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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142733

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) survival has environmental and inherited components. The expression of specific genes can be inferred based on individual genotypes-so called expression quantitative trait loci. In this study, we used the PrediXcan method to predict gene expression in normal colon tissue using individual genotype data from 91 CRC patients and examined the correlation ρ between predicted and measured gene expression levels. Out of 5434 predicted genes, 58% showed a negative ρ value and only 16% presented a ρ higher than 0.10. We subsequently investigated the association between genotype-based gene expression in colon tissue for genes with ρ > 0.10 and survival of 4436 CRC patients. We identified an inverse association between the predicted expression of ARID3B and CRC-specific survival for patients with a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (HR (hazard ratio) = 0.66 for an expression higher vs. lower than the median, p = 0.005). This association was validated using genotype and clinical data from the UK Biobank (HR = 0.74, p = 0.04). In addition to the identification of ARID3B expression in normal colon tissue as a candidate prognostic biomarker for obese CRC patients, our study illustrates the challenges of genotype-based prediction of gene expression, and the advantage of reassessing the prediction accuracy in a subset of the study population using measured gene expression data.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

3.
Hepatology ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract. Most cases of GBC are diagnosed in low- and middle-income countries and research into this disease has long been limited. In this study we therefore investigate the epigenetic changes along the model of GBC carcinogenesis represented by the sequence gallstone disease → dysplasia → GBC in Chile, the country with the highest incidence of GBC worldwide. APPROACH: To perform epigenome-wide methylation profiling, genomic DNA extracted from sections of FFPE gallbladder tissue was analyzed using Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChips. Pre-processed, quality-controlled data from 82 samples (gallstones n=32, low-grade dysplasia n=13, high-grade dysplasia n=9, GBC n=28) were available to identify differentially methylated markers, regions, and pathways as well as changes in copy number variations (CNVs). MAIN RESULTS: The number and magnitude of epigenetic changes increased with disease development and predominantly involved the hypermethylation of CpG islands and gene promoter regions. The methylation of genes implicated in Wnt signaling, Hedgehog signaling, and tumor suppression increased with tumor grade. CNVs also increased with GBC development and affected CDKN2A, MDM2, TP53, and CCND1. Gains in the targetable ERBB2 were detected in 14% of the GBC samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that GBC carcinogenesis comprises three main methylation stages: early (gallstone disease and low-grade dysplasia), intermediate (high-grade dysplasia), and late (GBC). The identified gradual changes in methylation and CNVs may help to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this aggressive disease and eventually lead to improved treatment and early diagnosis of GBC.

4.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063116

RESUMO

Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression is often applied to select the most promising set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a molecular phenotype of interest. While the penalization parameter λ restricts the number of selected SNPs and the potential model overfitting, the least-squares loss function of standard LASSO regression translates into a strong dependence of statistical results on a small number of individuals with phenotypes or genotypes divergent from the majority of the study population-typically comprised of outliers and high-leverage observations. Robust methods have been developed to constrain the influence of divergent observations and generate statistical results that apply to the bulk of study data, but they have rarely been applied to genetic association studies. In this article, we review, for newcomers to the field of robust statistics, a novel version of standard LASSO that utilizes the Huber loss function. We conduct comprehensive simulations and analyze real protein, metabolite, mRNA expression and genotype data to compare the stability of penalization, the cross-iteration concordance of the model, the false-positive and true-positive rates and the prediction accuracy of standard and robust Huber-LASSO. Although the two methods showed controlled false-positive rates ≤2.1% and similar true-positive rates, robust Huber-LASSO outperformed standard LASSO in the accuracy of predicted protein, metabolite and gene expression levels using individual SNP data. The conducted simulations and real-data analyses show that robust Huber-LASSO represents a valuable alternative to standard LASSO in genetic studies of molecular phenotypes.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899426

