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1.
Epilepsy Res ; 170: 106537, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the possible significance of rare genetic variants to response to valproic acid (VPA) and ethosuximide (ETX) in patients with absence epilepsy. Our primary hypothesis was that rare CACNA1H variants are more frequent in ETX-non-responsive patients compared to ETX-responsive. Our secondary hypothesis was that rare variants in GABA-receptor genes are more frequent in VPA-non-responsive patients compared to VPA-responsive. METHODS: We recruited patients with absence epilepsy treated with both VPA and ETX, and performed whole exome sequencing in order to investigate the potential role of rare variants in CACNA1H, other voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) genes, or GABA-receptor genes in predicting response to ETX or VPA. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were included; 12 were ETX-responsive, 14 VPA-responsive, and 36 did not have a clear positive response to either medication. We did not find significant enrichment inCACNA1H rare variants in ETX-responsive patients (odds ratio 3.43; 0.43-27.65; p = 0.20), nor was there enrichment for other VGCC genes. No significant enrichment of GABA-receptor gene rare variants was seen for VPA-non-responsive patients versus VPA-responsive. We found enrichment of rare GABA-receptor variants in our absence cohort compared to controls (odds ratio 3.82; 1.68-8.69). There was no difference in frequency of CACNA1H rs61734410 and CACNA1I rs3747178 polymorphisms between ETX-responsive and ETX-non-responsive groups; these polymorphisms have previously been reported to predict lack of response to ETX in absence epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that if CACNA1H rare variants predict lack of response to ETX, a larger sample is necessary to test this with sufficient power. Increased GABA-receptor gene rare variant frequency in absence epilepsy patients who fail initial anti-seizure therapy suggests subtle GABA receptor dysfunction may contribute to the underlying pathophysiology.

2.
Epilepsia ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 (ALG13) deficiencies have been repeatedly described in the literature with the clinical phenotype of a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Most cases were females carrying the recurrent ALG13 de novo variant, p.(Asn107Ser), with normal transferrin electrophoresis. METHODS: We delineate the phenotypic spectrum of 38 individuals, 37 girls and one boy, 16 of them novel and 22 published, with the most common pathogenic ALG13 variant p.(Asn107Ser) and additionally report the phenotype of three individuals carrying other likely pathogenic ALG13 variants. RESULTS: The phenotypic spectrum often comprised pharmacoresistant epilepsy with epileptic spasms, mostly with onset within the first 6 months of life and with spasm persistence in one-half of the cases. Tonic seizures were the most prevalent additional seizure type. Electroencephalography showed hypsarrhythmia and at a later stage of the disease in one-third of all cases paroxysms of fast activity with electrodecrement. ALG13-related DEE was usually associated with severe to profound developmental delay; ambulation was acquired by one-third of the cases, whereas purposeful hand use was sparse or completely absent. Hand stereotypies and dyskinetic movements including dystonia or choreoathetosis were relatively frequent. Verbal communication skills were absent or poor, and eye contact and pursuit were often impaired. SIGNIFICANCE: X-linked ALG13-related DEE usually manifests as West syndrome with severe to profound developmental delay. It is predominantly caused by the recurrent de novo missense variant p.(Asn107Ser). Comprehensive functional studies will be able to prove or disprove an association with congenital disorder of glycosylation.

3.
Epilepsia ; 62(1): e22-e28, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207017

RESUMO

Ring chromosomes occur when the ends of normally rod-shaped chromosomes fuse. In ring chromosome 20 (ring 20), intellectual disability and epilepsy are usually present, even if there is no deleted coding material; the mechanism by which individuals with complete ring chromosomes develop seizures and other phenotypic abnormalities is not understood. We investigated altered gene transcription as a contributing factor by performing RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis on blood from seven patients with ring 20, and 11 first-degree relatives (all parents). Geographic analysis did not identify altered expression in peritelomeric or other specific chromosome 20 regions. RNA-seq analysis revealed 97 genes potentially differentially expressed in ring 20 patients. These included one epilepsy gene, NPRL3, but this finding was not confirmed on reverse transcription Droplet Digital polymerase chain reaction analysis. Molecular studies of structural chromosomal anomalies such as ring chromosome are challenging and often difficult to interpret because many patients are mosaic, and there may be genome-wide chromosomal instability affecting gene expression. Our findings nevertheless suggest that peritelomeric altered transcription is not the likely pathogenic mechanism in ring 20. Underlying genetic mechanisms are likely complex and may involve differential expression of many genes, the majority of which may not be located on chromosome 20.

