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1.
Thromb Res ; 187: 9-17, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemostatic activation and hypercoagulability are frequently observed in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), increase risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and have been implicated in tumour proliferation and progression. To date, the association of haemostatic biomarkers with oncologic outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and disease control rate (DCR) is incompletely understood. METHODS: Within the framework of the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study, a prospective observational cohort study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to investigate the association of six known biomarkers of haemostasis with oncologic outcomes in 99 patients with mCRC prior to chemotherapy initiation. RESULTS: Patients with high levels of factor VIII activity (FVIII), D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and fibrinogen (defined as levels >75th percentile) had significantly shorter median OS than patients with lower levels. Elevation of four biomarkers was associated with mortality in multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, sex, number of metastatic sites and VTE (hazard ratio [95% CI] for death per doubling of levels: FVIII: 2.06 [1.28-3.30]; sP-selectin: 1.55 [1.07-2.24]; D-dimer: 1.40 [1.18-1.65]; F1 + 2: 1.64 [1.10-2.46]). Patients with elevated levels had numerically shorter median PFS across all markers and disease control rate (DCR) was significantly smaller in those with high levels of FVIII and F1 + 2 (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] for DCR per doubling of levels: 0.23 [0.09-0.62] and 0.36 [0.16-0.82]) compared to patients with lower levels. CONCLUSION: Specific elevated haemostatic biomarkers are associated with higher mortality and partially with worse response to chemotherapy in patients with mCRC.

2.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 12: 1756284819877635, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579123

RESUMO

Background: The management of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) is challenging, and the optimal treatment strategy is debated among experts. In an attempt to identify treatment decision criteria and to investigate variations in the first-line management of this disease, we performed an analysis of treatment algorithms among experts in the field of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify relevant criteria in the complex process of patient selection and decision making for the management of mPC patients. Methods: Experts from the ABCSG (Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group) Pancreatic Cancer Club were contacted and agreed to participate in this analysis. Eight experts from seven centers in Austria provided their decision algorithms for the first-line treatment of patients with mPC. Their responses were converted into decision trees based on the objective consensus methodology. The decision trees were used to identify consensus and discrepancies. Results: The final treatment algorithms included four decision criteria (performance status, age, comorbidities, and symptomatic disease) and six treatment options: mFOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel, gemcitabine mono, 5-FU mono, gemcitabine/erlotinib, and best supportive care (BSC). Conclusions: We identified consensus for the treatment of young and fit patients with mFOLFIRINOX. With higher age and reduced performance status, gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel was increasingly used. For patients with Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) 4, BSC was the treatment of choice. Among experts, different decision criteria and treatment options are implemented in clinical routine. Despite multiple options in current recommendations, a consensus for specific recommendations was identified.

3.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 11: 1758835919853196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360237

RESUMO

Background: Nanoliposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) is a novel treatment option for gemcitabine-pretreated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) patients, but real-world evidence is rare. Our aim was to determine the effectiveness and tolerability of this regimen in advanced PAC patients and to compare it with oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines in the second-line setting after failure of gemcitabine. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center analysis of all patients who have been treated with nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV. To compare its effectiveness with other second-line treatment options, all patients who had received oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were also eligible for analysis. Results: Fifty-two patients were treated with nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV between April 2016 and August 2018. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.84 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 6.79 months. Median OS from the beginning of the treatment for advanced disease was 19.9 months. Median PFS in patients that received nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV as second-line treatment after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was 4.49 months whereas median PFS in a matched cohort of patients treated with oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines was 3.44 months (p = 0.007). Between these two groups the median OS of patients with CA 19-9 levels above the statistical median (⩾772.8 kU/l) differed significantly (9.33 versus 6.18 months, p = 0.038). Conclusion: Our data confirms the effectiveness of nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV treatment as a well-tolerated regimen in the treatment of advanced PAC and extends available data on its use as a second-line treatment option when compared with oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines.

