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2.
Reprod Toxicol ; 100: 137-142, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539902

RESUMO

In Europe, the male to female ratio at birth (secondary sex ratio: SSR; sex odds: SO) is 1.04-1.06, is influenced by many factors and is declining in industrialized countries. This study was carried out to identify possible impacts of fallout by atomic bomb tests or by the Chernobyl event on SSR in Italy. Italy is a country without commercial nuclear power generation for the last four decades and thus nearly free of radiological confounders. Counts of annual male and female live births in Italy are provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT). This study included 57.7 million live births (1940-2019) with overall SSR 1.05829. The Italian SSR trend was modelled with linear and non-linear logistic regression. Trend changes, i.e., periods with level shifts were estimated with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Two distinct idealized level shifts were identified superimposed on a uniform secular downward trend. The first one is seen towards the end of the 1960s with a jump sex odds ratio (SOR) 1.00681, p < 0.0001. The second one occurred in 1987 with SOR 1.00474, p < 0.0001. In each of the 3 periods separated by the two jumps, SSR uniformly decreased with trend SOR per 100 years of 0.98549, p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the secular trend in the Italian SSR showed two marked level shifts, at the end of the 1960s and from 1987 onward. These follow the release of radioactivity by atmospheric atomic bomb tests during the 1960s and by Chernobyl in 1986 and corroborate the hypothesis that ionizing radiation increases SSR.

5.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 123, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239051

RESUMO

We thank Sani Rachman Soleman et al. for three specific points of criticism concerning our investigation of the ecological association between low birth weight (LBW) and radioactive contamination in Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accidents: 1. Ecological variables are not justified enough to adjust potential confounding. 2. The spatiotemporal regression model does not consider temporal reduction in radiation dose rate. 3. Dose-response plot between dose rates and odds ratios overestimates R2 and underestimates p-value. This criticism is a good starting point to explain some of the technical backgrounds of our approach in more detail.

6.
Early Hum Dev ; : 105250, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213969

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social distancing measures and hospital preparations for the novel COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with a decline in elective and acute hospital encounters in March and April in several centres in different countries. Malta has one large acute general hospital, Mater Dei (MDH). This study retrospectively analysed these declines since soft lockdown commencing on the 13th March 2020 in a population-based study, the first of its kind. METHODS: Data was obtained as anonymised totals from MDH Clinical Performance Unit. Poisson regression was used to model the counts of weekly A&E attendances and hospital admissions. RESULTS: Outpatient attendances declined in March, stabilised in April 2020 and started to climb in May. April attendances fell to 18.8% in paediatrics and 23.4% in adults of the average of the previous January and February. A&E attendances showed the same pattern, down to 22.5% and all specialities registered a decline, paediatric > adult. Attendances dropped from circa 2600 to 588/month/100,000 population. These declines were abrupt after the second week of March. MDH admissions showed the same patterns, down from circa 1800 to 757/month/100,000 population. All declines were statistically significant. DISCUSSION: Many factors played a role in this unwilling experiment but the reduction in travel and physical human contact of all sorts (including school) contributed to a reduction in contagious diseases. Excess deaths of severely ill individuals who failed to go to hospital have yet to be formally quantified in Malta.

7.
Early Hum Dev ; : 105210, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The world continues in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. Widespread public health measures and travel restrictions have dampened viral spread but outbreaks are expected as restrictions are raised. This study was carried out in order to devise an approach that may help to predict deaths based on upsurges (spikes or waves) of cases. METHODS: Publically available data for daily new cases and deaths from December 2019 to August 2020 was obtained from the Our World In Data website. For the purposes of more detailed analysis, in addition to total global data, three countries were chosen for sub analysis: Italy, Germany and the United States. RESULTS: Delay to death (days) were as follows: World: 20.6 (95% CI: 8.4-32.8); USA: 19.8 (95% CI: 9.3-30.4); Germany: 18.8 (95% CI: 6.1-31.6); Italy: 2.4 (95% CI -10.2-15.0). DISCUSSION: Countries may be able to contain viral resurgence by adhering to WHO advice for reopening from restrictions/lockdowns. However, outbreaks are almost inevitable and deaths are to be expected approximately 20 days after rises in cases. This paper may therefore aid healthcare systems and hospitals for surges in cases as positive COVID-19 swabs increase in any given locality. Italy was an exception in these results as the initial surge and swabs taken represented symptomatic/admitted cases and not community surveillance tracking and tracing.

