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1.
Brain ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022648

RESUMO

Febrile seizures represent the most common type of pathological brain activity in young children and are influenced by genetic, environmental and developmental factors. In a minority of cases, febrile seizures precede later development of epilepsy. We conducted a genome-wide association study of febrile seizures in 7635 cases and 83 966 controls identifying and replicating seven new loci, all with P < 5 × 10-10. Variants at two loci were functionally related to altered expression of the fever response genes PTGER3 and IL10, and four other loci harboured genes (BSN, ERC2, GABRG2, HERC1) influencing neuronal excitability by regulating neurotransmitter release and binding, vesicular transport or membrane trafficking at the synapse. Four previously reported loci (SCN1A, SCN2A, ANO3 and 12q21.33) were all confirmed. Collectively, the seven novel and four previously reported loci explained 2.8% of the variance in liability to febrile seizures, and the single nucleotide polymorphism heritability based on all common autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms was 10.8%. GABRG2, SCN1A and SCN2A are well-established epilepsy genes and, overall, we found positive genetic correlations with epilepsies (rg = 0.39, P = 1.68 × 10-4). Further, we found that higher polygenic risk scores for febrile seizures were associated with epilepsy and with history of hospital admission for febrile seizures. Finally, we found that polygenic risk of febrile seizures was lower in febrile seizure patients with neuropsychiatric disease compared to febrile seizure patients in a general population sample. In conclusion, this largest genetic investigation of febrile seizures to date implicates central fever response genes as well as genes affecting neuronal excitability, including several known epilepsy genes. Further functional and genetic studies based on these findings will provide important insights into the complex pathophysiological processes of seizures with and without fever.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862678
4.
Epilepsy Res ; 177: 106743, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624600

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dravet syndrome (DS) is still seen as a "pediatric disease", where patients receive excellent care in pediatric centers, but care is less than optimal in adult health care systems (HCS). This creates a barrier when young adults need to leave the family-centered pediatric system and enter the adult, patient-centered HCS. Here we create a guide to help with the transition from pediatric to adult for patients with DS. METHODS: Experts in Dravet syndrome flagged the main barriers in caring for adults with DS and created a 2-page transition summary guide based on their expertise and a literature review. RESULTS: The 2-page guide addresses: DS diagnosis in children and adults; clinical manifestations, including the differences in seizures types and frequencies between children and adults with DS; the natural history of intellectual disability, behavior, gait, motor disorders and dysautonomia; a review of optimal treatments (including medications not commonly used in adult epilepsy settings such as stiripentol and fenfluramine), as well as emergency seizure management; avoidance of triggers, preventive measures, and vaccine administration in adults with DS. CONCLUSION: Several young adults with DS are still followed by their child neurologist. This 2-page transition guide should help facilitate the transition of patients with DS to the adult HCS and should be given to families as well as adult health care providers that may not be familiar with DS.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633740

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with an estimated heritability of >60%. Family-based genetic studies of ASD have generally focused on multiple small kindreds, searching for de novo variants of major effect. We hypothesized that molecular genetic analysis of large multiplex families would enable the identification of variants of milder effects. We studied a large multigenerational family of European ancestry with multiple family members affected with ASD or the broader autism phenotype (BAP). We identified a rare heterozygous variant in the gene encoding 1,4-ɑ-glucan branching enzyme 1 (GBE1) that was present in seven of seven individuals with ASD, nine of ten individuals with the BAP, and none of four tested unaffected individuals. We genotyped a community-acquired cohort of 389 individuals with ASD and identified three additional probands. Cascade analysis demonstrated that the variant was present in 11 of 13 individuals with familial ASD/BAP and neither of the two tested unaffected individuals in these three families, also of European ancestry. The variant was not enriched in the combined UK10K ASD cohorts of European ancestry but heterozygous GBE1 deletion was overrepresented in large ASD cohorts, collectively suggesting an association between GBE1 and ASD.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649968