4.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 11: 1758835918818351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636977

RESUMO

Background: The prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) is poor and differs considerably among patients. Therefore, it is clinically relevant to identify patients with APC who are more likely to benefit from palliative chemotherapy with reduced risk of toxicity. To date, there is no prognostic score universally recommended to help clinicians in planning the therapeutic management. Methods: Using individual patient data from 319 cases of APC treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy and enrolled in the SAKK 44/00-CECOG/PAN.1.3.001 randomized trial, several baseline variables, including inflammatory markers, were analysed post hoc as predictors of mortality and/or grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy-related toxicity and separate risk scores were developed. Results: Median survival of the study patients was 7.9 months (interquartile range 3.7-13.3 months). Independent predictors of mortality included increased Aspartate transaminase (ASAT), low performance status, increased derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, increased Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), low haemoglobin, presence of pain, presence of metastasis and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP). During the study, 117 patients experienced at least one grade 3 or 4 adverse event. Independent predictors of toxicity included white blood cells, ALP, renal function and bilirubin levels at baseline. Both models displayed moderate levels of discrimination (C-statistic 0.68 and 0.64 for mortality and toxicity, respectively) and adequate calibration. Conclusions: We developed simple-to-use prognostic scores for mortality and severe toxicity for patients with APC. These scores can be useful in daily practice to identify patients with increased risk of death or toxicity and to plan the most appropriate therapeutic strategy to improve survival and quality of life. Further prospective studies to validate such scores are needed.

5.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 17(4): 274-279, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment sequencing for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been highly debated. The thymidine-based nucleoside trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) and the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib have demonstrated clinical benefits in randomized phase III trials compared with placebo. However, limited data are available on the most optimal therapy sequence involving TAS-102 and regorafenib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present retrospective, observational, real-life study, clinical data on mCRC patients treated with TAS-102 or an alternative salvage treatment at the Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Zurich were collected from January 2013 to December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 85 patients whose disease had progressed during fluoropyrimidine-based therapy (FBT) with or without an antibody were included. The disease control rate in patients treated with TAS-102 after FBT-based treatment was 24% compared with 35% in patients treated with regorafenib after FBT-based treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-7.47; P = .449). The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients treated with TAS-102 was 2.8 months (quartile, 2.0-4.8 months) and 15.9 months, respectively. When the data were analyzed according to the subgroups of patients with or without an FBT-free period, the TAS-102-treated patients with a previous FBT-free interval had a PFS of 3.1 months and OS of 17.7 months compared with a PFS of 2.2 months and OS of 8.1 months for patients who received TAS-102 immediately after FBT. CONCLUSION: Our results have confirmed the efficacy of TAS-102 and regorafenib in the real-life setting. The treatment sequence analysis showed a tendency for longer PFS and OS for TAS-102-treated patients after an FBT-free interval. Prospective randomized data are needed to gain more information about the most beneficial therapy sequence in the salvage treatment of mCRC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trifluridina/administração & dosagem , Uracila/análogos & derivados
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(3): e151-e160, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29508762

RESUMO

Variations in the reporting of potentially confounding variables in studies investigating systemic treatments for unresectable pancreatic cancer pose challenges in drawing accurate comparisons between findings. In this Review, we establish the first international consensus on mandatory baseline and prognostic characteristics in future trials for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer. We did a systematic literature search to find phase 3 trials investigating first-line systemic treatment for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer to identify baseline characteristics and prognostic variables. We created a structured overview showing the reporting frequencies of baseline characteristics and the prognostic relevance of identified variables. We used a modified Delphi panel of two rounds involving an international panel of 23 leading medical oncologists in the field of pancreatic cancer to develop a consensus on the various variables identified. In total, 39 randomised controlled trials that had data on 15 863 patients were included, of which 32 baseline characteristics and 26 prognostic characteristics were identified. After two consensus rounds, 23 baseline characteristics and 12 prognostic characteristics were designated as mandatory for future pancreatic cancer trials. The COnsensus statement on Mandatory Measurements in unresectable PAncreatic Cancer Trials (COMM-PACT) identifies a mandatory set of baseline and prognostic characteristics to allow adequate comparison of outcomes between pancreatic cancer studies.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/normas , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Int J Cancer ; 142(5): 1047-1055, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047142