RESUMO

Cancer cell lines allow the identification of clinically relevant alterations and the prediction of drug response. However, sequencing data for hepatobiliary cancer cell lines in general, and particularly gallbladder cancer (GBC), are sparse. Here, we apply RNA sequencing to characterize 10 GBC, eight hepatocellular carcinoma, and five cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines. RNA extraction, quality control, library preparation, sequencing, and pre-processing of sequencing data were implemented using state-of-the-art techniques. Public data from the MSK-IMPACT database and a large cohort of Japanese biliary tract cancer patients were used to illustrate the usage of the released data. The total number of exonic mutations varied from 7207 for the cell line NOZ to 9760 for HuCCT1. Researchers planning experiments that require TP53 mutations could use the cell lines NOZ, OCUG-1, SNU308, or YoMi. Mz-Cha-1 showed mutations in ATM, SNU308 presented SMAD4 mutations, and the only investigated cell line that showed ARID1A mutations was GB-d1. SNU478 was the cell line with the global gene expression pattern most similar to GBC, intrahepatic CCA, and extrahepatic CCA. EGFR, KMT2D, and KMT2C generally presented a higher expression in the investigated cell lines than in Japanese primary GBC tumors. We provide the scientific community with detailed mutation and gene expression data, together with three showcase applications, with the aim of facilitating the design of future in vitro cell culture assays for research on hepatobiliary cancer.

6.
Hepatology ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a neglected disease with substantial geographical variability: Chile shows the highest incidence worldwide, while GBC is relatively rare in Europe. Here we investigate the causal effects of risk factors considered in current GBC prevention programmes as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a marker of chronic inflammation. APPROACH & RESULTS: We applied two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using publicly available data and our own data from a retrospective Chilean and a prospective European study. Causality was assessed by inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger regression and weighted median estimates complemented with sensitivity analyses on potential heterogeneity and pleiotropy, two-step MR and mediation analysis. We found evidence for a causal effect of gallstone disease on GBC risk in Chileans (p = 9 × 10-5 ) and Europeans (p = 9 × 10-5 ). A genetically elevated body mass index (BMI) increased GBC risk in Chileans (p = 0.03), while higher CRP concentrations increased GBC risk in Europeans (p = 4.1 × 10-6 ). European results suggest causal effects of BMI on gallstone disease (p = 0.008); public Chilean data were not, however, available to enable assessment of the mediation effects among causal GBC risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Two risk factors considered in the current Chilean programme for GBC prevention are causally linked to GBC risk: gallstones and BMI. For Europeans, BMI showed a causal effect on gallstone risk, which was itself causally linked to GBC risk.

7.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1506, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974182

RESUMO

The tissue stroma plays a major role in tumors' natural history. Most programs for tumor progression are not activated as cell-autonomous processes but under the conditions of cross-talks between tumor and stroma. Adipose tissue is a major component of breast stroma. This study compares adipose tissues in tumor-bearing breasts to those in tumor-free breasts with the intention of defining a signature that could translate into markers of cancer risk. In tumor-bearing breasts, we sampled adipose tissues adjacent to, or distant from the tumor. Parameters studied included: adipocytes size and density, immune cell infiltration, vascularization, secretome and gene expression. Adipose tissues from tumor-bearing breasts, whether adjacent to or distant from the tumor, do not differ from each other by any of these parameters. By contrast, adipose tissues from tumor-bearing breasts have the capacity to secrete twice as much interleukin 8 (IL-8) than those from tumor-free breasts and differentially express a set of 137 genes of which a significant fraction belongs to inflammation, integrin and wnt signaling pathways. These observations show that adipose tissues from tumor-bearing breasts have a distinct physiological status from those from tumor-free breasts. We propose that this constitutive status contributes as a non-cell autonomous process to determine permissiveness for tumor growth.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751332

RESUMO

An individual's inherited genetic variation may contribute to the 'angiogenic switch', which is essential for blood supply and tumor growth of microscopic and macroscopic tumors. Polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes potentially predispose to colorectal cancer (CRC) or affect the survival of CRC patients. We investigated the association of 392 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 33 angiogenesis-related genes with CRC risk and survival of CRC patients in 1754 CRC cases and 1781 healthy controls within DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening), a German population-based case-control study. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from unconditional logistic regression to test for genetic associations with CRC risk. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for survival. Multiple testing was adjusted for by a false discovery rate. No variant was associated with CRC risk. Variants in EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 were significantly associated with overall survival. The association of the EFNB2 tagging SNP rs9520090 (p < 0.0001) was confirmed in two validation datasets (p-values: 0.01 and 0.05). The associations of the tagging SNPs rs6040062 in JAG1 (p-value 0.0003) and rs2241145 in MMP2 (p-value 0.0005) showed the same direction of association with overall survival in the first and second validation sets, respectively, although they did not reach significance (p-values: 0.09 and 0.25, respectively). EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 are known for their functional role in angiogenesis and the present study points to novel evidence for the impact of angiogenesis-related genetic variants on the CRC outcome.

