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1.
J Appl Psychol ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343202

RESUMO

Drawing from the group engagement model of justice, we examine how and when higher abusive supervision relates to fewer safety behaviors and worse safety performance. In Study 1, a 2-wave survey study of 468 manufacturing technicians, we found that belongingness need satisfaction mediated the negative relationship between abusive supervision and safety behavior. In Study 2, a multiwave survey study of 589 airline pilots, we found that safety behavior mediated the adverse relationship between abusive supervision and downstream objective safety performance. Higher trait social standing uncertainty was associated with a stronger adverse relationship between abusive supervision and safety. Indirect relationships of abusive supervision with safety behavior (Study 1) and safety performance (Study 2) were stronger among individuals with higher social standing uncertainty. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for managing abusive supervision and safety at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Front Psychol ; 10: 67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778308

RESUMO

Drawing on theories of social exchange and social information processing, we examined whether the influence of psychological contract breach on in-role performance and organization-directed citizenship behavior (OCBO) depends on work group climate levels, specifically procedural justice climate and power distance climate. The findings supported our hypothesis that psychological contract breach more strongly influences in-role performance and OCBO among members of units with favorable procedural justice climates. Support for a hypothesized moderating role of power distance climate was less conclusive. We discuss the implications of our model and findings for theories of employee-organization relationships and practice.

3.
J Appl Psychol ; 103(10): 1086-1100, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939037

RESUMO

Research and theory concerning "dirty work" has largely focused on how employees cope with stable features of their jobs. From a study of employees' experiences across 6 weekly repeated measurements, we found that within-person increases in experienced dirtiness were positively related to their withdrawal behaviors and job change propensity indirectly through occupational disidentification. Assessed at the between-subjects level, team-oriented leadership moderated the indirect within-person effects of work dirtiness experiences on these outcomes. The relationships between elevations in experienced work dirtiness and occupational disidentification were more strongly positive at lower levels of team-oriented leadership. Analyses also showed that individuals' perceptions of occupational stigma independently moderated the within-person relationship between experienced dirtiness and occupational disidentification. We discuss theoretical implications for the literature on dirty work and practical implications for mitigating the adverse outcomes associated with experienced work dirtiness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Liderança , Ocupações , Identificação Social , Estigma Social , Adulto , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
4.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 22(4): 503-517, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27111428

RESUMO

Research in occupational health psychology has tended to focus on the effects of single job characteristics or various job characteristics combined into 1 factor. However, such a variable-centered approach does not account for the clustering of job attributes among groups of employees. We addressed this issue by using a person-centered approach to (a) investigate the occurrence of different empirical constellations of perceived job stressors and resources and (b) validate the meaningfulness of profiles by analyzing their association with employee well-being and performance. We applied factor mixture modeling to identify profiles in 4 large samples consisting of employees in Switzerland (Studies 1 and 2) and the United States (Studies 3 and 4). We identified 2 profiles that spanned the 4 samples, with 1 reflecting a combination of relatively low stressors and high resources (P1) and the other relatively high stressors and low resources (P3). The profiles differed mainly in terms of their organizational and social aspects. Employees in P1 reported significantly higher mean levels of job satisfaction, performance, and general health, and lower means in exhaustion compared with P3. Additional analyses showed differential relationships between job attributes and outcomes depending on profile membership. These findings may benefit organizational interventions as they show that perceived work stressors and resources more strongly influence satisfaction and well-being in particular profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Apoio Social , Desempenho Profissional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emprego/psicologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Appl Psychol ; 102(2): 203-214, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786498

RESUMO

Although authoritarian leadership is viewed pejoratively in the literature, in general it is not strongly related to important follower outcomes. We argue that relationships between authoritarian leadership and individual employee outcomes are mediated by perceived insider status, yet in different ways depending on work unit power distance climate and individual role breadth self-efficacy. Results from technology company employees in China largely supported our hypothesized model. We observed negative indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on job performance, affective organizational commitment, and intention to stay among employees in units with relatively low endorsement of power distance, whereas the indirect relationships were not significant among employees in relatively high power distance units. These conditional indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on performance and intention to stay were significantly stronger among employees with relatively high role breadth self-efficacy. We discuss how the model and findings promote understanding of how, and under what circumstances, authoritarian leadership may influence followers' performance and psychological connections to their organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Autoritarismo , Emprego/psicologia , Liderança , Autoeficácia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Appl Psychol ; 101(2): 267-78, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26348478

