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1.
Mil Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The battalion aid station (BAS) has historically served as the first stop during which combat casualties would receive care beyond a combat medic. Since the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, many combat casualties have bypassed the BAS for treatment facilities capable of surgery. We describe the care provided at these treatment facilities during 2007-2020. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of previously described data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. We included encounters with the documentation of an assessment or intervention at a BAS or forward operating base from January 1, 2007 to March 17, 2020. We utilized descriptive statistics to characterize these encounters. RESULTS: There were 28,950 encounters in our original dataset, of which 3.1% (884) had the documentation of a prehospital visit to a BAS. The BAS cohort was older (25 vs. 24, P < .001) The non-BAS cohort saw a larger portion of pediatric (<18 years) patients (10.7% vs. 5.7%, P < .001). A higher proportion of BAS patients had nonbattle injuries (40% vs. 20.7%, P < .001). The mean injury severity score was higher in the non-BAS cohort (9 vs. 5, P < .001). A higher proportion of the non-BAS cohort had more serious extremity injuries (25.1% vs. 18.4%, P < .001), although the non-BAS cohort had a trend toward serious injuries to the abdomen (P = .051) and thorax (P = .069). There was no difference in survival. CONCLUSIONS: The BAS was once a critical point in casualty evacuation and treatment. Within our dataset, the overall number of encounters that involved a stop at a BAS facility was low. For both the asymmetric battlefield and multidomain operations/large-scale combat operations, the current model would benefit from a more robust capability to include storage of blood, ventilators, and monitoring and hold patients for an undetermined amount of time.

2.
South Med J ; 114(9): 597-602, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens vulnerable patient populations, resulting in immense pressures at the local, regional, national, and international levels to contain the virus. Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that masks may offer benefit in reducing the spread of droplet-based illnesses, but few data are available to assess mask effects via executive order on a population basis. We assess the effects of a county-wide mask order on per-population mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, and ventilator utilization in Bexar County, Texas. METHODS: We used publicly reported county-level data to perform a mixed-methods before-and-after analysis along with other sources of public data for analyses of covariance. We used a least-squares regression analysis to adjust for confounders. A Texas state-level mask order was issued on July 3, 2020, followed by a Bexar County-level order on July 15, 2020. We defined the control period as June 2 to July 2 and the postmask order period as July 8, 2020-August 12, 2020, with a 5-day gap to account for the median incubation period for cases; longer periods of 7 and 10 days were used for hospitalization and ICU admission/death, respectively. Data are reported on a per-100,000 population basis using respective US Census Bureau-reported populations. RESULTS: From June 2, 2020 through August 12, 2020, there were 40,771 reported cases of COVID-19 within Bexar County, with 470 total deaths. The average number of new cases per day within the county was 565.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 394.6-736.2). The average number of positive hospitalized patients was 754.1 (95% CI 657.2-851.0), in the ICU was 273.1 (95% CI 238.2-308.0), and on a ventilator was 170.5 (95% CI 146.4-194.6). The average deaths per day was 6.5 (95% CI 4.4-8.6). All of the measured outcomes were higher on average in the postmask period as were covariables included in the adjusted model. When adjusting for traffic activity, total statewide caseload, public health complaints, and mean temperature, the daily caseload, hospital bed occupancy, ICU bed occupancy, ventilator occupancy, and daily mortality remained higher in the postmask period. CONCLUSIONS: There was no reduction in per-population daily mortality, hospital bed, ICU bed, or ventilator occupancy of COVID-19-positive patients attributable to the implementation of a mask-wearing mandate.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Governo Local , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas/epidemiologia
3.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(3): 66-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: United States Africa Command (US AFRICOM) is one of six US Defense Department's geographic combatant commands and is responsible to the Secretary of Defense for military relations with African nations, the African Union, and African regional security organizations. A full-spectrum combatant command, US AFRICOM is responsible for all US Department of Defense operations, exercises, and security cooperation on the African continent, its island nations, and surrounding waters. We seek to characterize blood product administration within AFRICOM using the in-transit visibility tracking tool known as TRAC2ES (TRANSCOM Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of TRAC2ES medical evacuations from the AFRICOM theater of operations conducted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018. RESULTS: During this time, there were 963 cases recorded in TRAC2ES originating within AFRICOM, of which 10 (1%) cases received blood products. All patients were males. One was a Department of State employee, one was a military working dog, and the remainder were military personnel. Of the ten humans, seven were the result of trauma, most by way of gunshot wound, and three were due to medical causes. Among human subjects receiving blood products for traumatic injuries, a total of 5 units of type O negative whole blood, 29 units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs), and 9 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were transfused. No subjects underwent massive transfusion of blood products, and only one subject received pRBCs and FFP in 1:1 fashion. All subjects survived until evacuation. CONCLUSIONS: Within the TRAC2ES database, blood product administration within AFRICOM was infrequent, with some cases highlighting lack of access to adequate blood products. Furthermore, the limitations within this database highlight the need for systems designed to capture medical care performance improvement, as this database is not designed to support such analyses. A mandate for performance improvement within AFRICOM that is similar to that of the US Central Command would be beneficial if major improvements are to occur.


