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Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 1(2): 186-90, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19083753


The advantages of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing in forensic genetics are well known and include a wider choice of high-throughput typing platforms, lower mutation rates, and improved analysis of degraded samples. However, if SNPs are to become a realistic supplement to current short tandem repeat (STR) typing methods, they must be shown to successfully and reliably analyse the challenging samples commonly encountered in casework situations. The European SNPforID consortium, supported by the EU GROWTH programme, has developed a multiplex of 52 SNPs for forensic analysis, with the amplification of all 52 loci in a single reaction followed by two single base extension (SBE) reactions which are detected with capillary electrophoresis. In order to validate this assay, a variety of DNA extracts were chosen to represent problems such as low copy number and degradation that are commonly seen in forensic casework. A total of 40 extracts were used in the study, each of which was sent to two of the five participating laboratories for typing in duplicate or triplicate. Laboratories were instructed to carry out their analyses as if they were dealing with normal casework samples. Results were reported back to the coordinating laboratory and compared with those obtained from traditional STR typing of the same extracts using Powerplex 16 (Promega). These results indicate that, although the ability to successfully type good quality, low copy number extracts is lower, the 52-plex SNP assay performed better than STR typing on degraded samples, and also on samples that were both degraded and of limited quantity, suggesting that SNP analysis can provide advantages over STR analysis in forensically relevant circumstances. However, there were also additional problems arising from contamination and primer quality issues and these are discussed.

Genética Forense/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Análise de Variância , Comportamento Cooperativo , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Impressões Digitais de DNA/normas , Impressões Digitais de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Genética Forense/normas , Genética Forense/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Humanos , Laboratórios , Repetições de Microssatélites , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Int J Legal Med ; 121(4): 309-10, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16673142


Since the disappearance of Günther Messner, brother of the world-famous mountaineer Reinhold Messner, on an expedition to Nanga Parbat in 1970, the circumstances of his death have given rise to controversy. Reinhold Messner claimed that he and Günther descended the Diamir face together when an avalanche killed his brother, while other expedition members argued that Günther was abandoned by Reinhold to descend the Rupal face. Now, 35 years after the event, Günther's remains have been found at the Diamir face and have been identified by forensic DNA fingerprinting. The location of the remains supports Messner's version, thus putting to rest one of the climbing communities' most publicised controversies.

Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Pessoas Famosas , Amelogenina/genética , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Y , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Montanhismo , Paquistão , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Irmãos , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem
Forensic Sci Int ; 139(2-3): 215-26, 2004 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15040920


This paper presents an overview of the organisation and the results of the collaborative exercises (CE) of the European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group's mitochondrial DNA population database project (EMPOP). The aim of the collaborative exercises was to determine whether uniformity of mtDNA sequencing results could be achieved among different laboratories. These were asked to sequence either the complete mtDNA control region or the two hypervariable regions HVI (16024-16365) and HVII (73-340) from DNA extracts, buccal swabs or bloodstains, proceeding in accordance with the protocol and strategies used in each individual laboratory. The results of the collaborative exercises were employed to identify possible sources of errors that could arise during the analysis and interpretation of mtDNA profiles. These findings were taken as a basis to tentatively make suitable arrangements for the construction of a high quality mtDNA database. One hundred fifty mtDNA profiles were submitted to the evaluating laboratory, and disaccording profiles were classified into four groups corresponding to the source of error: clerical errors, sample mix-ups, contaminations and discrepancies with respect to the mtDNA nomenclature. Overall, 14 disaccording haplotypes (16 individual errors) were observed. The errors included 10 clerical errors, 3 interpretation problems, 2 cases of sample mix-up and 1 case of point heteroplasmic mixture, where the 2 sequencing reactions brought inconsistent base calls. This corresponds to an error rate of 10.7% in a virtual mtDNA database consisting of the collaborative exercise results. However, this estimate is still conservative compared to conclusions drawn by authors of meanwhile numerous publications critically reviewing published mtDNA population databases. Our results and earlier published concerns strongly emphasize the need for appropriate safety regulations when mtDNA profiles are compiled for database purposes in order to accomplish the high standard required for mtDNA databases that are used in the forensic context.

Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Medicina Legal/normas , Genética Populacional , Comportamento Cooperativo , Primers do DNA , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Controle de Qualidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
J Lipid Res ; 43(12): 2056-61, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12454266


In anthropology, objective parameters to adequately describe storage conditions and the preservation of mummies have yet to be identified. Considering that fatty acids degrade to stable products, we analysed their profile in human mummies and in control samples by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Originating from different epochs and civilizations, samples of the Tyrolean Iceman, other glacier corpses, a freeze dried mummy, corpses from a permafrost region, a corpse mummified immersed in water, and a desert mummy were evaluated. Chemometric analysis based on the concentrations of 16 fatty acids revealed the degree of similarity between anthropologic and fresh corpse samples, which was mainly influenced by the content of palmitic acid, oleic acid, and 10-hydroxystearic acid. The presence of 10-hydroxystearic acid was associated with immersion in water, whereas dry mummification was accompanied by high contents of oleic acid. Samples of the Tyrolean Iceman clustered between fresh tissue and those of other glacier corpses indicating the good preservation of this mummy. Thus, environmental post-mortem conditions were associated with characteristic fatty acid patterns suggesting that chemometric analysis of fatty acid contents may add to our knowledge about post-mortem storage conditions and the preservation of human corpses.

Ácidos Graxos , Múmias , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico , Ácido Oleico , Ceras