RESUMO

Nevus sebaceous syndrome (NSS) is a rare, multisystem neurocutaneous disorder, characterized by a congenital nevus, and may include brain malformations such as hemimegalencephaly or focal cortical dysplasia, ocular, and skeletal features. It has been associated with several eponyms including Schimmelpenning and Jadassohn. The isolated skin lesion, nevus sebaceous, is associated with postzygotic variants in HRAS or KRAS in all individuals studied. The RAS proteins encode a family of GTPases that form part of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway, which is critical for cell cycle regulation and differentiation during development. We studied an individual with nevus sebaceous syndrome with an extensive nevus sebaceous, epilepsy, intellectual disability, and hippocampal sclerosis without pathological evidence of a brain malformation. We used high-depth gene panel sequencing and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect and quantify RAS/MAPK gene variants in nevus sebaceous and temporal lobe tissue collected during plastic and epilepsy surgery, respectively. A mosaic KRAS c.34G > T; p.(Gly12Cys) variant, also known as G12C, was detected in nevus sebaceous tissue at 25% variant allele fraction (VAF), at the residue most commonly substituted in KRAS Targeted droplet digital PCR validated the variant and quantified the mosaicism in other tissues. The variant was detected at 33% in temporal lobe tissue but was absent from blood and healthy skin. We provide molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of NSS. Our data extends the histopathological spectrum of KRAS G12C mosaicism beyond nevus sebaceous to involve brain tissue and, more specifically, hippocampal sclerosis.

7.
Epilepsia Open ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717047

RESUMO

Recessive variants in RARS2, a nuclear gene encoding a mitochondrial protein, were initially reported in pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Subsequently, a recessive RARS2 early-infantile (<12 weeks) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy was described with hypoglycaemia and lactic acidosis. Here, we describe two unrelated patients with a novel RARS2 phenotype and reanalyse the published RARS2 epilepsy phenotypes and variants. Our novel cases had infantile-onset myoclonic developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, presenting with a progressive movement disorder from 9 months on a background of normal development. Development plateaued and regressed thereafter, with mild to profound impairment. Multiple drug-resistant generalized and focal seizures occurred with episodes of non-convulsive status epilepticus. Seizure types included absence, atonic, myoclonic, and focal seizures. Electroencephalograms showed diffuse slowing, multifocal, and generalised spike-wave activity, activated by sleep. Both patients had compound heterozygous RARS2 variants with likely impact on splicing and transcription. Remarkably, of the now 52 RARS2 variants reported in 54 patients, our reanalysis found that 44 (85%) have been shown to or are predicted to affect splicing or gene expression leading to protein truncation or nonsense-mediated decay. We expand the RARS2 phenotypic spectrum to include infantile encephalopathy and suggest this gene is enriched for pathogenic variants that disrupt splicing.

8.
Neurotherapeutics ; 18(3): 1432-1444, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708325

RESUMO

The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are the most severe group of epilepsies. They usually begin in infancy or childhood with drug-resistant seizures, epileptiform EEG patterns, developmental slowing or regression, and cognitive impairment. DEEs have a high mortality and profound morbidity; comorbidities are common including autism spectrum disorders. With advances in genetic sequencing, over 400 genes have been implicated in DEEs, with a genetic cause now identified in over 50% patients. Each genetic DEE typically has a broad genotypic-phenotypic spectrum, based on the underlying pathophysiology. There is a pressing need to improve health outcomes by developing novel targeted therapies for specific genetic DEE phenotypes that not only improve seizure control, but also developmental outcomes and comorbidities. Clinical trial readiness relies firstly on a deep understanding of phenotype-genotype correlation and evolution of a condition over time, in order to select appropriate patients for clinical trials. Understanding the natural history of the disorder informs assessment of treatment efficacy in terms of both clinical outcome and biomarker utility. Natural history studies (NHS) provide a high quality, integrated, comprehensive approach to understanding a complex disease and underpin clinical trial design for novel therapies. NHS are pre-planned observational studies designed to track the course of a disease and identify demographic, genetic, environmental, and other variables, including biomarkers, that correlate with the disease's evolution and outcomes. Due to the rarity of individual genetic DEEs, appropriately funded high-quality DEE NHS will be required, with sustainable frameworks and equitable access to affected individuals globally.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579535