Assuntos
Militares , Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Plasma , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
4.
Mil Med ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411255

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare delivery. Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) is the DoD's largest hospital and a critical platform for maintaining a ready medical force. We compare temporal trends in patient volumes and characteristics in the BAMC emergency department (ED) before versus during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We abstracted data on patient visits from the BAMC ED electronic medical record system. Data included patient demographics, visit dates, emergency severity index triage level, and disposition. We visually compared the data from January 1, 2019 to November 30, 2019 versus January 1, 2020 to November 30, 2020 to assess the period with the most apparent differences. We then used descriptive statistics to characterize the pre-pandemic control period (1 March-November 30, 2019) versus the pandemic period (1 March-November 30, 2020). RESULTS: Overall, when comparing the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, the median number of visits per day was 232 (Interquartile Range (IQR) 214-250, range 145-293) versus 165 (144-193, range 89-308, P < .0001). Specific to pediatric visits, we found the median number of visits per day was 39 (IQR 33-46, range 15-72) versus 18 (IQR 14-22, range 5-61, P < .001). When comparing the median number of visits by month, the volumes were lower during the pandemic for all months, all of which were strongly significant (P < .001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: The BAMC ED experienced a significant decrease in patient volume during the COVID-19 pandemic starting in March 2020. This may have significant implications for the capacity of this facility to maintain a medically ready force.

5.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; PB 8-21-07/08/09(PB 8-21-07-08-09): 3-14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449854

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies assessing early trauma resuscitation have used long-term endpoints, such as 28- or 30-day mortality or Glasgow Outcomes Scores at 6-months. These endpoints are convenient but may not accurately reflect the effect of early resuscitation. We sought expert opinion and consensus on endpoints and definitions of variables needed to conduct a Department of Defense- (DoD) funded study to epidemiologically assess combat-relevant mortality and morbidity due to timeliness of resuscitation among critically injured civilians internationally. METHODS: We conducted an online modified Delphi process with an international panel of civilian and US military experts. In several iterative rounds, experts reviewed background information, appraised relevant scientific evidence, provided comments, and rendered a vote on each variable. A-priori, we set consensus at ≥80% concordant votes. RESULTS: Twenty panelists participated with a 100% response rate. Eight items were presented, with the following outputs for the epidemiologic study: Assess mortality within 7-days of injury; assess multi-organ failure using SOFA scores measured early (at day 3) and late (at day 7); assess traumatic brain injury mortality early (≤7-days) and late (28-days); hybrid (anatomic and physiologic) injury severity scoring is optimal; capture comorbidities per the US National Trauma Data Standard list with specific additions; assign resuscitative interventions to one of five standardized phases of trauma care; and, use a novel trauma death categorization system. CONCLUSIONS: A modified Delphi process yielded expert-ratified definitions and endpoints of variables necessary to conduct a combat-relevant epidemiologic study assessing outcomes due to early trauma resuscitation. Outputs may also benefit other groups conducting trauma resuscitation research.