4.
Epilepsia ; 62(1): e13-e21, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280099

RESUMO

Chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome is a rare cause of intellectual disability, seizures, dysmorphology, and multiple anomalies. Two genes in the 1q41-q42 microdeletion, WDR26 and FBXO28, have been implicated in monogenic disease. Patients with WDR26 encephalopathy overlap clinically with those with 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome, whereas only one patient with FBXO28 encephalopathy has been described. Seizures are a prominent feature of 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome; therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic FBXO28 variants cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs). We describe nine new patients with FBXO28 pathogenic variants (four missense, including one recurrent, three nonsense, and one frameshift) and analyze all 10 known cases to delineate the phenotypic spectrum. All patients had epilepsy and 9 of 10 had DEE, including infantile spasms (3) and a progressive myoclonic epilepsy (1). Median age at seizure onset was 22.5 months (range 8 months to 5 years). Nine of 10 patients had intellectual disability, which was profound in six of nine and severe in three of nine. Movement disorders occurred in eight of 10 patients, six of 10 had hypotonia, four of 10 had acquired microcephaly, and five of 10 had dysmorphic features, albeit different to those typically seen in 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome and WDR26 encephalopathy. We distinguish FBXO28 encephalopathy from both of these disorders with more severe intellectual impairment, drug-resistant epilepsy, and hyperkinetic movement disorders.

5.
Front Neurol ; 11: 925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013630

RESUMO

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of premature mortality in individuals with epilepsy. Acute and adaptive changes in heart rhythm in epilepsy implicate cardiac dysfunction as a potential pathogenic mechanism in SUDEP. Furthermore, variants in genes associated with Long QT syndrome (LQTS) have been identified in patients with SUDEP. LQTS is a cardiac arrhythmia condition that causes sudden cardiac death with strong similarities to SUDEP. Here, we discuss the possibility of an additive risk of death due to the functional consequences of a pathogenic variant in an LQTS gene interacting with seizure-mediated changes in cardiac function. Extending this general concept, we propose a hypothesis that common variants in LQTS genes, which cause a subtle impact on channel function and would not normally be considered risk factors for cardiac disease, may increase the risk of sudden death when combined with epilepsy. A greater understanding of the interaction between epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and SUDEP will inform our understanding of SUDEP risk and subsequent potential prophylactic treatment.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 977-988, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058759

RESUMO

PRKACA and PRKACB code for two catalytic subunits (Cα and Cß) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), a pleiotropic holoenzyme that regulates numerous fundamental biological processes such as metabolism, development, memory, and immune response. We report seven unrelated individuals presenting with a multiple congenital malformation syndrome in whom we identified heterozygous germline or mosaic missense variants in PRKACA or PRKACB. Three affected individuals were found with the same PRKACA variant, and the other four had different PRKACB mutations. In most cases, the mutations arose de novo, and two individuals had offspring with the same condition. Nearly all affected individuals and their affected offspring shared an atrioventricular septal defect or a common atrium along with postaxial polydactyly. Additional features included skeletal abnormalities and ectodermal defects of variable severity in five individuals, cognitive deficit in two individuals, and various unusual tumors in one individual. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of the variants identified in PRKACA and PRKACB through the use of several computational and experimental approaches, and we found that they lead to PKA holoenzymes which are more sensitive to activation by cAMP than are the wild-type proteins. Furthermore, expression of PRKACA or PRKACB variants detected in the affected individuals inhibited hedgehog signaling in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, thereby providing an underlying mechanism for the developmental defects observed in these cases. Our findings highlight the importance of both Cα and Cß subunits of PKA during human development.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Dedos/anormalidades , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/genética , Polidactilia/genética , Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/química , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/deficiência , Feminino , Dedos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/patologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Holoenzimas/química , Holoenzimas/deficiência , Holoenzimas/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Mosaicismo , Células NIH 3T3 , Linhagem , Polidactilia/diagnóstico , Polidactilia/patologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Dedos do Pé/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120939