RESUMO

In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), liver-limited disease (LLD) is associated with a higher chance of metastectomy leading to long-term survival. However, limited data describes the prognostic and predictive relevance of initially unresectable LLD with regard to targeted first-line therapy. The present analysis investigated the relevance of initially unresectable LLD in mCRC patients treated with targeted therapy against either the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF). The analysis was performed based on FIRE-3, a randomized phase III trial comparing first-line chemotherapy with FOLFIRI plus either cetuximab (anti-EGFR) or bevacizumab (anti-VEGF) in RAS wild-type (WT) mCRC. Of 400 patients, 133 (33.3%) had LLD and 267 (66.8%) had non-LLD. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly longer in LLD compared to non-LLD patients (36.0 vs. 25.4 months; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-0.87; p = 0.002). In a multivariate analysis also including secondary hepatic resection as time-dependent variable, LLD status was independently prognostic for OS (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50-0.91; p = 0.01). As assessed by interaction tests, treatment benefit from FOLFIRI plus cetuximab compared to FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab was independent of LLD status with regard to objective response rate (ORR), early tumour shrinkage ≥20% (ETS), depth of response (DpR) and OS (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, LLD could be identified as a prognostic factor in RAS-WT mCRC, which was independent of hepatic resection in patients treated with targeted therapy. LLD had no predictive relevance since benefit from FOLFIRI plus cetuximab over bevacizumab was independent of LLD status.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Oncotarget ; 8(62): 105749-105760, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285289

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the impact of primary tumor sidedness on outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) across treatment lines. Patients and Methods: Patients of the FIRE-3 trial (initial FOLFIRI plus either cetuximab or bevacizumab) were separately evaluated according to primary tumor site differentiating left-sided (LPT) from right-sided primary tumors (RPT). Efficacy (i.e. progression-free survival (PFS2nd) and overall survival (OS2nd) of second-line therapy) was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log rank test as well as Cox regression analyses. All analyses were also reported according to drug sequences. Results: 411 of 592 patients (69%) with KRAS exon 2 wild-type tumors received 2nd-line therapy has and had available information on primary tumor location, of those 309 patients (75%) presented with LPT. In patients with LPT, PFS2nd was markedly longer than in patients with RPT (6.0 months [95% CI 5.5-6.5] versus 3.8 months [95% CI 2.5-5.2], hazard ratio: 0.61 [95% CI 0.47-0.78], P<0.001). Differences in PFS2nd between study-arms were evident in patients with LPT, but not in patients with RPT (Cox model interaction test, P=0.12). Consistent observations were also made for OS2nd. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis of FIRE-3 indicates that efficacy of second-line therapy was significantly greater in patients with left-sided tumors as compared to right-sided tumors. This difference was driven by superior activity of second-line regimens of the initial cetuximab-arm as compared to the initial bevacizumab-arm in left-sided tumors. Our observations confirm the strong prognostic value of primary tumor location in second-line therapy of mCRC.

9.
Oncotarget ; 8(46): 81250-81260, 2017 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113384

RESUMO

Background: Routinely tested liver biomarkers as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), butyryl-cholinesterase (BChE), albumin and bilirubin are altered in distinct malignancies and hepatic metastases. This study aimed to investigate whether all liver parameters have the ability to predict long-term mortality in treatment naïve cancer patients but without a malignant hepatic involvement. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 555 consecutive patients with primary diagnosis of cancer without prior anticancer therapy. BChE, albumin, AST, ALT, GGT and bilirubin as well as the inflammatory makers C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined. All-cause mortality was defined as primary endpoint. Results: During a median follow-up of 25 (IQR16-31) months 186 (34%) patients died. All liver parameters were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (p < 0.001 for all). However, for patients without a malignant primary or secondary hepatic involvement (82%) only the functional parameters BChE and albumin remained significantly associated with the primary endpoint (crude HR per 1-IQR increase 0.61, 95%CI:0.49-0.77; p < 0.001 for BChE and 0.58, 95%CI:0.47-0.70; p < 0.001 for albumin). This e ect was persistent after multivariate adjustment (adj.HR per 1-IQR increase 0.65, 95%CI:0.50-0.86; p = 0.002 for BChE and 0.63, 95%CI:0.50-0.79; p < 0.001 for albumin). BChE and albumin correlated inversely with CRP (r = -0.21, p < 0.001 and r = -0.36, p < 0.001), SAA (r = -0.19, p < 0.001 and r = -0.33, p < 0.001) and IL-6 (r = -0.13, p = 0.009 and r = -0.17, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Decreased serum BChE and albumin levels are associated with increased all-cause mortality in treatment-naïve cancer patients without a manifest malignant hepatic involvement irrespective of tumor entity or stage. This association may reflect progressing systemic inflammation and metabolic derangement with subclinical involvement of the liver.