6.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 20-24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound is a portable and adaptable imaging modality used widely in the care of trauma patients. The initial exam, known as the "Focused Assessment in Trauma (FAST) exam focused on the evaluation for hemoperitoneum and hemopericardium. In recent years, the exam has expanded to include evaluate for thoracic pathology, including pneumothorax, and is now known as the "Extended Focused Assessment in Trauma" (E-FAST) exam. METHODS: We reviewed after-action reviews (AAR) from the Joint Trauma System Prehospital Trauma Registry from 2013-2014 in which the use of an ultrasound exam was noted. Given the largely unstructured nature of the AARs, we selected relevant information from the free text available. RESULTS: Our initial dataset contained 705 casualties, of which we identified 45 cases containing the key words with AAR data for review: 39 cases involved the use of the FAST exam, three explicitly described the use of pulmonary ultrasound and they were categorized as E-FAST exams, two cases described the use of point of care echo to evaluate for cardiac standstill, and two cases described the use of ultrasound to evaluate for vascular injury. Of those with vital signs documented, 25% (11) reported at least one episode of tachycardia (≥120/min) and 16% (7) with at least one episode of systolic hypotension (less than 90mmHg). Of the 45 cases reviewed, six were recorded as equivocal, which we interpreted to indicate more training in either performance or interpretation of the exam was needed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that training in both the FAST exam and E-FAST has the potential to improve patient care for military trauma patients. A performance improvement system would enable real-time confirmation of findings and feedback for training and quality improvement.

7.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 25-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Battlefield first responders (BFR) are the first non-medical personnel to render critical lifesaving interventions for combat casualties, especially for massive hemorrhage where rapid control will improve survival. Soldiers receive medical instruction during initial entry training (IET) and unit-dependent medical training, and by attending the Combat Lifesaver (CLS) course. We seek to describe the interventions performed by BFRs on casualties with only BFRs listed in their chain of care within the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a dataset from the PHTR from 2003-2019. We excluded encounters with a documented medical officer, medic, or unknown prehospital provider at any time in their chain of care during the Role 1 phase to isolate only casualties with BFR medical care. RESULTS: Of the 1,357 encounters in our initial dataset, we identified 29 casualties that met inclusion criteria. Pressure dressing was the most common intervention (n=12), followed by limb tourniquets (n=4), IV fluids (n=3), hemostatic gauze (n=2), and wound packing (n=2). Bag-valve-masks, chest seals, extremity splints, and nasopharyngeal airways (NPA) were also used (n=1 each). Notably absent were backboards, blizzard blankets, cervical collars, eye shields, pelvic splints, hypothermia kits, chest tubes, supraglottic airways (SGA), intraosseous (I/O) lines, and needle decompression (NDC). CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited training, BFRs employ vital medical skills in the prehospital setting. Our data show that BFRs largely perform medical interventions within the scope of their medical knowledge and training. Better datasets with efficacy and complication data are needed.

8.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 44-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most battlefield deaths occur in the prehospital setting prior to reaching surgical and hospital care. Described are casualties captured by the Joint Trauma System (JTS) in the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) module of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR), from inception through May 2019. METHODS: The JTS was queried for all PHTR encounters and associated data from inception (January 2003) through May 2019. The PHTR captures data on Role 1 prehospital care which encompasses treatment prior to arrival at a Role 2 with or without forward surgical team or Role 3 combat support hospital. Two unique patient identifiers were used to link DODTR outcome data to each PHTR encounter. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: We obtained a total of 1,357 encounters from the PHTR. Of these encounters, we successfully linked 52.2% (709/1357) to the DODTR for outcome data. Encounters spanned from 2003 to 2019, with most (69.5%) occurring from 2012 to 2014. Many casualties were in the 18-25 (25.5%) or 26-33 (27.0%) age ranges, male (99.2%), injured by explosive (47.1%) or firearm (34.8%), enlisted (44.8%), and US military conventional (24.1%) and special operations (23.9%) forces. Of those linked to the DODTR, demographics were similar, most casualties sustained battle injuries (87.1%), the majority of which survived (99.1%). CONCLUSIONS: We described 1,357 encounters within the PHTR, most of which were US casualties and casualties injured by explosives. This renewed effort by the JTS to capture more casualties for inclusion into the registry has nearly doubled the proportion of available encounters for analysis. This analysis lays the foundation for in-depth analyses targeting areas for optimizing Role 1 prehospital combat casualty care.