9.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 817-828, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655010

RESUMO

Obesity and obesity-driven cancer rates are continuing to rise worldwide. We hypothesize that adipocyte-colonocyte interactions are a key driver of obesity-associated cancers. To understand the clinical relevance of visceral adipose tissue in advancing tumor growth, we analyzed paired tumor-adjacent visceral adipose, normal mucosa, and colorectal tumor tissues as well as presurgery blood samples from patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. We report that high peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) visceral adipose tissue expression is associated with glycoprotein VI (GPVI) signaling-the major signaling receptor for collagen-as well as fibrosis and adipogenesis pathway signaling in colorectal tumors. These associations were supported by correlations between PPARG visceral adipose tissue expression and circulating levels of plasma 4-hydroxyproline and serum intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), as well as gene set enrichment analysis and joint gene-metabolite pathway results integration that yielded significant enrichment of genes defining epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-as in fibrosis and metastasis-and genes involved in glycolytic metabolism, confirmed this association. We also reveal that elevated prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) colorectal tumor expression is associated with a fibrotic signature in adipose-tumor crosstalk via GPVI signaling and dendritic cell maturation in visceral adipose tissue. Systemic metabolite and biomarker profiling confirmed that high PTGS2 expression in colorectal tumors is significantly associated with higher concentrations of serum amyloid A and glycine, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelin, in patients with colorectal cancer. This multi-omics study suggests that adipose-tumor crosstalk in patients with colorectal cancer is a critical microenvironment interaction that could be therapeutically targeted.See related spotlight by Colacino et al., p. 803.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101643, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first large-scale genome-wide association study of gallbladder cancer (GBC) recently identified and validated three susceptibility variants in the ABCB1 and ABCB4 genes for individuals of Indian descent. We investigated whether these variants were also associated with GBC risk in Chileans, who show the highest incidence of GBC worldwide, and in Europeans with a low GBC incidence. METHODS: This population-based study analysed genotype data from retrospective Chilean case-control (255 cases, 2042 controls) and prospective European cohort (108 cases, 181 controls) samples consistently with the original publication. RESULTS: Our results confirmed the reported associations for Chileans with similar risk effects. Particularly strong associations (per-allele odds ratios close to 2) were observed for Chileans with high Native American (=Mapuche) ancestry. No associations were noticed for Europeans, but the statistical power was low. CONCLUSION: Taking full advantage of genetic and ethnic differences in GBC risk may improve the efficiency of current prevention programs.


Assuntos
Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chile/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Am J Med ; 133(1): 60-72.e14, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very little evidence is available on the prevalence of serious spinal pathologies and the diagnostic accuracy of red flags in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). This systematic review aims to investigate the prevalence of serious spinal pathologies and the diagnostic accuracy of red flags in patients presenting with low back pain to the ED. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS from inception to January 2019. Two reviewers independently reviewed the references and evaluated methodological quality. RESULTS: We analyzed 22 studies with a total of 41,320 patients. The prevalence of any requiring immediate/urgent treatment was 2.5%-5.1% in prospective and 0.7%-7.4% in retrospective studies (0.0%-7.2% for vertebral fractures, 0.0%-2.1% for spinal cancer, 0.0%-1.9% for infectious disorders, 0.1%-1.9% for pathologies with spinal cord/cauda equina compression, 0.0%-0.9% for vascular pathologies). Examples of red flags which increased the likelihood for a serious condition were suspicion or history of cancer (spinal cancer); intravenous drug use, indwelling vascular catheter, and other infection site (epidural abscess). CONCLUSION: We found a higher prevalence of serious spinal pathologies in the ED compared to the reported prevalence in primary care settings. As the diagnostic accuracy of most red flags was reported only by a single study, further validation in high-quality prospective studies is needed.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Cauda Equina/epidemiologia , Abscesso Epidural/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Compressão da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Cateteres de Demora , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/complicações , Síndrome da Cauda Equina/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Abscesso Epidural/complicações , Abscesso Epidural/diagnóstico , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Compressão da Medula Espinal/complicações , Compressão da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular
12.
Brief Bioinform ; 21(3): 753-761, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863848