8.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 82, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality increased in contaminated prefectures after the Fukushima Daichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accidents in Japan in 2011. Elevated counts of surgeries for cryptorchidism and congenital heart malformations were observed throughout Japan from 2012 onward. The thyroid cancer detection rate (2011 to 2016) was associated with the dose-rate at the municipality level in the Fukushima prefecture. Since the birth weight is a simple and objective indicator for gestational development and pregnancy outcome, the question arises whether the annual birth weight distribution was distorted in a dose-rate-dependent manner across Japan after Fukushima. METHODS: The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare provides prefecture-specific annual counts for 26.158 million live births from 1995 to 2018, of which 2.366 million births (9.04%) with weights < 2500 g. Prefecture-specific spatiotemporal trends of the low birth weight proportions were analyzed. Logistic regression allowing for level-shifts from 2012 onward was employed to test whether those level-shifts were proportional to the prefecture-specific dose-rates derived from Cs-137 deposition in the 47 Japanese prefectures. RESULTS: The overall trend of the low birth weight prevalence (LBWp) in Japan discloses a jump in 2012 with a jump odds ratio (OR) 1.020, 95%-confidence interval (1.003,1.037), p-value 0.0246. A logistic regression of LBWp on the additional dose-rate after the FDNPP accidents adjusted for prefecture-specific spatiotemporal base-line trends yields an OR per µSv/h of 1.098 (1.058, 1.139), p-value < 0.0001. Further adjusting the logistic regression for the annual population size and physician density of the prefectures, as well as for the counts of the dead, the missing, and the evacuees due to earthquake and tsunami (as surrogate measures for medical infrastructure and stress) yields an OR per µSv/h of 1.109 (1.032, 1.191), p-value 0.0046. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows increased low birth weight prevalence related to the Cs-137 deposition and the corresponding additional dose-rate in Japan from 2012 onward. Previous evidence suggesting compromised gestational development and pregnancy outcome under elevated environmental ionizing radiation exposure is corroborated.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/efeitos adversos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Prevalência , Análise Espaço-Temporal
9.
Early Hum Dev ; 141: 104869, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540741

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The human sex ratio or sex odds at birth (M/F) are influenced by many factors. Radiation is the only stressor known to elevate the ratio while dropping total births. The Mainz research nuclear reactor (FRMZ) underwent extensive refurbishment commencing in 1992 and with further upgrading in 2011. This study was carried out in order to investigate any possible effects of these events on M/F. METHODS: Annual municipality-specific births by sex were obtained from official government sources. Statistical methods used included ordinary linear logistic regression and Poisson regression. RESULTS: M/F rose significantly in 1993 only close to the FRMZ (<10 km) with sex odds ratio (SOR) 1.023 (p = 0.0074) and this rise was associated with numerically equivalent drops in male births of 4.01% (p = 0.0251) and female births of 6.17% (p = 0.0005). No such effects were seen beyond 10 km. DISCUSSION: These findings add to the corpus of evidence that man-made radiation may have significant effects on total births and on M/F with a skew toward male births. While the authors are certain that suitable precautions were taken when the reactor in Mainz was handled, the findings imply that these may not have been sufficient. Perhaps even greater care and even more stringent precautions need to be employed when dealing with radioactive elements. It clearly behoves humanity to exercise extreme caution when handling, processing, and storing radioactive materials and waste.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17165, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517868