9.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 57-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency medicine is recognized as a critical wartime specialty within the US military. Military emergency medicine contributes to medical literature in unique ways not seen with our civilian counterparts. The impact of this contribution, especially regarding innovations in military medicine, has not been previously examined. This study evaluates the numbers of citations for emergency medicine manuscripts published by members of the US military. METHODS: Utilizing the Scopus database, we identified published manuscripts from 2000 to 2020 with an emergency medicine author affiliated with a US military treatment facility. We sorted manuscripts on the number of citations in Scopus and categorized each paper as to whether it addressed military unique topics. RESULTS: We identified 1,718 manuscripts through Scopus, and based on a 10-citation minimum, we further analyzed 508 manuscripts. After verification of military affiliation, we included 421 manuscripts. The mean number of citations per manuscript was 31.7 ± 40.5; the Mean Cite Score was 4.75 ± 6.17 with a Field Weighted Citation Index (FWCI) of 2.96 ± 6.25. Citation count of publications has been steadily increasing in recent years with significantly more citations for military relevant publications when compared to non-military relevant publications. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of military emergency medicine scholarly activity which has a history of contributions that address specific medical needs of the warfighter and advance the specialty. Military emergency medicine papers have seen rising numbers of citations in the medical literature, particularly those related to military relevant topics emphasizing combat casualty care and military readiness.

10.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 63-68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449863

RESUMO

Among combat casualties with survivable injuries, the most common cause of mortality is massive hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to identify the accuracy of shock index (SI) and pulse pressure (PP) for predicting receipt of massive transfusion and death on the battlefield. The study searched the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from January 2007 to August 2016 using a series of procedural codes to identify casualties which has been previously described. This is a secondary analysis of casualties analyzing SI. This study analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and regression analyses. Within that dataset, there were 15,540 that were US Forces (75.1%), Coalition Forces (14.5%) or contractors (10.3%)-of which, 1,261 (7.9%) underwent massive transfusion. On ROC analyses for SI, this study found an overall optimal threshold at 0.91 with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.89 with a sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.87 for predicting massive transfusion. The study found an optimal threshold of 0.91 with an AUC of 0.76 with a sensitivity of 0.67 and specificity of 0.82 for predicting death. On ROC analyses for PP, the study found an overall optimal threshold at 48 with an AUC of 0.71 with a sensitivity of 0.56 and specificity of 0.76 for predicting massive transfusion. The study found an optimal threshold of 44 with an AUC of 0.75 with a sensitivity of 0.60 and specificity of 0.82 for predicting death. SI and PP may accurately predict receipt of massive transfusion and of mortality in a combat casualty population.

11.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 69-73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on isolated case reports, military helicopter mishaps often result in multiple critical casualties leading to complicated stabilization and evacuation by healthcare providers. The aim of this retrospective descriptive analysis is to describe the incidence of common prehospital injuries associated with rotary wing crashes in order to improve mission planning and casualty survivability. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from the Prehospital Trauma Registry and the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) from April 2003 through May 2019. We searched within our dataset for all encounters involving aviation crashes. RESULTS: From April 2003 through May 2019 there were 1,357 casualty encounters in the Prehospital Trauma Registry. There were 12 casualties identified injured by aircraft crash, of which, 10 were linkable to the DoDTR for outcome data. All encounters for this sub analysis occurred in Afghanistan in 2014, all were US military service members, and a majority were enlisted conventional forces. Most prehospital interventions focused on hemorrhage control, to include limb tourniquets (n=3), pressure dressings (n=2), and pelvic splint (n=1). One patient received a cervical collar and two patients received temperature control with a hypothermia kit. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series, hemorrhage control and extremity stabilization accounted for the majority of prehospital interventions. Larger datasets are needed to validate findings and extrapolate it into mission planning.