RESUMO

Families comprising many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may carry a dominant predisposing mutation. We implemented rigorous phenotyping of the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP) in large multiplex ASD families using a novel endophenotype approach for the identification and characterisation of distinct BAP endophenotypes. We evaluated ASD/BAP features using standardised tests and a semi-structured interview to assess social, intellectual, executive and adaptive functioning in 110 individuals, including two large multiplex families (Family A: 30; Family B: 35) and an independent sample of small families (n = 45). Our protocol identified four distinct psychological endophenotypes of the BAP that were evident across these independent samples, and showed high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (82%) for individuals classified with the BAP. Patterns of inheritance of identified endophenotypes varied between the two large multiplex families, supporting their utility for identifying genes in ASD.

8.
Epilepsia ; 61(11): 2396-2404, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fenfluramine has been shown to provide clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in convulsive seizure frequency in children and adolescents (aged 2-18 years) with Dravet syndrome in two randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. The objective of this analysis was to assess longer-term safety and efficacy of fenfluramine in patients who completed one of the double-blind studies and entered an open-label extension (OLE) study. METHODS: Patients enrolling in the OLE study initiated fenfluramine at 0.2 mg/kg/d regardless of their treatment assignment in the double-blind study. After 4 weeks, the fenfluramine dose could be titrated based on efficacy and tolerability to maximum of 0.7 mg/kg/d (absolute maximum 27 mg/d) or maximum of 0.4 mg/kg/d (absolute maximum 17 mg/d) in patients receiving concomitant stiripentol. The number and type of seizures were recorded daily in an electronic diary, and safety, including echocardiography, was assessed at Months 1, 2, and 3, and at 3-month intervals thereafter. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients were enrolled as of March 13, 2018. During this analysis period, patients were treated for a median 256 days (range = 46-634 days). Over the entire OLE analysis period, the median decrease in convulsive seizure frequency compared to baseline in the double-blind studies was -66.8% (range = -100% to 234.9%; P < .001). The median reduction in seizure frequency was similar in patients <6 (-75.7%) and ≥6 years old (-64.7%). The most commonly reported adverse events included pyrexia (21.6%), nasopharyngitis (19.4%), and decreased appetite (-15.9%). No valvular heart disease (VHD) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was observed. SIGNIFICANCE: Study results demonstrate that fenfluramine provides clinically meaningful (≥50%) seizure frequency reduction over an extended period in patients with Dravet syndrome. No patient developed VHD or PAH, and fenfluramine was generally well tolerated.

9.
Epilepsia Open ; 5(3): 354-365, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913944

RESUMO

Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1DS) is a brain energy failure syndrome caused by impaired glucose transport across brain tissue barriers. Glucose diffusion across tissue barriers is facilitated by a family of proteins including glucose transporter type 1 (Glut1). Patients are treated effectively with ketogenic diet therapies (KDT) that provide a supplemental fuel, namely ketone bodies, for brain energy metabolism. The increasing complexity of Glut1DS, since its original description in 1991, now demands an international consensus statement regarding diagnosis and treatment. International experts (n = 23) developed a consensus statement utilizing their collective professional experience, responses to a standardized questionnaire, and serial discussions of wide-ranging issues related to Glut1DS. Key clinical features signaling the onset of Glut1DS are eye-head movement abnormalities, seizures, neurodevelopmental impairment, deceleration of head growth, and movement disorders. Diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of these clinical signs, hypoglycorrhachia documented by lumbar puncture, and genetic analysis showing pathogenic SLC2A1 variants. KDT represent standard choices with Glut1DS-specific recommendations regarding duration, composition, and management. Ongoing research has identified future interventions to restore Glut1 protein content and function. Clinical manifestations are influenced by patient age, genetic complexity, and novel therapeutic interventions. All clinical phenotypes will benefit from a better understanding of Glut1DS natural history throughout the life cycle and from improved guidelines facilitating early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Often, the presenting seizures are treated initially with antiseizure drugs before the cause of the epilepsy is ascertained and appropriate KDT are initiated. Initial drug treatment fails to treat the underlying metabolic disturbance during early brain development, contributing to the long-term disease burden. Impaired development of the brain microvasculature is one such complication of delayed Glut1DS treatment in the postnatal period. This international consensus statement should facilitate prompt diagnosis and guide best standard of care for Glut1DS throughout the life cycle.