10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4851, 2017 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687745

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a dismal disease with a mortality rate almost similar to its incidence rate. To date, there are neither validated predictive nor prognostic biomarkers for this lethal disease. Thus, the aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the capability of biochemical parameters and molecular profiles to predict survival of patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) who participated in a phase II clinical trial to test the safety and efficacy of the combination treatment of capecitabine plus nab-paclitaxel. Herein, we investigated the association of 18 biochemical parameters obtained from routine diagnosis and the clinical outcome of the 30 patients enrolled in the clinical trial. Furthermore, we analysed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue to identify molecular biomarkers via RNA seq and the Illumina TruSeq Amplicon Cancer panel which covers 48 hotspot genes. Our analysis identified SERPINB7 as a novel transcript and a DNA mutation signature that might predict a poor outcome of disease. Moreover, we identified the bilirubin basal level as an independent predictive factor for overall survival in our study cohort.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Química do Sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Serpinas/análise , Serpinas/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Onco Targets Ther ; 10: 591-596, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28203092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The global Phase III MPACT trial demonstrated superior efficacy of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine over gemcitabine alone as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer. Region was a randomization stratification factor in the MPACT trial. This subgroup analysis of MPACT examined efficacy and safety of patients treated in Western Europe. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer as previously described. A total of 76 patients were included in this analysis (n=38 for each arm). RESULTS: Differences between the overall Western European cohort and the intention-to-treat population included lower percentages of male patients (46% and 58%, respectively) and patients with biliary stents (8% and 17%), and higher percentages of patients with Karnofsky performance status of 90-100 (78% and 60%) and primary tumors in the body of the pancreas (48% and 31%). The median overall survival was 10.7 months with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine vs 6.9 months with gemcitabine alone (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-1.40]; P=0.471). Median progression-free survival was 5.3 vs 3.7 months, respectively (HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.37-1.33]; P=0.277). The independently assessed overall response rate was 18% vs 5% (response rate ratio, 3.50 [95% CI: 0.78-15.78]; P=0.076). The most common grade ≥3 adverse events with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine and gemcitabine alone were neutropenia (46% vs 33%, respectively), leukopenia (35% vs 19%), anemia (22% vs 0%), asthenia (21% vs 6%), thrombocytopenia (14% vs 3%), and peripheral neuropathy (13% vs 3%). CONCLUSION: Although a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms was not reached for efficacy endpoints, this study does report treatment benefit and a manageable safety profile associated with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine in patients treated in Western Europe with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 140(8): 1918-1925, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032641