12.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 74-80, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency department (ED) utilization continues to climb nationwide resulting in overcrowding, increasing wait times, and a surge in patients with non-urgent conditions. Patients frequently choose the ED for apparent non-emergent medical issues or injuries that after-the-fact could be cared for in a primary care setting. We seek to better understand the reasons why patients choose the ED over their primary care managers. METHODS: We prospectively surveyed patients that signed into the ED at the Brooke Army Medical Center as an emergency severity index of 4 or 5 (non-emergent triage) regarding their visit. We then linked their survey data to their ED visit including interventions, diagnoses, diagnostics, and disposition by using their electronic medical record. We defined their visit to be non-urgent and more appropriate for primary care, or primary care eligible, if they were discharged home and received no computed tomography (CT) imaging, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intravenous (IV) medications, or intramuscular (IM) controlled substances. RESULTS: During the 2-month period, we collected data on 208 participants out of a total of 252 people offered a survey (82.5%). There were 92% (n=191) that were primary care eligible within our respondent pool. Most reported very good (38%) or excellent (21%) health at baseline. On survey assessing why they came, inability to get a timely appointment (n=73), and a self-reported emergency (n=58) were the most common reported reasons. Most would have utilized primary care if they had a next-morning appointment available (n=86), but many reported they would have utilized the ED regardless of primary care availability (n=77). The most common suggestion for improving access to care was more primary care appointment availability (n=96). X-rays were the most frequent study (37%) followed by laboratory studies (20%). Before coming to the ED, 38% (n=78) reported trying to contact their primary care for an appointment. Before coming to the ED, 22% (n=46) reported contacting the nurse advice line. Based on our predefined model, 92% (n=191) of our respondents were primary care eligible within our respondent pool. CONCLUSIONS: Patient perceptions of difficulty obtaining appointments appear to be a major component of the ED use for non-emergent visits. Within our dataset, most patients surveyed stated they had difficulty obtaining a timely appointment or self-reported as an emergency. Data suggests most patients surveyed could be managed in the primary care setting.

13.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 81-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel video laryngoscope device, the i-view, may extend intubation capability to the lowest echelons of deployed military medicine. The i-view is a one-time use, disposable laryngoscope. We compared time to completion of endotracheal intubation (ETI) between the i-view and GlideScope among military emergency medicine providers in a simulation setting. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, crossover trial. We randomized participants to i-view or GlideScope first before they performed 2 ETI-1 with each device. The primary outcome was time to completion of ETI. Secondary outcomes included first-pass success, optimal glottic view, and end-user appraisal. We used a Laerdal Airway Management Trainer for all intubations. RESULTS: Thirty-three emergency medicine providers participated. ETI time was less with GlideScope than i-view (22.2 +/- 9.0 seconds versus 30.2 +/- 24.0 seconds; p=0.048). Optimal glottic views, using the Cormack-Lehan scale, also favored the GlideScope (2 [1,2] versus 2[2,2]; p=0.044). There was no difference in first-pass success rates (100% versus 100%). More participants preferred the GlideScope (24 versus 9; p=0.165); however, participants agreed that the i-view would be easier to use than the GlideScope in an austere environment (4[4,5]). CONCLUSIONS: We found the GlideScope outperformed the i-view with respect to procedural completion time. Participants preferred the GlideScope over i-view, but indicated the i-view would be easier to use than the GlideScope in an austere setting. Our findings suggest the i-view may be a suitable alternative to GlideScope for US military providers, especially for those in the prehospital setting.

14.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 90-96, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449867

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Airway obstruction is the second leading cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield during the recent conflicts. Previous studies have noted challenges with enrolling medics using quantitative methods, with specific challenges related to limited prior experience with the devices presented. This limited the ability to truly assess the efficacy of a particular device. We sought to implement a qualitative methods design for supraglottic airway (SGA) device testing. METHODS: We performed prospective, qualitative-designed studies in serial to discover emerging themes on interview. We obtained consent and demographic information from all participants. Medics were presented 2-3 airway devices in the same session with formal training by a physician with airway expertise to include practice application and troubleshooting. Semi-structured interviews were used after the training to obtain end-user feedback with a focus on emerging themes. RESULTS: Of the 77 medics surveyed and interviewed, the median age was 24, and 86% were male. During the interview sessions, we noted five emerging themes: (1) insertion, which pertains to the ease or complexity of using the devise; (2) material, which pertains to the tactile features of the device; (3) versatility, which pertains to the conditions in which the device can be used as well as with which other devices it can be used; (4) portability, which refers to how and where the device is stored and carried; and (5) training, which refers to the ease and frequency of initial and ongoing training to sustain medics' technical capability when using the device. CONCLUSIONS: In our preliminary analysis after enrolling 77 medics, we noted 5 emerging themes focused on insertion material, versatility, portability, and training methodology. Our results will inform the future enrollment sessions with a goal of narrowing the market options from themes to ideal device or devices or modifications needed for the operational environment.