RESUMO

Epilepsy is an etiologically heterogeneous condition; however, genetic factors are thought to play a role in most patients. For those with infantile-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE), a genetic diagnosis is now obtained in more than 50% of patients. There is considerable motivation to utilize these molecular diagnostic data to help guide treatment, as children with DEEs often have drug-resistant seizures as well as developmental impairment related to cerebral epileptiform activity. Precision medicine approaches have the potential to dramatically improve the quality of life for these children and their families. At present, treatment can be targeted for patients with diagnoses in many genetic causes of infantile-onset DEE, including genes encoding sodium or potassium channel subunits, tuberous sclerosis, and congenital metabolic diseases. Precision medicine may refer to more intelligent choices of conventional antiseizure medications, repurposed agents previously used for other indications, novel compounds, enzyme replacement, or gene therapy approaches. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

10.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 21(11): 1309-1316, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519595

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mosaic variants arising in brain tissue are increasingly being recognized as a hidden cause of focal epilepsy. This knowledge gain has been driven by new, highly sensitive genetic technologies and genome-wide analysis of brain tissue from surgical resection or autopsy in a small proportion of patients with focal epilepsy. Recently reported novel strategies to detect mosaic variants limited to brain have exploited trace brain DNA obtained from cerebrospinal fluid liquid biopsies or stereo-electroencephalography electrodes. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the data on these innovative approaches published in PubMed before 12 June 2021, discuss the challenges associated with their application, and describe how they are likely to improve detection of mosaic variants to provide new molecular diagnoses and therapeutic targets for focal epilepsy, with potential utility in other nonmalignant neurological disorders. EXPERT OPINION: These cutting-edge approaches may reveal the hidden genetic etiology of focal epilepsies and provide guidance for precision medicine.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123930, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477852

RESUMO

Importance: Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are the most severe group of drug-resistant epilepsies. Alternatives to oral therapies are urgently needed to reduce seizures and improve developmental outcomes and comorbidities in this medically complex population. Objective: To assess the safety and tolerability of cannabidiol (CBD) transdermal gel in children with DEEs and to evaluate seizure frequency, sleep, and quality of life. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 centers in Australia and New Zealand from April 2018 to July 2019. Children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years with DEEs who were receiving a stable regimen of 1 to 4 antiseizure medications were eligible for this study. After 1-month baseline and titration periods, patients entered a 5.5-month flexible-dosing maintenance period for a total of 6.5 months of treatment. Data were analyzed throughout the 6.5-month treatment period. Interventions: Twice-daily applications of CBD transdermal gel at doses of 125 to 500 mg for 6.5 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Safety and tolerability assessments included adverse events (AEs) and examination of skin. The outcome for seizures was the median percentage change from baseline in monthly (28-day) seizure frequency of focal impaired awareness seizures (FIAS) and tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) over 6.5 months. Results: Of 48 patients (mean [SD] age, 10.5 [3.8] years; 26 [54%] boys), 29 (60%) had at least 1 treatment-related AE over 6.5 months; 44 of 46 treatment-related AEs (96%) were mild or moderate. Treatment-related AEs that occurred in at least 5% of patients were application-site dryness, application-site pain, and somnolence (each reported by 4 patients [8%]). The only treatment-related gastrointestinal AE was diarrhea, reported in a single patient. CBD treatment was associated with reductions in FIAS and TCS frequency. Analysis of the 33 patients with FIAS and TCS showed a median (interquartile range) monthly reduction in seizures of 58% (-5.3% to 81.8%) at 5 months and 43.5% (-23.8% to 57.5%) over the entire 6.5-month study period. Parents and caregivers noted improvements in social or interpersonal engagement and irritability (33 of 43 [77%] participants); alertness, energy, and sleep (23 of 43 [53%]); and cognition or concentration (20 of 43 [47%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, CBD transdermal gel was safe, well tolerated, and was associated with reductions in FIAS and TCS frequency and disease burden. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ACTRN12618000516280.

