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1.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 139(6): 519-525, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression and anxiety symptoms are common among patients with epilepsy, but are relatively under-researched in patients with both epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to investigate whether epilepsy and ID characteristics are associated with mood, anxiety, and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult patients with epilepsy and ID who rely on tertiary epilepsy care were included (N = 189). Mood, anxiety, and quality of life were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Epilepsy and ID characteristics were retrieved from patient charts or determined by psychometric instruments. RESULTS: Elevated levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms were present in 21.7% and 12.7%, respectively. Anxiety was significantly associated with a focal epilepsy type and ID domain discrepancy (substantial difference between two domains of adaptive behavior), but was negatively related to seizure frequency and drug load of mood-stabilizing antiepileptic drugs. Depressive symptoms were not significantly related to epilepsy characteristics, but a severe ID and ID domain discrepancy was associated with more depressive symptoms. Quality of life was significantly worse in those with multiple seizure types and ID domain discrepancy. CONCLUSION: Whereas anxiety and quality of life are associated with individual epilepsy characteristics, this could not be confirmed for depressive symptoms in patients with epilepsy and ID, despite its high prevalence.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Epilepsia ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is highly prevalent among patients with intellectual disability (ID), and seizure control is often difficult. Identification of the underlying etiology in this patient group is important for daily clinical care. We assessed the diagnostic yield of whole exome sequencing (WES). In addition, we evaluated which clinical characteristics influence the likelihood of identifying a genetic cause and we assessed the potential impact of the genetic diagnosis on (antiepileptic) treatment strategy. METHODS: One hundred patients with both unexplained epilepsy and (borderline) ID (intelligence quotient ≤ 85) were included. All patients were evaluated by a clinical geneticist, a (pediatric) neurologist, and/or a specialist ID physician. WES analysis was performed in two steps. In step 1, analysis was restricted to the latest versions of ID and/or epilepsy gene panels. In step 2, exome analysis was extended to all genes (so-called full exome analysis). The results were classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. RESULTS: In 58 patients, the diagnostic WES analysis reported one or more variant(s). In 25 of the 100 patients, these were classified as (likely) pathogenic, in 24 patients as variants of uncertain significance, and in the remaining patients the variant was most likely not related to the phenotype. In 10 of 25 patients (40%) with a (likely) pathogenic variant, the genetic diagnosis might have an impact on the treatment strategy in the future. SIGNIFICANCE: This study illustrates the clinical diagnostic relevance of WES for patients with both epilepsy and ID. It also demonstrates that implementing WES diagnostics might have impact on the (antiepileptic) treatment strategy in this population. Confirmation of variants of uncertain significance in (candidate) genes may further increase the yield.

3.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 3, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defects (GPIBDs) cause a group of phenotypically overlapping recessive syndromes with intellectual disability, for which pathogenic mutations have been described in 16 genes of the corresponding molecular pathway. An elevated serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP), a GPI-linked enzyme, has been used to assign GPIBDs to the phenotypic series of hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS) and to distinguish them from another subset of GPIBDs, termed multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizures syndrome (MCAHS). However, the increasing number of individuals with a GPIBD shows that hyperphosphatasia is a variable feature that is not ideal for a clinical classification. METHODS: We studied the discriminatory power of multiple GPI-linked substrates that were assessed by flow cytometry in blood cells and fibroblasts of 39 and 14 individuals with a GPIBD, respectively. On the phenotypic level, we evaluated the frequency of occurrence of clinical symptoms and analyzed the performance of computer-assisted image analysis of the facial gestalt in 91 individuals. RESULTS: We found that certain malformations such as Morbus Hirschsprung and diaphragmatic defects are more likely to be associated with particular gene defects (PIGV, PGAP3, PIGN). However, especially at the severe end of the clinical spectrum of HPMRS, there is a high phenotypic overlap with MCAHS. Elevation of AP has also been documented in some of the individuals with MCAHS, namely those with PIGA mutations. Although the impairment of GPI-linked substrates is supposed to play the key role in the pathophysiology of GPIBDs, we could not observe gene-specific profiles for flow cytometric markers or a correlation between their cell surface levels and the severity of the phenotype. In contrast, it was facial recognition software that achieved the highest accuracy in predicting the disease-causing gene in a GPIBD. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the overlapping clinical spectrum of both HPMRS and MCAHS in the majority of affected individuals, the elevation of AP and the reduced surface levels of GPI-linked markers in both groups, a common classification as GPIBDs is recommended. The effectiveness of computer-assisted gestalt analysis for the correct gene inference in a GPIBD and probably beyond is remarkable and illustrates how the information contained in human faces is pivotal in the delineation of genetic entities.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/biossíntese , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Automação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Fósforo/metabolismo , Síndrome
4.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 21(2): 101-107, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152329