RESUMO

A thyroid cancer ultrasonography screening for all residents 18 years old or younger living in the Fukushima prefecture started in October 2011 to investigate the possible effect of the radiological contamination after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accidents as of March 12 to 15, 2011. Thyroid cancer in 184 cases was reported by February 2017. The question arises to which extent those cancer cases are a biological consequence of the radiation exposure or an artefactual result of the intense screening of a large population.Experiences with the Chernobyl accident suggest that the external dose may be considered a valid surrogate for the internal dose of the thyroid gland. We, therefore, calculated the average external effective dose-rate (µSv/h) for the 59 municipalities of the Fukushima prefecture based on published data of air and soil radiation. We further determined the municipality-specific absolute numbers of thyroid cancers found by each of the two screening rounds in the corresponding municipality-specific exposed person-time observed. A possible association between the radiation exposure and the thyroid cancer detection rate was analyzed with Poisson regression assuming Poisson distributed thyroid cancer cases in the exposed person-time observed per municipality.The target populations consisted of 367,674 and 381,286 children and adolescents for the 1st and the 2nd screening rounds, respectively. In the 1st screening, 300,476 persons participated and 270,489 in the 2nd round. From October 2011 to March 2016, a total of 184 cancer cases were found in 1,079,786 person-years counted from the onset of the exposure to the corresponding examination periods in the municipalities. A significant association between the external effective dose-rate and the thyroid cancer detection rate exists: detection rate ratio (DRR) per µSv/h 1.065 (1.013, 1.119). Restricting the analysis to the 53 municipalities that received less than 2 µSv/h, and which represent 176 of the total 184 cancer cases, the association appears to be considerably stronger: DRR per µSv/h 1.555 (1.096, 2.206).The average radiation dose-rates in the 59 municipalities of the Fukushima prefecture in June 2011 and the corresponding thyroid cancer detection rates in the period October 2011 to March 2016 show statistically significant relationships.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Doses de Radiação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
11.
Reprod Toxicol ; 89: 159-167, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351881

RESUMO

Increases in childhood cancer near nuclear facilities in France and in Germany as well as elevated human birth sex ratios after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests and after Chernobyl motivated the inspection of the secondary sex ratio and the corresponding gender-specific birth counts in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Focus is on which changes in the birth counts go along with significant changes in the sex ratios. Official municipality-specific annual birth counts by sex for all of France and for whole Germany are updated until 2016 and 2017, respectively. Using logistic regression, we determine significant change-points (jumps) after distinct radiological events in sex ratio time-trends in circular areas around pertinent nuclear facilities. With Poisson regression, we quantify the corresponding change-points in the trends of absolute annual birth counts for boys and girls. In the 35-km vicinity of the 'Centre de l'Aube Nuclear Disposal Facility (CSA)' in France in the year 2000, we observe a jump in the sex odds (SO) with sex odds ratio (SOR) 1.101; 95% CI: (1.033, 1.175), p-value 0.0033. This jump in the sex odds can be associated with a drop in boys of 3.44% (-4.02, 10.37), p-value 0.3561, and a drop in girls of 8.44% (1.33, 15.04), p-value 0.0208. In the highly populated area around the nuclear power plant Philippsburg in Germany from 2001 onward, we see a similar effect: SOR 1.027 (1.008, 1.046), p-value 0.0045; drop in boys 5.56% (2.24, 8.76), p-value 0.0012; drop in girls 6.92% (3.62, 10.10), p-value <0.0001. The presented findings corroborate and specify earlier observations and call for intensifying bio-physical research in exposure mechanisms and exposure pathways of natural or artificial ionizing radiation including neutron radiation and neutron activation. Reinforced biological and epidemiological research should aim at clarifying the associated genetic and carcinogenic consequences at the population level.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Centrais Nucleares , Radiação Ionizante , Cinza Radioativa/efeitos adversos , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos/tendências , Razão de Masculinidade , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 656: 1304-1311, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625659

RESUMO

Atmospheric radioactive noble gas radon (Rn-222) originates from soil gas exhaled in the atmospheric surface layer. Radon exhalation rates from soil as well as corresponding meteorological and soil parameters were recorded for two subsequent years. Based on long-term field data, a statistical regression model for the radon exhalation and the most important influencing parameters soil water content, temperature of soil and air, air pressure and autocorrelation of the exhalation rate was established. The fitting result showed that the multivariate model can explain up to 61% of the variation of the exhalation rate. First, the exhalation rate increases up to 80 Bq m-2 h-1 with increasing soil water content. Later, at water content >10%, increasing soil wetness suppressed the exhalation rate: at values higher than 24% to approximately one third. The air temperature had a distinct positive effect while the soil temperature had a strong negative effect on the exhalation rate, indicating their different influencing-mechanisms on the exhalation. The air pressure was negligible. The lagged values of radon exhalation had to be included in the model, as the variable shows strong autocorrelation.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7547, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765129