15.
Mil Med ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the most common cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. Balanced resuscitation with plasma, platelets, and packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in a 1:1:1 ratio, if whole blood (WB) is not available, is associated with optimal outcomes among patients with hemorrhage. We describe the use of balanced resuscitation among combat casualties undergoing massive transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) spanning encounters from January 1, 2007, to March 17, 2020. We included all casualties who received at least 10 units of either PRBCs or WB. We categorized casualties as recipients of plasma-balanced resuscitation if the ratio of plasma to PRBC units was 0.8 or greater; similarly, we defined platelet-balanced resuscitation as a ratio of platelets to PRBC units of 0.8 or greater. We portrayed these populations using descriptive statistics and compared characteristics between non-balanced and balanced resuscitation recipients for both plasma and platelets. RESULTS: We identified 28,950 encounters in the DODTR with documentation of prehospital activity. Massive transfusions occurred for 2,414 (8.3%) casualties, among whom 1,593 (66.0%) received a plasma-balanced resuscitation and 1,248 (51.7%) received a platelet-balanced resuscitation. During the study period, 962 (39.8%) of these patients received a fully balanced resuscitation with regard to both the plasma:PRBC and platelet:PRBC ratios. The remaining casualties did not undergo a balanced resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: While a majority of massive transfusion recipients received a plasma-balanced and/or platelet-balanced resuscitation, fewer patients received a platelet-balanced resuscitation. These findings suggest that more emphasis in training and supply may be necessary to optimize blood product resuscitation ratios.

16.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e729-e733, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children make up a significant cohort of patients treated at combat support hospitals. Where traumatic head injury, including intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), is well studied in military adults, such research is lacking regarding pediatric patients. We seek to describe the incidence and outcomes of ICH within this population. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previously published dataset from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry for all pediatric casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016. Within our dataset, we searched for casualties with an ICH. RESULTS: Of the 3439 pediatric encounters in our dataset, we identified 495 (14%) casualties that had at least 1 type of ICH. Most were between 5 and 12 years of age, male (74%), and injured by an explosive (42%). Of the casualties with ICHs, 82 had epidural (16.6%), 237 had subdural (47.9%), 153 had subarachnoid (30.9%), 157 had parenchymal bleeds (31.7%), and 239 had ICHs not otherwise specified (48.3%). In the hospital setting, the epidural group was more frequently treated with skull decompression (41%) and craniotomy with skull elevation (28%). The subdural group was more frequently treated with a craniectomy (17%) and the parenchymal group had more frequent intracranial pressure monitoring (18%). In our dataset, 22 received ketamine prehospital (4.4%) and most were discharged alive from the hospital (79%). CONCLUSIONS: Within our dataset, we identified 495 cases of ICH in pediatric patients. Most survived to hospital discharge despite less than half undergoing a decompression procedure.

17.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; PB 8-21-04/05/06(PB 8-21-04-05-06): 52-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251665

RESUMO

Military working dogs (MWD) deploy with diverse tasks. Given significant utilization in Central Command (CENTCOM) for combat operations, the majority of MWD medical literature centers on combat trauma from this theater. Other commands, to include Indo-Pacific Command (INDOPACOM) and Africa Command (AFRICOM) utilize MWDs for low-intensity operations. To date, there is no analysis of medical evacuations of MWDs from the INDOPACOM and AFRICOM theaters. We seek to analyze MWD medical evacuations from these theaters utilizing the Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) Regulating and Command and Control Evacuation System (TRAC2ES). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all TRAC2ES medical records for MWD medical evacuations from the INDOPACOM and AFRICOM theaters conducted between January 2008 and December 2018. We abstracted free text data entry in TRAC2ES for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions performed prior to movement requests. RESULTS: MWD evacuations constituted 0.2% (n=10) of 4,217 documented medical evacuations from INDOPACOM and 0.3% (n=3) of 962 individually documented medical evacuations from AFRICOM. Most were routine precedence (n=8). All MWDs were evacuated for disease and non-battle injury including bone (n=4) and dental (n=2) fractures. Some had more than one provisional diagnosis and/or poly trauma. Analgesia was the most common intervention prior to evacuation (n=4). CONCLUSIONS: MWDs accounted for a small proportion of TRAC2ES evacuations in AFRICOM and INDOPACOM theaters from 2008-2018, most due to non-battle traumatic injuries. Future studies should consider more focused MWD medical evaluations in these theaters to develop a broader understanding of medical treatment trends.