RESUMO

The assessment of intellectual abilities is intensive, time-consuming, and might be considered burdensome for patients. We examined psychometric qualities of short forms (SFs) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-third edition) and for adults (WAIS-fourth edition), in children (n = 986; Mage = 10.9) and adults (n = 324; Mage = 40.9) with neurological disorders. SF estimates were compared with Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), obtained by a complete administration, for the entire sample and for the subgroups FSIQ < 80 and FSIQ ≥ 80. The FSIQ was correctly identified within ± 7 points in 86% of children and 87% of adults. There were, however, some differences regarding the optimal SF subtest combination between subgroups. Although clinical inferences should not be made, SFs may be useful in research settings to obtain a global estimate of intelligence, and in clinical settings to screen periodically for possible intellectual deterioration.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Escalas de Wechsler/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 55(2): 585-595, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27662293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous disease both at the clinical, genetic, and pathobiological level. The underlying pathological spectrum (termed FTLD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration) is in most cases defined by accumulation of either tau (FTLD-tau) or TDP-43 proteins (FTLD-TDP). Biomarkers to differentiate these subtypes are not yet available, whereas these are essential requirements to study the natural course of disease and for homogeneous inclusion of patients in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE: To study if a combination of total (t-) and phosphorylated (p-)tau, and t-TDP-43 and p-TDP-43 proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suitable to discriminate FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP subtypes. METHODS: We developed immunoassays for the quantification of t-TDP-43 and p-TDP-43 proteins and used commercially available assays for the quantification of t-tau and p-tau proteins. We quantified these proteins in ventricular CSF samples from neuropathologically defined FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP cases to study the reflection of underlying brain pathology in CSF composition, and in lumbar CSF samples from FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP patients to study the diagnostic potential of CSF biomarkers. RESULTS: In ventricular CSF, t-TDP-43 and t-tau levels, when combined into one model, were significantly different between neuropathologically-defined FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP cases. In a pilot study using lumbar CSF, the p-tau/t-tau ratio, but not t-TDP-43 levels, were significantly different between FTLD-TDP and FTLD-tau patients. CONCLUSION: We conclude that with current available methods, CSF tau, rather than TDP-43 proteins, may have diagnostic value in the differentiation of FTLD patients with either tau or TDP-43 pathology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/classificação , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 66: 64-67, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28038388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Initial registration studies of perampanel (PMP), an AMPA receptor antagonist, have now been followed up by 'clinical' studies that confirmed its efficacy and safety in patients with refractory epilepsy. Publications on the use of PMP among patients with intellectual disability (ID) are still limited. This study extends our knowledge with respect to the relevance of PMP for patients with both ID and epilepsy, and furthermore specifies the behavioral side effects of PMP in this specific population. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of medical records at 3, 6 and 12months of follow-up after the initial start of PMP. RESULTS: 62 patients were included. 21 patients (33.9%) were female. All patients had complete data of 6months follow-up and we were able to review 42 patients with a 1-year follow-up. Level of ID varied from borderline to profound, and mild ID was most common (43.5%). The mean maximum daily dosage of PMP was 5.6mg (range 1-12mg). Retention rates for PMP were 87.1% and 67.7% after three and six months. A trend indicated a longer mean retention time in patients with a more severe ID (borderline-mild-moderate ID: 205days, severe-profound ID: 275days). Seizure reduction was achieved in 53.2%. 36 patients (58.1%) experienced adverse effects, 80.6% of those within 3months. 45.2% of the patients experienced somatic adverse effects. Most common were fatigue & sleep problems, motor problems & unsteadiness, and gastrointestinal problems. Behavioral adverse effects were present in 40.3%. Most common were aggression, agitated behavior, disruptive behavior, and mood symptoms. Reasons for discontinuation of PMP were lack of efficacy in 14.8%, intolerable adverse effects in 44.4%, and a combination of both in 40.7%. Altogether, 24.2% (15/62) of the patients achieved seizure reduction without experiencing adverse effects, though none reached seizure freedom. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PMP might lead to an effective seizure reduction without adverse effects in a minority of patients with both epilepsy and ID. Pre-existing behavioral problems or polypharmacy do not predict the occurrence of additional behavioral adverse effects, implying that these patients need not be excluded from the introduction of PMP when clinically indicated. Patients should, ideally, be monitored at a multidisciplinary clinic.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Receptores de AMPA/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 60: 130-137, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27206231