RESUMO

Population stratification is usually corrected relying on principal component analysis (PCA) of genome-wide genotype data, even in populations considered genetically homogeneous, such as Europeans. The need to genotype only a small number of genetic variants that show large differences in allele frequency among subpopulations-so-called ancestry-informative markers (AIMs)-instead of the whole genome for stratification adjustment could represent an advantage for replication studies and candidate gene/pathway studies. Here we compare the correction performance of classical and robust principal components (PCs) with the use of AIMs selected according to four different methods: the informativeness for assignment measure ($IN$-AIMs), the combination of PCA and F-statistics, PCA-correlated measurement and the PCA weighted loadings for each genetic variant. We used real genotype data from the Population Reference Sample and The Cancer Genome Atlas to simulate European genetic association studies and to quantify type I error rate and statistical power in different case-control settings. In studies with the same numbers of cases and controls per country and control-to-case ratios reflecting actual rates of disease prevalence, no adjustment for population stratification was required. The unnecessary inclusion of the country of origin, PCs or AIMs as covariates in the regression models translated into increasing type I error rates. In studies with cases and controls from separate countries, no investigated method was able to adequately correct for population stratification. The first classical and the first two robust PCs achieved the lowest (although inflated) type I error, followed at some distance by the first eight $IN$-AIMs.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 460-469, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) play a critical role in the activation and detoxification of several carcinogens. However, the role of XMEs in colorectal carcinogenesis is unclear. METHODS: We investigated the expression of XMEs in human colorectal tissues among patients with stage I-IV colorectal cancer (n = 71) from the ColoCare Study. Transcriptomic profiling using paired colorectal tumor and adjacent normal mucosa tissues of XMEs (GSTM1, GSTA1, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, CYP3A4, CYP2C9, GSTP1, and CYP2W1) by RNA microarray was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. We assessed associations between clinicopathologic, dietary, and lifestyle factors and XME expression with linear regression models. RESULTS: GSTM1, GSTA1, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, and CYP3A4 were all statistically significantly downregulated in colorectal tumor relative to normal mucosa tissues (all P ≤ 0.03). Women had significantly higher expression of GSTM1 in normal tissues compared with men (ß = 0.37, P = 0.02). By tumor site, CYP2C9 expression was lower in normal mucosa among patients with rectal cancer versus colon cancer cases (ß = -0.21, P = 0.0005). Smokers demonstrated higher CYP2C9 expression levels in normal mucosa (ß = 0.17, P = 0.02) when compared with nonsmokers. Individuals who used NSAIDs had higher GSTP1 tumor expression compared with non-NSAID users (ß = 0.17, P = 0.03). Higher consumption of cooked vegetables (>1×/week) was associated with higher CYP3A4 expression in colorectal tumor tissues (ß = 0.14, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: XMEs have lower expression in colorectal tumor relative to normal mucosa tissues and may modify colorectal carcinogenesis via associations with clinicopathologic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. IMPACT: Better understanding into the role of drug-metabolizing enzymes in colorectal cancer may reveal biological differences that contribute to cancer development, as well as treatment response, leading to clinical implications in colorectal cancer prevention and management.

15.
Metabolites ; 9(9)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500101

RESUMO

Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients. The biological pathways involved remain poorly characterized. Here, we compare urinary metabolic profiles in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients (stage I-IV) from the ColoCare Study in Heidelberg, Germany. Patients were classified as cachectic (n = 16), pre-cachectic (n = 13), or non-cachectic (n = 23) based on standard criteria on weight loss over time at two time points. Urine samples were collected pre-surgery, and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Fat and muscle mass area were assessed utilizing computed tomography scans at the time of surgery. N = 152 compounds were detected using untargeted metabolomics with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and n = 154 features with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thirty-four metabolites were overlapping across platforms. We calculated differences across groups and performed discriminant and overrepresentation enrichment analysis. We observed a trend for 32 compounds that were nominally significantly different across groups, although not statistically significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Nineteen compounds could be identified, including acetone, hydroquinone, and glycine. Comparing cachectic to non-cachectic patients, higher levels of metabolites such as acetone (Fold change (FC) = 3.17; p = 0.02) and arginine (FC = 0.33; p = 0.04) were observed. The two top pathways identified were glycerol phosphate shuttle metabolism and glycine and serine metabolism pathways. Larger subsequent studies are needed to replicate and validate these results.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5225-5237, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225875