RESUMO

We explored the association of early tumor shrinkage (ETS) and non-ETS with efficacy of first-line and consecutive second-line treatment in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer treated in FIRE-3. Assessment of tumor shrinkage was based on the sum of longest diameters of target lesions, evaluated after 6 weeks of treatment. Shrinkage was classified as ETS (shrinkage by ≥ 20%), mETS (shrinkage by 0 to <20%), mPD (minor progression >0 to <20%) and PD (progression ≥20%). Overall survival (OS) was 33.2 (95% CI 28.0-38.4) months in ETS patients, while non-ETS was associated with less favorable outcome (mETS 24.0 (95% CI 21.2-26.9) months, mPD 19.0 (95% CI 13.0-25.0) months, PD 12.8 (95% CI 11.1-14.5) months). Differences in PFS of first-line therapy were less pronounced. ETS subgroups defined in first-line therapy also correlated with efficacy of second-line therapy. Progression-free survival in second-line (PFS2nd) was 6.5 months (5.8-7.2) for ETS, and was 5.6 (95% CI 4.7-6.5) months for mETS, 4.9 (95% CI 3.7-6.1) months for mPD and 3.3 (95% CI 2.3-4.3) months for PD. PFS of first-line and PFS2nd showed a linear correlation (Bravais-Pearson coefficient: 0.16, p = 0.006). While ETS is associated with the most favorable outcome, non-ETS represents a heterogeneous subgroup with distinct characteristics of less favorable initial tumor response to treatment. This is the first analysis to demonstrate that early tumor response observed during first-line FOLFIRI-based therapy may also relate to efficacy of second-line treatment. Early response parameters may serve as stratification factors in trials recruiting pretreated patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 17(10): 1426-1434, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27575024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FIRE-3 compared first-line 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus cetuximab with FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in patients with KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. The same study also reported an exploratory analysis of a subgroup of patients with tumours that were wild-type at other RAS genes (KRAS and NRAS exons 2-4). We report here efficacy results for the FIRE-3 final RAS (KRAS/NRAS, exons 2-4) wild-type subgroup. Moreover, new metrics of tumour dynamics were explored during a centralised radiological review to investigate how FOLFIRI plus cetuximab conferred overall survival benefit in the absence of differences in investigator-assessed objective responses and progression-free survival. METHODS: FIRE-3 was a randomised phase 3 trial comparing FOLFIRI plus cetuximab with FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of patients with KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. The primary endpoint of the FIRE-3 study was the proportion of patients achieving an objective response according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0 in the intention-to-treat population. A centralised radiological review of CT scans was done in a post-hoc analysis to assess objective response according to RECIST 1.1, early tumour shrinkage, depth of response, duration of response, and time to response in the final RAS wild-type subgroup. Comparisons between treatment groups with respect to objective response rate and early tumour shrinkage were made using Fisher's exact test (two-sided), while differences in depth of response were investigated with a two-sided Wilcoxon test. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00433927. FINDINGS: In the final RAS wild-type population (n=400), median overall survival was better in the FOLFIRI plus cetuximab group than the FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab group (33·1 months [95% CI 24·5-39·4] vs 25·0 months [23·0-28·1]; hazard ratio 0·70 [0·54-0·90]; p=0·0059), although investigator-assessed objective response and progression-free survival were comparable between treatment groups. Centralised radiological review of CT-assessable patients (n=330) showed that the proportion of patients achieving an objective response (113 of 157, 72·0% [95% CI 64·3-78·8] vs 97 of 173, 56·1% [48·3-63·6]; p=0·0029), frequency of early tumour shrinkage (107 of 157, 68·2% [60·3-75·4] vs 85 of 173, 49·1% [41·5-56·8]; p=0·0005), and median depth of response (-48·9% [-54·3 to -42·0] vs -32·3% [-38·2 to -29·2]; p<0·0001) were significantly better in extended RAS wild-type patients receiving FOLFIRI plus cetuximab versus those receiving FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab. No differences in duration of response and time to response were observed between treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: This analysis provides a new framework that connects alternative metrics of response to overall survival. Superior response-related outcome parameters, such as early tumour shrinkage and depth of response, obtained by centralised radiological review correlated with the overall survival benefit conferred by FOLFIRI plus cetuximab compared with FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in the extended RAS wild-type subgroup. FUNDING: Merck KGaA and Pfizer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Genes ras , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 7(4): 588-94, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced cholangiocellular carcinoma has a poor prognosis with limited therapeutic options. Nab-paclitaxel has recently been described to be beneficial in metastatic pancreatic cancer improving overall and progression free survival (PFS). The potential antitumor activity of nab-paclitaxel in cholangiocellular carcinoma is hitherto unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed an institutional cholangiocellular carcinoma registry to determine the potential biological activity of nab-paclitaxel in advanced intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma. Disease control rate (DCR), PFS and overall survival (OS) upon nab-paclitaxel based treatment, after failure of platinum-containing first-line combination chemotherapy, was assessed. RESULTS: Twelve patients were identified. Five of 12 patients (42%) received nab-paclitaxel as second line, and 7 patients (56%) as third-line treatment. The objective DCR with nab-paclitaxel was 83% (10/12 patients). One patient had a complete remission (CR), two patients had a partial remission (PR) and 7 patients had stable disease (SD). Disease was rated progressive in two patients. In all 12 patients receiving nab-paclitaxel the median time to progression was 6 months (range, 2.1-19.5 months). Median OS after initiation of nab-paclitaxel treatment was 9 months (2.1-28.4 months). The median time of survival after diagnosis of advanced disease was 21.5 months, whereby 3 patients were alive at the date of censoring (04/01/2015). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report suggesting substantial antitumor activity of nab-paclitaxel in advanced cholangiocellular carcinoma. In this small series, nab-paclitaxel based salvage chemotherapy appears to have a biological activity by controlling the disease and positively affecting survival. Randomized trials in this disease entity and subgroup of patients are urged.