10.
Neurology ; 95(21): e2866-e2879, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the risks and consequences of cardiac abnormalities in ATP1A3-related syndromes. METHODS: Patients meeting clinical diagnostic criteria for rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) with ATP1A3 genetic analysis and at least 1 cardiac assessment were included. We evaluated the cardiac phenotype in an Atp1a3 knock-in mouse (Mashl+/-) to determine the sequence of events in seizure-related cardiac death. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients with AHC, 9 with RDP, and 3 with CAPOS (63 female, mean age 17 years) were included. Resting ECG abnormalities were found in 52 of 87 (60%) with AHC, 2 of 3 (67%) with CAPOS, and 6 of 9 (67%) with RDP. Serial ECGs showed dynamic changes in 10 of 18 patients with AHC. The first Holter ECG was abnormal in 24 of 65 (37%) cases with AHC and RDP with either repolarization or conduction abnormalities. Echocardiography was normal. Cardiac intervention was required in 3 of 98 (≈3%) patients with AHC. In the mouse model, resting ECGs showed intracardiac conduction delay; during induced seizures, heart block or complete sinus arrest led to death. CONCLUSIONS: We found increased prevalence of ECG dynamic abnormalities in all ATP1A3-related syndromes, with a risk of life-threatening cardiac rhythm abnormalities equivalent to that in established cardiac channelopathies (≈3%). Sudden cardiac death due to conduction abnormality emerged as a seizure-related outcome in murine Atp1a3-related disease. ATP1A3-related syndromes are cardiac diseases and neurologic diseases. We provide guidance to identify patients potentially at higher risk of sudden cardiac death who may benefit from insertion of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Hemiplegia/genética , Mutação/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Reflexo Anormal/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia Cerebelar/metabolismo , Ataxia Cerebelar/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/metabolismo , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/terapia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/terapia , Hemiplegia/diagnóstico , Hemiplegia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia Óptica/metabolismo , Atrofia Óptica/terapia , Fenótipo , Convulsões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 56(12): 1918-1923, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965057

RESUMO

AIM: This paper describes the use of the single patient therapy plan (SPTP). The SPTP has been designed to assess the efficacy at an individual level of a commercially available cannabinoid product, cannabidiol, in reducing seizure frequency in paediatric patients with intractable epilepsy. METHODS: The SPTP is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled N-of-1 trial designed to assess the efficacy of treatment in a neurology outpatient setting. The primary objective of the SPTP is to assess the efficacy of cannabidiol in reducing seizure frequency in each patient with intractable epilepsy, with change in seizure frequency being the primary outcome of interest. The analysis adopts a Bayesian approach, which provides results in the form of posterior probabilities that various levels of benefit (based on the primary outcome measure, seizure frequency) have been achieved under active treatment compared to placebo, accompanied by decision rules that provide thresholds for deciding whether treatment has been successful in the individual patient. The SPTP arrangement is most accurately considered part of clinical practice rather than research, since it is aimed at making clinical treatment decisions for individual patients and is not testing a hypothesis or collecting aggregate data. Therefore, Human Research Ethics Committee approval was considered not to be required, although it is recommended that hospital Clinical Ethics Committees provide ethical oversight. CONCLUSION: These SPTP resources are made available so that they may inform clinical practice in the treatment of severe epilepsy or adapted for use in other conditions.