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that is particularly common in people with intellectual disability (ID). The care for people with both epilepsy and ID is often complicated by the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders, defined as psychiatric symptoms, psychiatric disorders, and behavioral problems. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between epilepsy or epilepsy-related factors and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with ID and between ID and neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with epilepsy. We performed a systematic review of the literature, published between January 1995 and January 2015 and retrieved from PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, and ERIC and assessed the risk of bias using the SIGN-50 methodology. Forty-two studies were identified, fifteen of which were assessed as having a low or acceptable risk-of-bias evaluation. Neuropsychiatric comorbidities were examined in relation to epilepsy in nine studies; in relation to epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure activity, seizure type, and medication in four studies; and in relation to the presence and degree of ID in five studies. We conclude that the presence of epilepsy only was not a clear determinant of neuropsychiatric comorbidity in patients with ID, although a tendency towards negative mood symptoms was identified. Epilepsy-related factors indicating a more severe form of epilepsy were associated with neuropsychiatric comorbidity as was the presence of ID as compared to those without ID in patients with epilepsy, although this should be validated in future research. A large proportion of the studies in this area is associated with a substantial risk of bias. There is a need for high quality studies using standardized methods to enable clear conclusions to be drawn that might assist in improving the quality of care for this population.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/psicologia
9.
J Neurol ; 261(10): 1894-901, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25022937

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine if quality of care, symptoms of depression, disease characteristics and quality of life of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are related to requesting euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) and dying due to EAS. Therefore, 102 ALS patients filled out structured questionnaires every 3 months until death and the results were correlated with EAS. Thirty-one percent of the patients requested EAS, 69% of whom eventually died as a result of EAS (22% of all patients). Ten percent died during continuous deep sedation; only one of them had explicitly requested death to be hastened. Of the patients who requested EAS, 86% considered the health care to be good or excellent, 16% felt depressed, 45% experienced loss of dignity and 42% feared choking. These percentages do not differ from the number of patients who did not explicitly request EAS. The frequency of consultations of professional caregivers and availability of appliances was similar in both groups. Our findings do not support continuous deep sedation being used as a substitute for EAS. In this prospective study, no evidence was found for a relation between EAS and the quality and quantity of care received, quality of life and symptoms of depression in patients with ALS. Our study does not support the notion that unmet palliative care needs are related to EAS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Eutanásia/psicologia , Suicídio Assistido/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Tomada de Decisões , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(6): 946-54, 2013 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23664116

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders caused by degeneration of lower motor neurons. Although functional loss of SMN1 is associated with autosomal-recessive childhood SMA, the genetic cause for most families affected by dominantly inherited SMA is unknown. Here, we identified pathogenic variants in bicaudal D homolog 2 (Drosophila) (BICD2) in three families afflicted with autosomal-dominant SMA. Affected individuals displayed congenital slowly progressive muscle weakness mainly of the lower limbs and congenital contractures. In a large Dutch family, linkage analysis identified a 9q22.3 locus in which exome sequencing uncovered c.320C>T (p.Ser107Leu) in BICD2. Sequencing of 23 additional families affected by dominant SMA led to the identification of pathogenic variants in one family from Canada (c.2108C>T [p.Thr703Met]) and one from the Netherlands (c.563A>C [p.Asn188Thr]). BICD2 is a golgin and motor-adaptor protein involved in Golgi dynamics and vesicular and mRNA transport. Transient transfection of HeLa cells with all three mutant BICD2 cDNAs caused massive Golgi fragmentation. This observation was even more prominent in primary fibroblasts from an individual harboring c.2108C>T (p.Thr703Met) (affecting the C-terminal coiled-coil domain) and slightly less evident in individuals with c.563A>C (p.Asn188Thr) (affecting the N-terminal coiled-coil domain). Furthermore, BICD2 levels were reduced in affected individuals and trapped within the fragmented Golgi. Previous studies have shown that Drosophila mutant BicD causes reduced larvae locomotion by impaired clathrin-mediated synaptic endocytosis in neuromuscular junctions. These data emphasize the relevance of BICD2 in synaptic-vesicle recycling and support the conclusion that BICD2 mutations cause congenital slowly progressive dominant SMA.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Genes Dominantes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/patologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/congênito , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/patologia , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Ann Neurol ; 73(3): 397-407, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23460448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by both degenerative and autoimmune features. In contrast to other inflammatory myopathies, myositis-specific autoantibodies had not been found in sIBM patients until recently. We used human skeletal muscle extracts as a source of antigens to detect autoantibodies in sIBM and to characterize the corresponding antigen. METHODS: Autoantibodies to skeletal muscle antigens were detected by immunoblotting. The target antigen was immunoaffinity-purified from skeletal muscle extracts and characterized by mass spectrometry. A cDNA encoding this protein was cloned and expressed in vitro, and its recognition by patient sera was analyzed in an immunoprecipitation assay. Epitopes were mapped using microarrays of overlapping peptides. RESULTS: An Mr 44,000 polypeptide (Mup44) was frequently targeted by sIBM autoantibodies. The target protein was purified, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Mup44 is the cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A (cN1A). By immunoprecipitation of recombinant cN1A, high concentrations of anti-Mup44 autoantibodies were detected in 33% of sIBM patient sera, whereas their prevalence in dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and other neuromuscular disorders appeared to be rare (4.2%, 4.5%, and 3.2%, respectively). Low concentrations of anti-Mup44 antibodies were found in myositis as well as other neuromuscular disorders, but not in healthy controls. Three major autoepitope regions of cN1A were mapped by using microarrays containing a set of overlapping peptides covering the complete cN1A amino acid sequence. INTERPRETATION: Anti-Mup44 autoantibodies, which are targeted to cN1A, represent the first serological biomarker for sIBM and may facilitate the diagnosis of this type of myositis.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/sangue , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/imunologia , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Ensaio de Radioimunoprecipitação
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(11): 1312-5, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23443022