15.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 7(3): 469-78, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27284481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dose modifications following adverse events (AEs) are an important part of the management of patients with pancreatic cancer treated with chemotherapy. While dose modifications are utilized to ensure patient safety, the subsequent influence of dose adjustments on treatment exposure and efficacy have not been reported in detail. This exploratory analysis examined the influence of dose modifications on treatment exposure and efficacy in the phase III MPACT trial, which demonstrated superior efficacy of nab-paclitaxel (nab-P) plus gemcitabine (Gem) to Gem alone for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Patients received either nab-P 125 mg/m(2) + Gem 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks or Gem 1,000 mg/m(2) weekly for the first 7 of 8 weeks (cycle 1) and then days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks (cycle ≥2). The protocol allowed up to 2 dose reductions per agent. Dose delays were also used to manage toxicities. RESULTS: Toxicities that most commonly led to dose modifications were neutropenia, peripheral neuropathy, thrombocytopenia, and fatigue for nab-P and neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and fatigue for Gem alone. Baseline characteristics were similar in patients with dose modifications and the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Among the 421 treated patients in the nab-P + Gem arm, all patients initiated treatment at the per-protocol nab-P starting dose of 125 mg/m(2); 172 (41%) had a nab-P dose reduction, and 300 (71%) had a nab-P dose delay during the study. Most dose modifications occurred after the first 3 months (2 cycles) of treatment. The majority of patients (104/172, 60%) required only 1 nab-P dose reduction, and over half of patients (163/300) had either 1 or 2 dose delays. Patients who underwent dose modifications of nab-P had greater treatment exposure than those who did not in terms of treatment duration, number of cycles administered, and cumulative dose of nab-P delivered. Overall survival (OS) was shorter in the nab-P + Gem arm for patients who did not vs. did undergo dose reduction [median, 6.9 vs. 11.4 months; hazard ratio (HR), 1.93; 95% CI, 1.53-2.44; P<0.0001] and for those who did not vs. did undergo a dose delay (median, 6.2 vs. 10.1, HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.60-2.63; P<0.0001). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall response rate (ORR) were also improved in patients with dose modifications. Similar trends were observed in the Gem-alone arm. Multivariate analyses confirmed that both dose delay and dose reduction were significantly associated with OS. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that although most doses of nab-P were given at the starting dose of 125 mg/m(2) the first 3 of 4 weeks, dose reductions and delays were effective when necessary to ameliorate toxicity allowing greater treatment exposure without compromising efficacy.