12.
Epilepsy Curr ; : 1535759720954254, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990457

RESUMO

Whether genetic factors contribute to acquired epilepsies has long been controversial. Supporters observe that, among individuals exposed to seemingly the same brain insult, only a minority develops unprovoked seizures. Yet, only in relatively recent years have studies started to build a case for genetic contributions. Here, we appraise this emerging evidence, by providing a critical review of studies published in the field.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107319, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858363

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of the study was to delineate the cognitive, behavioral, psychological, and social functioning of individuals with Dravet syndrome. METHOD: Cognitive, behavioral, and social functioning were assessed in patients with Dravet syndrome by comprehensive, age-appropriate standardized neuropsychological testing. Primary caregivers completed standardized measures regarding participants' behavior, psychological status, adaptive functioning, and social skills, including their involvement with intervention services. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 45 patients, aged 2-30 years. Intellectual functioning ranged from average intellect to profound intellectual disability, with a decrease in cognitive and adaptive functioning with age. Only 6 children were able to complete the entire neuropsychological battery and showed a range of cognitive profiles. Five of 6 participants scored within the average range on Affect Recognition and 5/6 on Motor Free Visual Perception tests. Twenty-one (58%) participants had deficits in social skills and 18/27 (67%) in social communication, with 10 participants, who did not yet have a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), screening positive for social communication deficits. Behavioral problems were frequently reported, with attention problems in 24 (65%) and atypicality in 25 (70%). Despite this, parents reported that psychological services were the least utilized health interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive functioning varies markedly in individuals with Dravet syndrome, with some patients demonstrating global impairment while others have a discordant neuropsychological profile. Behavioral, psychological, social problems, and ASD are common. Social deficits should be reviewed to identify those who warrant ASD assessment. Early identification of behavioral and psychological disorders and targeted use of psychological intervention are essential components of holistic care in Dravet syndrome.

14.
Brain Pathol ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852867

RESUMO

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is mechanistically complex and one probable cause is seizure-related respiratory dysfunction. Medullary respiratory regulatory nuclei include the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), the medullary raphé nuclei (MR) and nucleus of solitary tract in the dorsomedial medulla (DMM). The region of the VLM also contains intermingled tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catecholaminergic neurones which directly project to the pre-BötC and regulate breathing under hypoxic conditions and our aim was to evaluate these neurones in SUDEP cases. In post-mortem cases from three groups [SUDEP (18), epilepsy controls (8) and non-epilepsy controls (16)] serial sections of medulla (obex + 2 to + 13 mm) were immunolabeled for TH. Three regions of interest (ROI) were outlined (VLM, DMM and MR) and TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurones were evaluated using automated detection for overall labeling index (neurones and processes) and neuronal densities and compared between groups and relative to obex level. C-fos immunoreactivity was also semi-quantitatively evaluated in these regions. We found no significant difference in the density of TH-IR neurones or labeling index between the groups in all regions. Significantly more TH-IR neurones were present in the DMM region than VLM in non-epilepsy cases only (P < 0.01). Regional variations in TH-IR neurones with obex level were seen in all groups except SUDEP. We also identified occasional TH neurones in the MR region in all groups. There was significantly less c-fos labeling in the VLM and MR in SUDEP than non-epilepsy controls but no difference with epilepsy controls. In conclusion, in this series we found no evidence for alteration of total medullary TH-IR neuronal numbers in SUDEP but noted some differences in their relative distribution in the medulla and c-fos neurones compared to control groups which may be relevant to the mechanism of death.

15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1298: 177-187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852734