RESUMO

Although SPG11 is the most common complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia, our knowledge of the long-term prognosis and life expectancy is limited. We therefore studied the disease course of all patients with a proven SPG11 mutation as tested in our laboratory, the single Dutch laboratory providing SPG11 mutation analysis, between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2011. We identified nine different SPG11 mutations, four of which are novel, in nine index patients. Eighteen SPG11 patients from these nine families were studied by means of a retrospective chart analysis and additional interview/examination. Ages at onset were between 4 months and 14 years; 39% started with learning difficulties rather than gait impairment. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a thin corpus callosum and typical periventricular white matter changes in the frontal horn region (known as the 'ears-of the lynx'-sign) in all. Most patients became wheelchair bound after a disease duration of 1 to 2 decades. End-stage disease consisted of loss of spontaneous speech, severe dysphagia, spastic tetraplegia with peripheral nerve involvement and contractures. Several patients died of complications between ages 30 and 48 years, 3-4 decades after onset of gait impairment. Other relevant features during the disease were urinary and fecal incontinence, obesity and psychosis. Our study of 18 Dutch SPG11-patients shows the potential serious long-term consequences of SPG11 including a possibly restricted life span.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Países Baixos , Fenótipo , Proteínas/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(1): 102-8, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22692064

RESUMO

A massive hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation (HREM) in C9ORF72 has recently been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here we describe the frequency, origin and stability of this mutation in ALS+/-FTD from five European cohorts (total n=1347). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms defining the risk haplotype in linked kindreds were genotyped in cases (n=434) and controls (n=856). Haplotypes were analysed using PLINK and aged using DMLE+. In a London clinic cohort, the HREM was the most common mutation in familial ALS+/-FTD: C9ORF72 29/112 (26%), SOD1 27/112 (24%), TARDBP 1/112 (1%) and FUS 4/112 (4%) and detected in 13/216 (6%) of unselected sporadic ALS cases but was rare in controls (3/856, 0.3%). HREM prevalence was high for familial ALS+/-FTD throughout Europe: Belgium 19/22 (86%), Sweden 30/41 (73%), the Netherlands 10/27 (37%) and Italy 4/20 (20%). The HREM did not affect the age at onset or survival of ALS patients. Haplotype analysis identified a common founder in all 137 HREM carriers that arose around 6300 years ago. The haplotype from which the HREM arose is intrinsically unstable with an increased number of repeats (average 8, compared with 2 for controls, P<10(-8)). We conclude that the HREM has a single founder and is the most common mutation in familial and sporadic ALS in Europe.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Efeito Fundador , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Mutação , Proteínas/genética , Idade de Início , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Proteína C9orf72 , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Demência Frontotemporal/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Instabilidade Genômica , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
15.
PLoS One ; 7(11): e48983, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23155438