18.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S174-S182, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Compensatory Reserve Measurement (CRM) is a novel method used to provide early assessment of shock based on arterial wave form morphology changes. We hypothesized that (1) CRM would be significantly lower in those trauma patients who received life-saving interventions compared with those not receiving interventions, and (2) CRM in patients who received interventions would recover after the intervention was performed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We captured vital signs along with analog arterial waveform data from trauma patients meeting major activation criteria using a prospective study design. Study team members tracked interventions throughout their emergency department stay. RESULTS: Ninety subjects met inclusion with 13 receiving a blood product and 10 a major airway intervention. Most trauma was blunt (69%) with motor vehicle collisions making up the largest proportion (37%) of injury mechanism. Patients receiving blood products had lower CRM values just prior to administration versus those who did not (50% versus 58%, p = .045), and lower systolic pressure (SBP; 95 versus 123 mmHg, p = .005), diastolic (DBP; 62 versus 79, p = .007), and mean arterial pressure (MAP; 75 versus 95, p = .006), and a higher pulse rate (HR; 101 versus 89 bpm, p = .039). Patients receiving an airway intervention had lower CRM values just prior to administration versus those who did not (48% versus 58%, p = .062); however, SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR were not statistically distinguishable (p ≥ .645). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypotheses that the CRM distinguished those patients who received blood or an airway intervention from those who did not, and increased appropriately after interventions were performed.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Transfusão de Sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Traumático/diagnóstico , Choque Traumático/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
19.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-04/05/06): 44-51, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway compromise is the second leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Special operations medic comprise the majority of medics trained to perform endotracheal intubation (ETI), mostly by way of direct laryngoscopy (DL). The iView is a disposable, low-cost video laryngoscopy (VL) device, enabling its distribution to prehospital medical providers. We seek to compare time to intubation between DL and iView VL among special operations combat medics (SOCM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, crossover trial. We enrolled special operations medics assigned to Joint Base Lewis McChord, WA. We randomized subjects to first performing VL or DL. Subjects performed a total of 10 ETI, 5 by VL and 5 by DL, on adult airway manikins. The primary outcome was time (in seconds) for ETI completion. RESULTS: A total of 32 medics completed 160 with DL ETIs and 160 VL ETIs. A total of 10 of 32 (31.3%) medics reported no previous experience with VL devices. We found a significant difference in time to intubation between VL and DL (20.4 (95% CI 20.6 - 26.1) seconds versus 23.4 (95% CI 18.7 - 22.2) seconds; p = 0.03) in favor of VL. All VL attempts were successful while 96.9% of DL were successful (p = 0.10). With respect to end-user appraisal of devices, a significant number of medics preferred the iView VL over DL (23 versus 9; p is less than 0.00001). Additionally, medics considered iView VL easier to use (5 [5-6] versus 5 [4-5]; p=0.0004) and easier to learn, remember, and perform by combat medics (5 [5-5] versus 4 [4-5]; p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Special operations medics naïve to VL rapidly learned how to effectively utilize iView VL, as evidenced by a significant difference in time to intubation in favor of iView VL. Additionally, most medics favored iView VL and considered it easy to use, learn, and remember.

20.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-04/05/06): 66-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood products are often a life-saving intervention for both traumatic and medical indications. The United States Indo-Pacific Command (INDOPACOM) is the largest Geographic Combat Command (GCC). Procurement of blood products that meet the US military healthcare standards throughout this region is challenging. Yet, the frequency to which this life-saving intervention is administered remains unclear. We seek to describe blood product administration throughout INDOPACOM. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previously described dataset from the US Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) Regulating Command and Control and Evacuation System (TRAC2ES) from 2008 to 2018. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2018, there were 4,217 cases in TRAC2ES originating within INDOPACOM, of which 173 (4%) cases involved blood product transfusion. The largest percentage for patients receiving a blood transfusion was 19-29 years old (29%), followed by patients under a year (21%). Most (66%) of the patients classified as male. Almost half of the patients (49%) were dependents of members of service in parallel with the young patient ages. Anemia (23%) and trauma (20%) , mostly non-combat related, were the largest proportions of indications. The common blood product used was packed red cells (72%) followed by fresh frozen plasma (16%). CONCLUSIONS: Blood products were administered to nearly 1 out of every 25 patients transported within INDOPACOM, which highlights the need for reliable methods for obtaining and maintaining blood products. Given INDOPACOM's vast area of responsibility and possibility for a peer-to-peer war, finding optimal methods to transport and store blood and blood products is imperative.

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