RESUMO

Protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) pathogenic variants cause an infantile onset epilepsy syndrome called Girls Clustering Epilepsy due to the vast majority of affected individuals being female. This syndromic name was developed to foster early recognition and diagnosis in infancy. It has, however, sparked debate, as, there are rare males with postzygotic somatic, and therefore, mosaic, PCDH19 pathogenic variants with similar clinical features to females. Conversely, "transmitting" males with germline inherited PCDH19 variants are considered asymptomatic. To date, there has been no standardized neuropsychiatric assessment of males with PCDH19 pathogenic variants. Here, we studied 15 males with PCDH19 pathogenic variants (nine mosaic and six transmitting) aged 2 to 70 years. Our families completed a survey including standardized clinical assessments: Social Responsiveness Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. We identified neuropsychiatric abnormalities in two males with germline PCDH19 possibly pathogenic variants. One had a prior history of a severe encephalopathic illness, which may have been unrelated. We also describe a non-penetrant somatic mosaic male with mosaicism confirmed in blood, but not identified in skin fibroblasts. Our data suggest that transmitting hemizygous males are generally unaffected, in contrast to males with postzygotic somatic mosaic variants who show a similar neuropsychiatric profile to females who are naturally mosaic, due to X-chromosome inactivation. The penetrance of PCDH19 pathogenic variants has been estimated to be 80%. Like females, not all mosaic males are affected. From our small sample, we estimate that males with mosaic PCHD19 pathogenic variants have a penetrance of 85%. With these insights into the male phenotypic spectrum of PCDH19 epilepsy, we propose the new term Clustering Epilepsy (CE). Both affected females and males typically present with infantile onset of clusters of seizures.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Epilepsia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Penetrância , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(6): 1333-1348, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681751

RESUMO

Asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 homolog (ALG13) encodes a nonredundant, highly conserved, X-linked uridine diphosphate (UDP)-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase required for the synthesis of lipid linked oligosaccharide precursor and proper N-linked glycosylation. De novo variants in ALG13 underlie a form of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy known as EIEE36, but given its essential role in glycosylation, it is also considered a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG), ALG13-CDG. Twenty-four previously reported ALG13-CDG cases had de novo variants, but surprisingly, unlike most forms of CDG, ALG13-CDG did not show the anticipated glycosylation defects, typically detected by altered transferrin glycosylation. Structural homology modeling of two recurrent de novo variants, p.A81T and p.N107S, suggests both are likely to impact the function of ALG13. Using a corresponding ALG13-deficient yeast strain, we show that expressing yeast ALG13 with either of the highly conserved hotspot variants rescues the observed growth defect, but not its glycosylation abnormality. We present molecular and clinical data on 29 previously unreported individuals with de novo variants in ALG13. This more than doubles the number of known cases. A key finding is that a vast majority of the individuals presents with West syndrome, a feature shared with other CDG types. Among these, the initial epileptic spasms best responded to adrenocorticotropic hormone or prednisolone, while clobazam and felbamate showed promise for continued epilepsy treatment. A ketogenic diet seems to play an important role in the treatment of these individuals.

17.
Epilepsia ; 61(7): e71-e78, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645220

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth-factor homologous factor (FHF1) gene variants have recently been associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). FHF1 encodes a cytosolic protein that modulates neuronal sodium channel gating. We aim to refine the electroclinical phenotypic spectrum of patients with pathogenic FHF1 variants. We retrospectively collected clinical, genetic, neurophysiologic, and neuroimaging data of 17 patients with FHF1-DEE. Sixteen patients had recurrent heterozygous FHF1 missense variants: 14 had the recurrent p.Arg114His variant and two had a novel likely pathogenic variant p.Gly112Ser. The p.Arg114His variant is associated with an earlier onset and more severe phenotype. One patient carried a chromosomal microduplication involving FHF1. Twelve patients carried a de novo variant, five (29.5%) inherited from parents with gonadic or somatic mosaicism. Seizure onset was between 1 day and 41 months; in 76.5% it was within 30 days. Tonic seizures were the most frequent seizure type. Twelve patients (70.6%) had drug-resistant epilepsy, 14 (82.3%) intellectual disability, and 11 (64.7%) behavioral disturbances. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed mild cerebral and/or cerebellar atrophy in nine patients (52.9%). Overall, our findings expand and refine the clinical, EEG, and imaging phenotype of patients with FHF1-DEE, which is characterized by early onset epilepsy with tonic seizures, associated with moderate to severe ID and psychiatric features.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(11): 1331-1335, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538476