12.
Epilepsia ; 62(9): 2205-2217, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The classical description of Dravet syndrome, the prototypic developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, is of a normal 6-month-old infant presenting with a prolonged, febrile, hemiclonic seizure and showing developmental slowing after age 1 year. SCN1A pathogenic variants are found in >80% of patients. Many patients have atypical features resulting in diagnostic delay and inappropriate therapy. We aimed to provide an evidence-based definition of SCN1A-Dravet syndrome in readiness for precision medicine trials. METHODS: Epilepsy patients were recruited to the University of Melbourne Epilepsy Genetics Research Program between 1995 and 2020 by neurologists from around the world. Patients with SCN1A pathogenic variants were reviewed and only those with Dravet syndrome were included. Clinical data, including seizure and developmental course, were analyzed in all patients with SCN1A-Dravet syndrome. RESULTS: Two hundred and five patients were studied at a median age of 8.5 years (range 10 months to 60 years); 25 were deceased. The median seizure-onset age was 5.7 months (range 1.5-20.6 months). Initial seizures were tonic-clonic (52%) and hemiclonic (35%), with only 55% being associated with fever. Only 34% of patients presented with status epilepticus (seizure lasting ≥30 minutes). Median time between first and second seizure was 30 days (range 4 hours to 8 months), and seven patients (5%) had at least 6 months between initial seizures. Median ages at onset of second and third seizure types were 9.1 months (range 3 months-25.4 years) and 15.5 months (range 4 months-8.2 years), respectively. Developmental slowing occurred prior to 12 months in 27%. SIGNIFICANCE: An evidence-based definition of SCN1A-Dravet syndrome is essential for early diagnosis. We refine the spectrum of Dravet syndrome, based on patterns of seizure onset, type, and progression. Understanding of the full spectrum of SCN1A-Dravet syndrome presentation is essential for early diagnosis and optimization of treatment, especially as precision medicine trials become available.

14.
Epilepsia ; 62(10): 2505-2517, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Add-on cannabidiol (CBD) reduced seizures associated with Dravet syndrome (DS) in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials: GWPCARE1 Part B (NCT02091375) and GWPCARE2 (NCT02224703). Patients who completed GWPCARE1 Part A (NCT02091206) or Part B, or GWPCARE2, were enrolled in a long-term open-label extension trial, GWPCARE5 (NCT02224573). We present an interim analysis of the safety, efficacy, and patient-reported outcomes from GWPCARE5. METHODS: Patients received a pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified CBD in oral solution (100 mg/ml), titrated from 2.5 to 20 mg/kg/day over a 2-week period, added to their existing medications. Based on response and tolerance, CBD could be reduced or increased to 30 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: Of the 330 patients who completed the original randomized trials, 315 (95%) enrolled in this open-label extension. Median treatment duration was 444 days (range = 18-1535), with a mean modal dose of 22 mg/kg/day; patients received a median of three concomitant antiseizure medications. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 97% patients (mild, 23%; moderate, 50%; severe, 25%). Commonly reported AEs were diarrhea (43%), pyrexia (39%), decreased appetite (31%), and somnolence (28%). Twenty-eight (9%) patients discontinued due to AEs. Sixty-nine (22%) patients had liver transaminase elevations >3 × upper limit of normal; 84% were on concomitant valproic acid. In patients from GWPCARE1 Part B and GWPCARE2, the median reduction from baseline in monthly seizure frequency assessed in 12-week periods up to Week 156 was 45%-74% for convulsive seizures and 49%-84% for total seizures. Across all visit windows, ≥83% patients/caregivers completing a Subject/Caregiver Global Impression of Change scale reported improvement in overall condition. SIGNIFICANCE: We show that long-term CBD treatment had an acceptable safety profile and led to sustained, clinically meaningful reductions in seizure frequency in patients with treatment-resistant DS.