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adipose tissue inflammation and dysregulated energy homeostasis are key mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. Distinct adipose tissue depots strongly differ in their metabolic profiles; however, comprehensive studies of depot-specific perturbations among patients with cancer are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We compared transcriptome profiles of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from patients with colorectal cancer and assessed the associations of different anthropometric measures with depot-specific gene expression. DESIGN: Whole transcriptomes of VAT and SAT were measured in 233 patients from the ColoCare Study, and visceral and subcutaneous fat area were quantified via CT. RESULTS: VAT compared with SAT showed elevated gene expression of cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and key regulators of metabolic homeostasis. Increased fat area was associated with downregulated lipid and small molecule metabolism and upregulated inflammatory pathways in both compartments. Comparing these patterns between depots proved specific and more pronounced gene expression alterations in SAT and identified unique associations of integrins and lipid metabolism-related enzymes. VAT gene expression patterns that were associated with visceral fat area poorly overlapped with patterns associated with self-reported body mass index (BMI). However, subcutaneous fat area and BMI showed similar associations with SAT gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale human study demonstrates pronounced disparities between distinct adipose tissue depots and reveals that BMI poorly correlates with fat mass-associated changes in VAT. Taken together, these results provide crucial evidence for the necessity to differentiate between distinct adipose tissue depots for a correct characterization of gene expression profiles that may affect metabolic health of patients with colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4796, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886199