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is a significant risk-factor for airway disease development. Furthermore, the high prevalence of pregnant smoking women requires the establishment of strategies for offspring lung protection. Therefore, we here aimed to understand the molecular mechanism of how prenatal smoke exposure affects fetal lung development. We used a mouse model recapitulating clinical findings of prenatally exposed children, where pregnant mice were exposed to smoke until c-section or spontaneous delivery, and offspring weight development and lung function was monitored. Additionally, we investigated pulmonary transcriptome changes in fetal lungs (GD18.5) by mRNA/miRNA arrays, network analyses and qPCR. The results demonstrated that prenatally exposed mice showed intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, and impaired lung function. 1340 genes and 133 miRNAs were found to be significantly dysregulated by in utero smoke exposure, and we identified Insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) as a top hierarchical node in a network analysis. Moreover, Igf1 mRNA was increased in female murine offspring and in prenatally exposed children. These findings suggest that prenatal smoking is associated with a dysregulation of several genes, including Igf1 in a sex-specific manner. Thus, our results could represent a novel link between smoke exposure, abberant lung development and impaired lung function.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Pulmão/embriologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Int J Cancer ; 143(8): 2065-2075, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786141

RESUMO

Carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII) is a membrane-tethered ectoenzyme involved in intracellular pH regulation and overexpressed across various types of human cancer. Because CAXII inhibition shows antitumor activity in vitro, it is thought that the enzyme is mandatory for maximum tumor growth, above all under hypoxic conditions. Recently, it has been shown that CAXII is co-expressed along with the P-glycoprotein (P-GP) on many tumor cells and that both proteins physically interact. Of interest, blocking CAXII activity also decreases P-GP activity in cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we have reported on the development of a monoclonal antibody, termed 6A10, which specifically and efficiently blocks human CAXII activity. Here, we demonstrate that 6A10 also indirectly reduces P-GP activity in CAXII/P-GP double-positive chemoresistant cancer cells, resulting in enhanced chemosensitivity as revealed by enhanced accumulation of anthracyclines and increased cell death in vitro. Even more important, we show that mice carrying human triple-negative breast cancer xenografts co-treated with doxorubicin (DOX) and 6A10 show a significantly reduced number of metastases. Collectively, our data provide evidence that the inhibition of CAXII with 6A10 is an attractive way to reduce chemoresistance of cancer cells and to interfere with the metastatic process in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos
16.
Theriogenology ; 114: 85-94, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602136