RESUMO

We develop a model in which abusive supervision undermines individuals' perceptions of the level of respect they are accorded by their group peers, which in turn reduces their performance and disconnects them psychologically from the organization. High group potency strengthens each of these connections. We studied the theorized relationships across 3 periods during a 10-week residential organizational entry program. Group potency, representing shared group perceptions, moderated relationships at the individual level. These included the negative relationship between abusive supervision (Time 1) and perceived peer respect (Time 2) and the relationship between perceived peer respect and organizational commitment, organizational identification, and turnover intention (Time 3). We found stronger relationships between abusive supervision and perceived peer respect--and between peer respect and the attitudinal outcomes and turnover intention--among groups with higher potency. Perceived peer respect was also positively related to followers' task performance. We discuss implications of the conceptual framework and findings for future research and theory development concerning how groups and individuals respond to abusive supervision and to treatment by their peers.


Assuntos
Bullying , Processos Grupais , Relações Interpessoais , Militares/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Administração de Recursos Humanos , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Appl Psychol ; 101(2): 252-66, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26167644

RESUMO

We develop a model in which transformational leadership bolsters followers' internalization of core organizational values, which in turn influences their performance and willingness to report peers' transgressions. The model also specifies a distinct process wherein transformational leadership enhances follower performance by promoting followers' role self-efficacy. We tested the model on 2 large units (i.e., companies) of soldiers undergoing training and socialization. The study bracketed changes in soldiers' internalization of the organizational values and role self-efficacy over a 14-week period. The results support the widely held but empirically unestablished views that transformational leadership promotes change in value internalization and that this partially explains its influence on follower performance. Findings also indicate a distinct intervening process through which transformational leadership promotes performance by enhancing followers' beliefs in their own capabilities (i.e., self-efficacy). This research thus shows that 2 key processes both contribute to the understanding of how transformational leadership transforms followers and influences their behavior.


Assuntos
Liderança , Militares/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Valores Sociais , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 20(3): 359-76, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602277

RESUMO

Inconsistent published findings regarding a proposed buffering role of self-efficacy in stress coping led us to develop a model in which within-person variability in self-efficacy over time affects how individuals' mean levels of self-efficacy moderate the relationship between demands and psychological symptoms. Results from two independent samples (manufacturing workers and college students) supported the hypothesized interaction between demands, self-efficacy mean level, and self-efficacy variability. Demands were more positively associated with psychological strain among those with high and stable self-efficacy than those with high and variable self-efficacy. We discuss the implications of intrapersonal variability in self-efficacy for research on stress coping.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Interpessoais , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , China , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autoimagem , Estudantes , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Appl Psychol ; 98(4): 579-92, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23647209

RESUMO

We develop and test a model based on social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1991) that links abusive supervision to followers' ethical intentions and behaviors. Results from a sample of 2,572 military members show that abusive supervision was negatively related to followers' moral courage and their identification with the organization's core values. In addition, work unit contexts with varying degrees of abusive supervision, reflected by the average level of abusive supervision reported by unit members, moderated relationships between the level of abusive supervision personally experienced by individuals and both their moral courage and their identification with organizational values. Moral courage and identification with organizational values accounted for the relationship between abusive supervision and followers' ethical intentions and unethical behaviors. These findings suggest that abusive supervision may undermine moral agency and that being personally abused is not required for abusive supervision to negatively influence ethical outcomes.


Assuntos
Liderança , Militares/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Cultura Organizacional , Estados Unidos
10.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 16(1): 18-37, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21280942

RESUMO

We examined the influence of positive psychological capital (PsyCap), a metaconstruct that combines established psychological predispositions to be resilient to stress, on the well-being of soldiers during combat deployment. Among U.S. Army personnel deployed in Iraq, cognitive appraisal of stress mediated the effects of trait PsyCap on health symptoms. The indirect effects through appraisal were moderated by levels of exposure to potentially traumatic stimuli. Trait PsyCap covaried more strongly with cognitive appraisals, and had stronger indirect effects through appraisal on health, among soldiers in units with higher levels of potentially traumatic exposures. We discuss implications for research on resilience to trauma in the workplace and for helping workers cope with potentially traumatic exposures.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Militares/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Estados Unidos
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