15.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 63(12): 1441-1447, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247411

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether genes that cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are more commonly implicated in intellectual disability with epilepsy as a comorbid feature than in intellectual disability only. METHOD: We performed targeted resequencing of 18 genes commonly implicated in DEEs in a cohort of 830 patients with intellectual disability (59% male) and 393 patients with DEEs (52% male). RESULTS: We observed a significant enrichment of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability (16 out of 159 in seven genes) compared with intellectual disability only (2 out of 671) (p<1.86×10-10 , odds ratio 37.22, 95% confidence interval 8.60-337.0). INTERPRETATION: We identified seven genes that are more likely to cause epilepsy and intellectual disability than intellectual disability only. Conversely, two genes, GRIN2B and SCN2A, can be implicated in intellectual disability without epilepsy; in these instances intellectual disability is not a secondary consequence of ongoing seizures but rather a primary cause. What this paper adds A subset of genes are more commonly implicated in epilepsy than other neurodevelopmental disorders. GRIN2B and SCN2A are implicated in intellectual disability and epilepsy independently.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 90(3): 464-476, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychoses affecting people with epilepsy increase disease burden and diminish quality of life. We characterized postictal psychosis, which comprises about one quarter of epilepsy-related psychoses, and has unknown causation. METHODS: We conducted a case-control cohort study including patients diagnosed with postictal psychosis, confirmed by psychiatric assessment, with available data regarding epilepsy, treatment, psychiatric history, psychosis profile, and outcomes. After screening 3,288 epilepsy patients, we identified 83 with psychosis; 49 had postictal psychosis. Controls were 98 adults, matched by age and epilepsy type, with no history of psychosis. Logistic regression was used to investigate clinical factors associated with postictal psychosis; univariate associations with a p value < 0.20 were used to build a multivariate model. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia were calculated. RESULTS: Cases were more likely to have seizure clustering (odds ratio [OR] = 7.59, p < 0.001), seizures with a recollected aura (OR = 2.49, p = 0.013), and a family history of psychiatric disease (OR = 5.17, p = 0.022). Cases showed predominance of right temporal epileptiform discharges (OR = 4.87, p = 0.007). There was no difference in epilepsy duration, neuroimaging findings, or antiseizure treatment between cases and controls. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia in an extended cohort of postictal psychosis cases (n = 58) were significantly higher than in 1,366 epilepsy controls (R2  = 3%, p = 6 × 10-3 ), but not significantly different from 945 independent patients with schizophrenia (R2  = 0.1%, p = 0.775). INTERPRETATION: Postictal psychosis occurs under particular circumstances in people with epilepsy with a heightened genetic predisposition to schizophrenia, illustrating how disease biology (seizures) and trait susceptibility (schizophrenia) may interact to produce particular outcomes (postictal psychosis) in a common disease. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:464-476.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Ann Neurol ; 90(2): 274-284, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The MAST family of microtubule-associated serine-threonine kinases (STKs) have distinct expression patterns in the developing and mature human and mouse brain. To date, only MAST1 has been conclusively associated with neurological disease, with de novo variants in individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder, including a mega corpus callosum. METHODS: Using exome sequencing, we identify MAST3 missense variants in individuals with epilepsy. We also assess the effect of these variants on the ability of MAST3 to phosphorylate the target gene product ARPP-16 in HEK293T cells. RESULTS: We identify de novo missense variants in the STK domain in 11 individuals, including 2 recurrent variants p.G510S (n = 5) and p.G515S (n = 3). All 11 individuals had developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, with 8 having normal development prior to seizure onset at <2 years of age. All patients developed multiple seizure types, 9 of 11 patients had seizures triggered by fever and 9 of 11 patients had drug-resistant seizures. In vitro analysis of HEK293T cells transfected with MAST3 cDNA carrying a subset of these patient-specific missense variants demonstrated variable but generally lower expression, with concomitant increased phosphorylation of the MAST3 target, ARPP-16, compared to wild-type. These findings suggest the patient-specific variants may confer MAST3 gain-of-function. Moreover, single-nuclei RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry shows that MAST3 expression is restricted to excitatory neurons in the cortex late in prenatal development and postnatally. INTERPRETATION: In summary, we describe MAST3 as a novel epilepsy-associated gene with a potential gain-of-function pathogenic mechanism that may be primarily restricted to excitatory neurons in the cortex. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:274-284.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , /genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hum Mutat ; 42(8): 1030-1041, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082468

