as its induction by hypoxia is subject to inter-individual variability due to the GT polymorphism.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Ciclopirox/farmacologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
4.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849808

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury is characterized by initial neural tissue disruption that triggers secondary damage and extensive non-resolving inflammation, which aggravates loss of function and hinders recovery. The early onset of inflammation following traumatic spinal cord injury underscores the importance of acute intervention after the initial trauma. Injections of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can reduce inflammation following spinal cord injury. We asked if extracellular vesicles (EVs) can substitute the anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring activities of their parental MSCs in a rat model of contusion spinal cord injury. We report that MSC-EVs were as potent as the parental intact cells in reducing the level of neuroinflammation for up to 2 weeks post-injury. Acute application of EVs after spinal cord injury was shown to robustly decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord parenchyma in the very early phase of secondary damage. Moreover, the anti-scarring impact of MSC-EVs was even more efficient than the parental cells. We therefore conclude that anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring activities of MSC application can be mediated by their secreted EVs. In light of their substantial safety and druggability advantages, EVs may have a high potential in early therapeutic treatment following traumatic spinal cord injury.

5.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 14, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704526

RESUMO

Human inflammatory or neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), occur on a background of age-related microglia activation and iron accumulation as well as pre-existing neurodegeneration. Most experimental models for CNS diseases, however, are induced in rodents, which are naturally characterized by a homeostatic microglia phenotype, low cellular iron load and absence of neurodegeneration. Here, we show that naïve LEWzizi rats - Lewis rats with a zitter rat background - show a spontaneous phenotype partly mimicking the changes seen in human aging and particularly in the normal-appearing white and grey matter of patients with progressive MS. Using this model system, we further aimed to investigate (i) whether the acute monophasic MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) transforms into chronic progressive disease and (ii) whether EAE-induced neuroinflammation and tissue damage aggravate on the LEWzizi background. We found that the pre-existing LEWzizi-specific pathology precipitated EAE-related neuroinflammation into forebrain areas, which are devoid of EAE lesions in normal Lewis rats. However, EAE-related tissue damage was neither modified by the LEWzizi-specific pathology nor did EAE-induced neuroinflammation modify the LEWzizi-related pathological process. Our data indicate that the interaction between pre-activated microglia and CD4+ autoreactive T cells during the induction and propagation of tissue damage in the CNS is limited.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/fisiopatologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Animais , Animais não Endogâmicos , Axônios/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalite/complicações , Encefalite/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/complicações , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/patologia , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13430, 2018 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194425

RESUMO

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) patients suffer from chronic and repeatedly infected wounds predisposing them to the development of aggressive and life-threatening skin cancer in these areas. Vitamin D3 is an often neglected but critical factor for wound healing. Intact skin possesses the entire enzymatic machinery required to produce active 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), underscoring its significance to proper skin function. Injury enhances calcitriol production, inducing the expression of calcitriol target genes including the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (hCAP18), an essential component of the innate immune system and an important wound healing factor. We found significantly reduced hCAP18 expression in a subset of RDEB keratinocytes which could be restored by calcipotriol treatment. Reduced scratch closure in RDEB cell monolayers was enhanced up to 2-fold by calcipotriol treatment, and the secretome of calcipotriol-treated cells additionally showed increased antimicrobial activity. Calcipotriol exhibited anti-neoplastic effects, suppressing the clonogenicity and proliferation of RDEB tumor cells. The combined wound healing, anti-microbial, and anti-neoplastic effects indicate that calcipotriol may represent a vital therapeutic option for RDEB patients which we could demonstrate in a single-patient observation study.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Calcitriol/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Epidermólise Bolhosa/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização , Idoso , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Calcitriol/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Epidermólise Bolhosa/patologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino
7.
Theranostics ; 8(5): 1421-1434, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507631

RESUMO

Intravascular transplantation of tissue factor (TF)-bearing cells elicits an instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) resulting in thrombotic complications and reduced engraftment. Here we studied the hemocompatibility of commonly used human white adipose tissue (WAT), umbilical cord (UC) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and devised a possible strategy for safe and efficient stromal cell transplantation. Methods: Stromal cell identity, purity, and TF expression was tested by RTQ-PCR, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Pro-coagulant activity and fibrin clot formation/stabilization was measured In Vitro by viscoelastic rotational plasma-thromboelastometry and in vivo by injecting sorted human stromal cells intravenously into rats. The impact of TF was verified in factor VII-deficient plasma and by sort-depleting TF/CD142+ BMSC. Results: We found significantly less TF expression by a subpopulation of BMSC corresponding to reduced pro-coagulant activity. UC and WAT stroma showed broad TF expression and durable clotting. Higher cell numbers significantly increased clot formation partially dependent on coagulation factor VII. Depleting the TF/CD142+ subpopulation significantly ameliorated BMSC's hemocompatibility without affecting immunomodulation. TF-deficient BMSC did not produce thromboembolism in vivo, comparing favorably to massive intravascular thrombosis induction by TF-expressing stromal cells. Conclusion: We demonstrate that plasma-based thromboelastometry provides a reliable tool to detect pro-coagulant activity of therapeutic cells. Selecting TF-deficient BMSC is a novel strategy for improving cell therapy applicability by reducing cell dose-dependent IBMIR risk. The particularly strong pro-coagulant activity of UC and WAT preparations sounds an additional note of caution regarding uncritical systemic application of stromal cells, particularly from non-hematopoietic extravascular sources.


Assuntos
Teste de Materiais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Tromboplastina/deficiência , Adulto , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea , Contagem de Células , Tamanho Celular , Transplante de Células , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/patologia , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 32635, 2016 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27586416

RESUMO

Acute and chronic tendinopathies remain clinically challenging and tendons are predisposed to degeneration or injury with age. Despite the high prevalence of tendon disease in the elderly, our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the age-dependent deterioration of tendon function remains very limited. Here, we show that Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (Sparc) expression significantly decreases in healthy-aged mouse Achilles tendons. Loss of Sparc results in tendon collagen fibrillogenesis defects and Sparc-/- tendons are less able to withstand force in comparison with their respective wild type counterparts. On the cellular level, Sparc-null and healthy-aged tendon-derived cells exhibited a more contracted phenotype and an altered actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, an elevated expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPARγ and Cebpα with a concomitant increase in lipid deposits in aged and Sparc-/- tendons was observed. In summary, we propose that Sparc levels in tendons are critical for proper collagen fibril maturation and its age-related decrease, together with a change in ECM properties favors lipid accretion in tendons.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Pleiotropia Genética , Osteonectina/metabolismo , Tendões/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tendões/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Forma Celular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteonectina/deficiência , Ratos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Tendões/fisiologia , Tendões/ultraestrutura
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