16.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 7(2): 234-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination chemotherapy regimens including fluoropyrimidines as well as albumin-bound paclitaxel have shown promising results in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPC). Based on the recently described excellent therapeutic index of capecitabine plus nab-paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer, the present phase II trial was initiated. METHODS: Patients with previously untreated mPC were treated with capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) orally bid on days 1-15) and nab-paclitaxel (125 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 8) every 3 weeks. In patients without clinically relevant adverse reactions after the 1st treatment course (≤ grade 2 toxicities according to NCI-CTC vs. 4.0, exuding alopecia and fatigue of any degree) and adequate bone marrow function, the nab-paclitaxel dose was escalated to 100 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15 of each cycle; this intra-individual dose escalation was maintained during subsequent treatment courses if tolerated. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) according to RECIST criteria, assessed by an independent radiological review committee with evaluation performed every 2 months. RESULTS: Between 12/2013 and 01/2015, 30 patients were entered in this monocentric academic phase II trial. All patients had an ECOG performance status of 0-1, 80% had liver metastases and 23% had biliary stents in place at time of study initiation. Median CA19-9 was 1,004 U/mL (0.9-100.000 U/mL). In all patients except 2, a dose escalation of nab-paclitaxel after the 1st treatment course could be accomplished. The most common grade 3 adverse events (AEs) included transient sensory neuropathy (23%), (afebrile) neutropenia (17%), hand-foot-syndrome (13%) and phototoxic skin reaction (10%). Among 29 RECIST-response assessable patients, the ORR was 41.4% and stable disease (SD) was noted in 34.5%, resulting in a disease control rate (DCR) of 76%. After a median follow-up duration of 10.3 months (range, 1.9-19.0 months), 13/30 patients (43.3%) are presently being alive. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of capecitabine + nab-paclitaxel at these doses and scheduling was well tolerated and showed substantial antitumor efficacy.

17.
ESMO Open ; 1(6): e000084, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255450

RESUMO

Here, we report the history of a 42-year-old female patient with sporadic mismatch-repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer and abdominal bulky disease, who received pembrolizumab (200 mg every 3 weeks) after the failure of third-line treatment. Restaging 3 months after initiation of treatment revealed a striking response with shrinkage of the bulky peritoneal tumour mass (baseline size 11×11×14 cm) to nearly 25% of the original tumour volume (6.2×7.1×10.4 cm). Restaging 8 months after initiation showed further downsizing of the tumour mass (5.5×7.0×8.0 cm). Tumour markers CEA and CA 19-9 decreased to normal levels, haemoglobin level increased from 8 to 13 mg/dL and her overall clinical performance status increased from ECOG 3 to 1 within 3 months. Therapy with pembrolizumab was continued and is still ongoing. We emphasise the importance of testing for mismatch-repair status in metastatic disease.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 33(35): 4176-87, 2015 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26527776