RESUMO

Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are devastating motor neuron diseases (MNDs), which result in muscle weakness and/or spasticity. We compared mutation frequencies in genes known to be associated with MNDs between patients with apparently sporadic PMA and ALS. A total of 261 patients with adult-onset sporadic PMA, patients with sporadic ALS, and control subjects of Dutch descent were obtained at national referral centers for neuromuscular diseases in The Netherlands. Sanger sequencing was used to screen these subjects for mutations in the coding regions of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), angiogenin (ANG), fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP), and multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). In our cohort of PMA patients we identified two SOD1 mutations (p.D90A, p.I113T), one ANG mutation (p.K17I), one FUS/TLS mutation (p.R521H), one TARDBP mutation (p.N352S), and one novel CHMP2B mutation (p.R69Q). The mutation frequency of these genes was similar in sporadic PMA (2.7%) and ALS (2.0%) patients, and therefore, our findings demonstrate a genetic overlap between apparently sporadic PMA and ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Ribonuclease Pancreático/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1
17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 33(12): 2950.e1-4, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22878164

RESUMO

Previously, we have reported amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) families with multiple mutations in major ALS-associated genes. These findings provided evidence for an oligogenic basis of ALS. In our present study, we screened a cohort of 755 sporadic ALS patients, 111 familial ALS patients (97 families), and 765 control subjects of Dutch descent for mutations in vesicle-associated membrane protein B (VAPB). We have identified 1 novel VAPB mutation (p.V234I) in a familial ALS patient known to have a chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansion. This p.V234I mutation was absent in control subjects, located in a region with high evolutionary conservation, and predicted to have damaging effects. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence for an oligogenic basis of ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Idoso , Proteína C9orf72 , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Neurology ; 79(9): 878-82, 2012 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22843265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and phenotype of hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9ORF72 in a large cohort of patients of Dutch descent with familial (fALS) and sporadic (sALS) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). METHODS: Included were 78 patients with fALS, 1,422 with sALS, 246 with PMA, and 110 with PLS, and 768 control subjects. Repeat expansions were determined by a repeat primed PCR. Familial aggregation of dementia and Parkinson disease (PD) was examined among patients with ALS who carried the repeat expansion. RESULTS: The expanded repeat was found in 33 (37%) of all patients with fALS, in 87 (6.1%) patients with sALS, in 4 (1.6%) patients with PMA, and in 1 (0.9%) patient with PLS. None of the controls carried the mutation. Patients with ALS with the repeat expansion had an earlier age at onset (median 59.3 vs 61.9 years, hazard ratio 1.55, p = 5 × 10(-5)) and shorter survival (median 2.5 vs 2.7 years, hazard ratio 1.46, p = 8 × 10(-4)). Dementia, but not PD, occurred nearly twice as often in relatives of patients with the expansion compared to all patients with ALS or controls (p = 9 × 10(-4)). CONCLUSIONS: The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is a major cause of fALS and apparently sporadic ALS in the Netherlands. Patients who carry the repeat expansion have an earlier onset, shorter survival, and familial aggregation of dementia. These results challenge the classic definition of fALS and may justify genetic testing in patients with sALS.


Assuntos
Doença dos Neurônios Motores/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72 , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , DNA/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Demência/complicações , Demência/genética , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/complicações , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Mutação/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 176(3): 233-9, 2012 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22791740

RESUMO

Smoking has been posited as a possible risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but large population-based studies of patients with incident disease are still needed. The authors performed a population-based case-control study in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, including 494 patients with incident ALS and 1,599 controls. To prove the relevance of population-based incidence cohorts in case-control studies, the authors compared results with those from cohorts including patients with prevalent ALS and referral patients. Subjects were sent a questionnaire. Multivariate analyses showed an increased risk of ALS among current smokers (odds ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.88) in the incident patient group only. Cox regression models showed that current smoking was also independently associated with shorter survival (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.15), explaining the lack of association in the prevalent and referral patient groups. Current alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk of ALS (incident patient group: odds ratio = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.75). These findings indicate that current smoking is associated with an increased risk of ALS, as well as a worse prognosis, and alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of ALS, further corroborating the role of lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis of ALS. The importance of population-based incident patient cohorts in identifying risk factors is highlighted by this study.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurobiol Aging ; 33(9): 2233.e7-2233.e8, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22676852

RESUMO

Recently it was discovered that mutations in the UBQLN2 gene were a cause of an X-linked dominant type of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the frequency of mutations in this gene in a cohort of 92 families with ALS in the Netherlands. Eight families were excluded because of male-to-male transmission. In the remaining 84 familial ALS cases no mutations were discovered in UBQLN2. Hence, UBQLN2 was not found to be a cause of familial ALS in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Saúde da Família , Mutação/genética , Ubiquitinas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos
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