RESUMO

Variants in the gene SCN1A are a common genetic cause for a wide range of epilepsy phenotypes ranging from febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome. Focal onset seizures and structural lesions can be present in these patients and the question arises whether epilepsy surgery should be considered. We report eight patients (mean age 13y 11mo [SD 8y 1mo], range 3-26y; four females, four males) with SCN1A variants, who underwent epilepsy surgery. Outcomes were variable and seemed to be directly related to the patient's anatomo-electroclinical epilepsy phenotype. Patients with Dravet syndrome had unfavourable outcomes, whilst patients with focal epilepsy, proven to arise from a single structural lesion, had good results. We conclude that the value of epilepsy surgery in patients with an SCN1A variant rests on two issues: understanding whether the variant is pathogenic and the patient's anatomo-electroclinical phenotype. Careful evaluation of epilepsy phenotype integrated with understanding the significance of genetic variants is essential in determining a patient's suitability for epilepsy surgery. Patients with focal onset epilepsy may benefit from epilepsy surgery, whereas those with Dravet syndrome do not. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Patients should not automatically be excluded from epilepsy surgery evaluation if they carry an SCN1A variant. Patients with focal epilepsy may benefit from epilepsy surgery; those with Dravet syndrome do not.

19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 127, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366910

RESUMO

Protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) pathogenic variants cause an early-onset seizure disorder called girls clustering epilepsy (GCE). GCE is an X-chromosome disorder that affects heterozygous females and mosaic males, however hemizygous ("transmitting") males are spared. We aimed to define the neuropsychiatric profile associated with PCDH19 pathogenic variants and determine if a clinical profile exists for transmitting males. We also examined genotype- and phenotype-phenotype associations. We developed an online PCDH19 survey comprising the following standardized assessments: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; the Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd edition; the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; and the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Genetic, seizure, and developmental information were also collected. The survey was completed by patients or by caregivers on behalf of patients. Of the 112 individuals represented (15 males), there were 70 unique variants. Thirty-five variants were novel and included a newly identified recurrent variant Ile781Asnfs*3. There were no significant differences in phenotypic outcomes between published and unpublished cases. Seizures occurred in clusters in 94% of individuals, with seizures resolving in 28% at an average age of 17.5 years. Developmental delay prior to seizure onset occurred in 18% of our cohort. Executive dysfunction and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) occurred in approximately 60% of individuals. The ASD profile included features of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In addition, 21% of individuals met criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder that appeared to be distinct from ASD. There were no phenotypic differences between heterozygous females and mosaic males. We describe a mosaic male and two hemizygous males with atypical clinical profiles. Earlier seizure onset age and increased number of seizures within a cluster were associated with more severe ASD symptoms (p = 0.001), with seizure onset also predictive of executive dysfunction (p = 4.69 × 10-4) and prosocial behavior (p = 0.040). No clinical profile was observed for transmitting males. This is the first patient-derived standardized assessment of the neuropsychiatric profile of GCE. These phenotypic insights will inform diagnosis, management, and prognostic and genetic counseling.

20.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 56(8): 1210-1218, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329550

RESUMO

AIM: Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2) disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder presenting in children aged 2-4 years with seizures and loss of motor and language skills, followed by blindness and death in late childhood. Initial presenting features are similar to a range of common epilepsies. We aim to highlight typical clinical and radiological features that may prompt diagnosis of CLN2 disease in early disease stages. METHODS: We present a series of 13 Australian patients with CLN2 disease, describing clinical features, disease evolution, neuroimaging, electroencephalogram, biochemical and genetic results. Expert neuroradiological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was retrospectively performed on 10 cases. RESULTS: Twelve patients presented with seizures, with initial seizures being focal (n = 4), generalised tonic-clonic (n = 3), absence (n = 3) and febrile (n = 2). Eleven patients (85%) had a language delay before the onset of seizures. Cerebellar or cerebral atrophy was noted in all patients on centralised MRI review, with abnormalities of the brain-stem, ventricles, corpus callosum and hippocampi. CONCLUSIONS: Early language delay with the onset of seizures at 2-4 years of age is the hallmark of CLN2 disease. MRI findings of early subtle atrophy in the cerebellum or posterior cortical regions should hasten testing for CLN2 disease to enable early initiation of enzyme replacement therapy.

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