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The MOSAIC (Multicenter International Study of Oxaliplatin/Fluorouracil/Leucovorin in the Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer) study has demonstrated 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and 6-year overall survival (OS) benefit of adjuvant oxaliplatin in stage II to III resected colon cancer. This update presents 10-year OS and OS and DFS by mismatch repair (MMR) status and BRAF mutation. METHODS: Survival actualization after 10-year follow-up was performed in 2,246 patients with resected stage II to III colon cancer. We assessed MMR status and BRAF mutation in 1,008 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 9.5 years, 10-year OS rates in the bolus/infusional fluorouracil plus leucovorin (LV5FU2) and LV5FU2 plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) arms were 67.1% versus 71.7% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; P = .043) in the whole population, 79.5% versus 78.4% for stage II (HR, 1.00; P = .980), and 59.0% versus 67.1% for stage III (HR, 0.80; P = .016) disease. Ninety-five patients (9.4%) had MMR-deficient (dMMR) tumors, and 94 (10.4%) had BRAF mutation. BRAF mutation was not prognostic for OS (P = .965), but dMMR was an independent prognostic factor (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.55; P = .014). HRs for DFS and OS benefit in the FOLFOX4 arm were 0.48 (95% CI, 0.20 to 1.12) and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.16 to 1.07), respectively, in patients with stage II to III dMMR and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.25 to 1.00) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.42), respectively, in those with BRAF mutation. CONCLUSION: The OS benefit of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy, increasing over time and with the disease severity, was confirmed at 10 years in patients with stage II to III colon cancer. These updated results support the use of FOLFOX in patients with stage III disease, including those with dMMR or BRAF mutation.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Ácido Glutâmico , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Valina
19.
Lancet Oncol ; 16(15): 1493-1505, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26474518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of an anti-VEGF or an anti-EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibody with chemotherapy has shown clinical activity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, combining both anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR antibodies with chemotherapy in first-line treatment resulted in adverse outcomes. We assessed whether the combination of erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with bevacizumab could increase the efficacy of maintenance therapy in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 study was undertaken in 49 centres in France, Austria, and Canada. Eligible patients were aged 18-80 years with histologically confirmed, unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer, WHO performance status 0-2, had received no previous therapy for metastatic disease, and had adequate organ function. Patients without disease progression after bevacizumab-based induction therapy were randomly assigned (1:1) by a minimisation technique to bevacizumab (7·5 mg/kg every 3 weeks) or bevacizumab plus erlotinib (150 mg once daily) as maintenance therapy until progression. All patients were stratified by centre, baseline performance status, age, and number of metastatic sites. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival on maintenance therapy analysed by intention to treat. We report the final analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00265824. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2007, and Oct 13, 2011, 700 eligible patients were enrolled; following induction treatment, patients without disease progression were randomly assigned to bevacizumab (n=228) or bevacizumab plus erlotinib (n=224). At the final analysis, median follow-up was 51·0 months (IQR 36·0-60·0) in the bevacizumab group and 48·3 months (31·5-61·0) in the bevacizumab plus erlotinib group. In the primary analysis (after 231 progression-free survival events), median progression-free survival from randomisation was 5·1 months (95% CI 4·1-5·9) in the bevacizumab plus erlotinib group compared with 6·0 months (4·6-7·9) in the bevacizumab group (stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·79 [95% CI 0·60-1·06]; p=0·11; unstratified HR 0·76 [0·59-0·99]; p=0·043). In the final analysis, median progression-free survival from randomisation was 5·4 months (95% CI 4·3-6·2) in the bevacizumab plus erlotinib group compared with 4·9 months (4·1-5·7) in the bevacizumab group (stratified HR 0·81 [95% CI 0·66-1·01], p=0·059; unstratified HR 0·78 [0·68-0·96], p=0·019). At the final analysis, median overall survival from maintenance was 24·9 months (95% CI 21·4-28·9) in the bevacizumab plus erlotinib group and 22·1 months (19·6-26·7) in the bevacizumab group (stratified HR 0·79 [95% CI 0·63-0·99], p=0·036; unstratified HR 0·79 [0·64-0·98], p=0·035). The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were skin rash (47 [21%] of 220 patients in the bevacizumab plus erlotinib group vs none of 224 patients in the bevacizumab alone group), diarrhoea (21 [10%] vs two [<1%]), and asthenia (12 [5%] vs two [<1%]). INTERPRETATION: Maintenance bevacizumab plus erlotinib might be a new non-chemotherapy-based maintenance option for the first-line treatment of patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer after bevacizumab-based induction therapy. FUNDING: GERCOR and F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Thromb Res ; 136(5): 865-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26440977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrin ß3 is involved in tumor and endothelial cell biology as well as in platelet aggregation. Herein, we evaluated the predictive potential of three germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the integrin ß3 gene (rs3809865, rs5918 and rs4642) to predict the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, which is one of the leading causes of death among cancer patients. METHODS: 112 patients diagnosed with CRC enrolled in the prospective Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS) were assessed with a median follow-up of 46 months. DNA was isolated from venous blood samples and SNPs were analyzed by the PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS: VTE occurred in 12% (n=13) of all patients. The SNPs rs5918 and rs4642 were not associated with VTE risk. For rs3809565, 23% (n=11) of patients had the A/A genotype, 4% (n=2) had the A/T genotype, but none (0%) had the T/T genotype. In the univariate analysis, patients with the A/A genotype had a significantly higher risk to develop VTE compared to the other polymorphisms (P=0.0005 after Fine and Gray). In the multivariable analysis, the predictive value remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the rs3809865 A/A genotype as an independent risk factor for VTE in CRC patients. Our findings would help identify high risk patients and would be essential for tailored anticoagulant prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Integrina beta3/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Integrina beta3/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue
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