RESUMO

Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a biliary tract cancer with few treatment options and poor prognosis. Radical surgery is the only potentially curative treatment option but most patients diagnosed with GBC are unresectable. Thus, there is a great need for the development of new treatment options including targeted therapy. Here, we aimed at identifying deregulated miRNAs and affected pathways involved in GBC development and progression. We performed global miRNA profiling of 40 GBC and 8 normal gallbladder tissues and identified large differences with 30% of miRNAs being differentially expressed (false discovery rate: FDR < 0.001). We found 24 miRNAs to be differentially regulated in GBC with poor outcome (p < 0.05) of which miR-145-5p was the most downregulated miRNA. Overexpression of miR-145-5p significantly reduced cell proliferation and colony formation. Gene expression analysis of cells expressing miR-145-5p mimics revealed activation of the Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling pathway which is mainly tumor suppressive. Furthermore, the activation of STAT1 by miR-145-5p was specifically observed in gallbladder carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma but not in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type F (PTPRF) is downregulated upon miR-145 expression and may be involved in STAT1 regulation. In addition, we found that the STAT1-regulated protein IRF7 is downregulated in GBC compared to normal gallbladder tissue and low IRF7 expression is associated with significantly lower overall survival of GBC patients. Thus, this study identified GBC patient subgroups and provides new mechanistic insights in the tumor suppressive function of miR-145-5p leading to activation of STAT1 signaling.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Carcinoma/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 76-82, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity has been linked to both risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer; however, the impact of different fat areas [visceral (VFA) vs. subcutaneous fat area (SFA)] is unclear. We investigated associations between adiposity and biomarkers of inflammation and angiogenesis among patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Preoperative serum samples and computed tomography scans were obtained from 188 patients diagnosed with primary invasive stage I-IV colorectal cancer enrolled in the ColoCare Study. Adiposity was assessed by area-based quantification of VFA, SFA, and VFA:SFA ratio on spinal levels L3/L4 and L4/L5. Circulating levels of inflammation (CRP, SAA, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1) and angiogenesis (VEGF-A and VEGF-D) were assessed from patient sera on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. Partial correlations and regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and tumor stage, were performed. RESULTS: VFA was moderately correlated with CRP and SAA (CRP: L3/L4 and L4/L5:r = 0.21, P = 0.01; SAA: L3/L4:r = 0.17, P = 0.04). The correlation between SFA and the measured biomarkers were weak (r ≤ 0.13, not significant). The ratio of VFA:SFA at L3/L4 was moderately correlated with VEGF-A (r = 0.28, P = 0.0008) and SAA (r = 0.24, P = 0.006), and less so with CRP (r = 0.18, P = 0.04) and sICAM-1 (r = 0.18, P = 0.04). Similar correlations were found for the VFA:SFA ratio at L4/L5. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association between visceral adiposity and biomarkers of inflammation and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer. In particular, the VFA:SFA ratio was correlated with circulating levels of the proangiogenic biomarker VEGF-A. IMPACT: Our findings support a direct association of visceral adipose tissue with inflammatory and angiogenic processes, which play fundamental roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Inflamação/complicações , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/complicações , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1210, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies and cardiovascular prevention trials have shown that low-dose aspirin can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, including inhibition of distant metastases. Metformin has also been associated with decreased colon adenoma recurrence in clinical trials and lower CRC incidence and mortality in epidemiological studies in diabetics. While both drugs have been tested as single agents, their combination has not been tested in cancer prevention trials. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 × 2 biomarker trial of aspirin and metformin to test the activity of either agent alone and the potential synergism of their combination on a set of surrogate biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis. After surgery, 160 patients with stage I-III CRC are randomly assigned in a four-arm trial to either aspirin (100 mg day), metformin (850 mg bis in die), their combination, or placebo for one year. The primary endpoint biomarker is the change of IHC expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) in the unaffected mucosa of proximal and distal colon obtained by multiple biopsies in two paired colonoscopies one year apart. Additional biomarkers will include: 1) the measurement of circulating IL-6, CRP and VEGF; 2) the IHC expression of tissue pS6K, p53, beta-catenin, PI3K; 3) the associations of genetic markers with treatment response as assessed by next generation sequencing of primary tumors; 4) the genomic profile of candidate genes, pathways, and overall genomic patterns in tissue biopsies by genome wide gene expression arrays; and 5) the evaluation of adenoma occurrence at 1 year. DISCUSSION: A favorable biomarker modulation by aspirin and metformin may provide important clues for a subsequent phase III adjuvant trial aimed at preventing second primary cancer, delaying recurrence and improving prognosis in patients with CRC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2015-004824-77; ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT03047837 . Registered on February 1, 2017.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Prevenção Terciária/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Prevenção Terciária/tendências
20.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845757

RESUMO

Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) is a key pathway essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA methylation, and repair. This pathway is a critical target for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is predominantly used for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. A comprehensive assessment of polymorphisms in FOCM-related genes and their association with prognosis has not yet been performed. Within 1,739 CRC cases aged ≥30 years diagnosed from 2003 to 2007 (DACHS study), we investigated 397 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 50 candidates in 48 FOCM-related genes for associations with overall- (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using multiple Cox regression (adjusted for age, sex, stage, grade, BMI, and alcohol). We investigated effect modification by 5-FU-based chemotherapy and assessed pathway-specific effects. Correction for multiple testing was performed using false discovery rates (FDR). After a median follow-up time of 5.0 years, 585 patients were deceased. For one candidate SNP in MTHFR and two in TYMS, we observed significant inverse associations with OS (MTHFR: rs1801133, C677T: HRhet  = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.97; TYMS: rs1001761: HRhet  = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99 and rs2847149: HRhet  = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). After FDR correction, one polymorphism in paraoxonase 1 (PON1; rs3917538) was significantly associated with OS (HRhet  = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.53; HRhzv  = 2.02, 95% CI:1.46-2.80; HRlogAdd  = 1.31, pFDR  = 0.01). Adjusted pathway analyses showed significant associations for pyrimidine biosynthesis (P = 0.04) and fluorouracil drug metabolism (P < 0.01) with significant gene-chemotherapy interactions, including PON1 rs3917538. This study supports the concept that FOCM-related genes could be associated with CRC survival and may modify effects of 5-FU-based chemotherapy in genes in pyrimidine and fluorouracil metabolism, which are relevant targets for therapeutic response and prognosis in CRC. These results require confirmation in additional clinical studies.

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