RESUMO

PCDH19 is a nonclustered protocadherin molecule involved in axon bundling, synapse function, and transcriptional coregulation. Pathogenic variants in PCDH19 cause infantile-onset epilepsy known as PCDH19-clustering epilepsy or PCDH19-CE. Recent advances in DNA-sequencing technologies have led to a significant increase in the number of reported PCDH19-CE variants, many of uncertain significance. We aimed to determine the best approaches for assessing the disease relevance of missense variants in PCDH19. The application of the American College of Medical Genetics and Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines was only 50% accurate. Using a training set of 322 known benign or pathogenic missense variants, we identified MutPred2, MutationAssessor, and GPP as the best performing in silico tools. We generated a protein structural model of the extracellular domain and assessed 24 missense variants. We also assessed 24 variants using an in vitro reporter assay. A combination of these tools was 93% accurate in assessing known pathogenic and benign PCDH19 variants. We increased the accuracy of the ACMG-AMP classification of 45 PCDH19 variants from 50% to 94%, using these tools. In summary, we have developed a robust toolbox for the assessment of PCDH19 variant pathogenicity to improve the accuracy of PCDH19-CE variant classification.

19.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 63(12): 1417-1426, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109629

RESUMO

AIM: To delineate the speech and language phenotype of a cohort of individuals with FOXP1-related disorder. METHOD: We administered a standardized test battery to examine speech and oral motor function, receptive and expressive language, non-verbal cognition, and adaptive behaviour. Clinical history and cognitive assessments were analysed together with speech and language findings. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (17 females, 12 males; mean age 9y 6mo; median age 8y [range 2y 7mo-33y]; SD 6y 5mo) with pathogenic FOXP1 variants (14 truncating, three missense, three splice site, one in-frame deletion, eight cytogenic deletions; 28 out of 29 were de novo variants) were studied. All had atypical speech, with 21 being verbal and eight minimally verbal. All verbal patients had dysarthric and apraxic features, with phonological deficits in most (14 out of 16). Language scores were low overall. In the 21 individuals who carried truncating or splice site variants and small deletions, expressive abilities were relatively preserved compared with comprehension. INTERPRETATION: FOXP1-related disorder is characterized by a complex speech and language phenotype with prominent dysarthria, broader motor planning and programming deficits, and linguistic-based phonological errors. Diagnosis of the speech phenotype associated with FOXP1-related dysfunction will inform early targeted therapy. What this paper adds Individuals with FOXP1-related disorder have a complex speech and language phenotype. Dysarthria, which impairs intelligibility, is the dominant feature of the speech profile. No participants were receiving speech therapy for dysarthria, but were good candidates for therapy Features of speech apraxia occur alongside persistent phonological errors. Language abilities are low overall; however, expressive language is a relative strength.

20.
Neurology ; 96(18): e2251-e2260, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative gene in a large unsolved family with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), we sequenced the genomes of family members, and then determined the contribution of the identified gene to the pathogenicity of epilepsies by examining sequencing data from 2,772 additional patients. METHODS: We performed whole genome sequencing of 3 members of a GEFS+ family. Subsequently, whole exome sequencing data from 1,165 patients with epilepsy from the Epi4K dataset and 1,329 Australian patients with epilepsy from the Epi25 dataset were interrogated. Targeted resequencing was performed on 278 patients with febrile seizures or GEFS+ phenotypes. Variants were validated and familial segregation examined by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Eight previously unreported missense variants were identified in SLC32A1, coding for the vesicular inhibitory amino acid cotransporter VGAT. Two variants cosegregated with the phenotype in 2 large GEFS+ families containing 8 and 10 affected individuals, respectively. Six further variants were identified in smaller families with GEFS+ or idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). CONCLUSION: Missense variants in SLC32A1 cause GEFS+ and IGE. These variants are predicted to alter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport into synaptic vesicles, leading to altered neuronal inhibition. Examination of further epilepsy cohorts will determine the full genotype-phenotype spectrum associated with SLC32A1 variants.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Convulsões Febris/diagnóstico , Convulsões Febris/genética , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Aminoácidos Inibidores/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
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