RESUMO

We determined the effect of monogamous or polygamous mating with 2 females on vaginal plug (VP) rate, embryo donors (ED), 2-cell embryo production, and male performance after superovulation of females aging 24d or 45-48d. C57BL/6NCrl (B6N), BALB/cAnCrl (BALB/cN), FVB/NCrl (FVB/N), and Crl:CD1(ICR) (CD-1) females received 5 IU eCG and 5 IU hCG (24d) or 7.5 IU eCG and 7.5 IU hCG (45-48d) 48 h apart. After the hCG injection, females were paired with males, which alternated weekly in monogamous or polygamous mating. Significant differences in the percentage of VP-positive females between monogamous and polygamous mating were observed for B6N (71% vs. 49%), FVB/N (77% vs. 51%), and CD-1 (90% vs. 67%) at 45-48d. BALB/cN and CD-1 showed higher VP rates than B6N and FVB/N. A significantly higher percentage of ED was found for monogamous than for polygamous mating for FVB/N (87% vs. 61%) at 24d and for B6N (91% vs. 53%) and CD-1 (90% vs. 68%) at 45-48d. In all strains of mice and in both age groups, no significant differences were observed in the number of intact 2-cells per VP-positive female, ED or treated female between monogamous and polygamous mating except in the B6N strain where monogamous mating resulted in a significantly higher number of intact 2-cell embryos per treated female than polygamous mating at both ages. The present results imply that polygamous mating can be implemented for 2-cell embryo production in all strains studied except for B6N when all females are euthanized. However, when only VP+ females are sacrificed polygamous mating can be employed for all 4 strains studied.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Superovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos
17.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 15, 2018 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma relapses in the vast majority of cases within 1 year. Maximum safe resection of the recurrent glioblastoma can be offered in some cases. Re-irradiation has been established for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma, too. In both cases, adjuvant treatment, mostly using temozolomide, can improve PFS and OS after these interventions. However, combining gross tumor resection and adjuvant re-radiotherapy to the resection cavity has not been tested so far. METHODS/DESIGN: In the multicenter two-armed randomized Phase II GlioCave Study, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy to the resection cavity, after gross tumor resection of recurrent glioblastoma, will be compared to observation. Depending on the size of the target volume, a total dose of 46 Gy in 2 Gy per fraction or a total dose if 36 Gy in 3 Gy per fraction will be applied. Progression free survival will be the primary endpoint of the study. DISCUSSION: Adjuvant treatment after gross tumor resection of recurrent glioblastoma is currently deemed to be limited to chemotherapy. However, re-irradiation has proven safety and tolerability in the treatment of macroscopic disease. Performing re-irradiation as an adjuvant measure after gross tumor resection has not been tested so far. The GlioCave Study will investigate the efficacy and the safety profile of this approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02715297 , registration date February 29th, 2016). The protocol presented hereby refers to the version 1.2 of the protocol (January 11th, 2017).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 905, 2017 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As CRISPR/Cas9 mediated screens with pooled guide libraries in somatic cells become increasingly established, an unmet need for rapid and accurate companion informatics tools has emerged. We have developed a lightweight and efficient software to easily manipulate large raw next generation sequencing datasets derived from such screens into informative relational context with graphical support. The advantages of the software entitled ENCoRE (Easy NGS-to-Gene CRISPR REsults) include a simple graphical workflow, platform independence, local and fast multithreaded processing, data pre-processing and gene mapping with custom library import. RESULTS: We demonstrate the capabilities of ENCoRE to interrogate results from a pooled CRISPR cellular viability screen following Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha challenge. The results not only identified stereotypical players in extrinsic apoptotic signaling but two as yet uncharacterized members of the extrinsic apoptotic cascade, Smg7 and Ces2a. We further validated and characterized cell lines containing mutations in these genes against a panel of cell death stimuli and involvement in p53 signaling. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this software enables bench scientists with sensitive data or without access to informatic cores to rapidly interpret results from large scale experiments resulting from pooled CRISPR/Cas9 library screens.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Apoptose , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Software , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Mutação
19.
Radiat Oncol ; 12(1): 77, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28454549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is usually diagnosed around the age of 60-70 years. Patients older than 65 years are frequently described as "elderly". Several trials with monotherapy have established treatment regimens that offer therapies with reduced side effects but reduced efficacy. We analysed the outcome of elderly glioblastoma patients treated at our facility. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 62 consecutive patients older than 65 years treated for a primary glioblastoma at our facility from 2009 to 2015. RESULTS: Median age was 69.6 years (range 65.1-85.6 years); median OS of the entire cohort was 10.9 months. ECOG, MGMT and extent of resection but not age and the time from surgery to radiotherapy were associated with longer survival. Patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy had a significantly longer survival (20.5 vs. 7.8 months). Furthermore, salvage therapies were associated with significant improved survival when compared to Best Supportive Care (22.3 vs. 8.8 months). CONCLUSION: Also elderly patients are likely to benefit from an aggressive treatment after primary diagnosis of glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Biosoc Sci ; 49(5): 664-674, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27748204

RESUMO

Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR. France exhibited a decline in SR in 1968 (p=0.042), with a particularly strong dip in May of that year (p=0.015). For Japan, there was no statistically significant dip for 1995 but there was a significant dip in June of that year (p=0.026). The SR dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are perceived to be momentous enough by a given populace. It is believed that SR slumps may be caused by population stress, which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male fetuses. It has been observed that these fluctuations are comparable in intensity to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially making this a public health issue.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Recém-Nascido , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Razão de Masculinidade , Feminino , França , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Gravidez , Tumultos , Estações do Ano , Terrorismo
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