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2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 160-212, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1147218

RESUMO

A Nutrição tem importante papel na gênese das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), consideradas um dos mais importantes problemas de saúde pública da atualidade no mundo e em nosso país. Além da quantidade, a qualidade dos alimentos que consumimos (em particular aqueles que são fonte de gorduras) participa tanto na patogênese das doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) quanto na sua prevenção. Especialistas em todo o mundo têm elaborado, com base em evidências científicas, guias sobre o consumo de gorduras e proposto adequação das quantidades de gorduras, além de limitar o consumo de gorduras saturadas e trans. Tem-se priorizado avaliar e propor padrões alimentares mais saudáveis e não valorizar alimentos individualmente, com uma abordagem muito mais racional na prevenção cardiovascular, adequando-se o consumo calórico, a inclusão de grãos, frutas e hortaliças e a restrição de carboidratos refinados, alimentos ultra processados, priorizando-se gorduras mais saudáveis, em detrimento das saturadas e trans. Tal posicionamento tem por objetivo orientar os profissionais de saúde no entendimento sobre as ações dos diferentes ácidos graxos e propor medidas dietéticas adequadas visando à prevenção e ao controle da DCV. O Departamento de Aterosclerose da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (SBC-DA) reuniu os maiores especialistas do país para a elaboração deste documento, com o objetivo de transmitir as melhores informações disponíveis para aprimorar a prática clínica em nosso país, de forma clara e objetiva, para a prevenção e o tratamento da DCV.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Guia , Comportamento Alimentar
3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 114(4): 692-698, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491018

RESUMO

Background Coronary failure is the leading cause of death worldwide and identifying patients at higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) is a challenge. Objectives To test the biomarkers interleukin 18 (IL-18) and thrombus precursor protein (TpP), involved in atherogenesis, to aid in the early assessment of CAD. Methods This was a cross-sectional cohort of 119 patients, stratified into three groups: Group I - acute coronary syndrome (39); Group II - chronic CAD (40) and Group III - control, without coronary lesion, but who might have risk factors for CAD (40). Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical program SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) for Windows ,version 17.0 of 2008. The significance level was set at 0.05 or 5% (p <0.05), with a 95% confidence interval. Chi-square test (χ2), Analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's test were used. Results The mean age was 60.36 ± 9.64 years; there was a prevalence of females in Group III (65.0% p = 0.002), but without statistical significance for the means of IL-18 and TpP. The means of IL-18 and TpP were increased in Group I when compared to the other groups; IL-18 = 1325.44 ± 1860.13 ng/dL, p = 0.002; TpP = 35.86 ± 28.36 µg / mL, p <0.001). When compared two-by-two, it was observed that Group I had higher mean IL-18 and TpP values than Group II (IL-18 = 353.81 ± 273.65 ng / dL; TpP = 25.66 ± 12, 17 µg / mL) and Group III (IL-18 = 633.25 ± 993.93 ng / dL; TpP = 18.00 ± 8.45 µg / mL). Conclusion There was an increase in these biomarkers in acute CAD, suggesting a relationship with the atherosclerotic plaque instability process, but not with the chronic phase. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(4):692-698).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Trombose , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-18 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(4): 692-698, Abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1131202

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento A insuficiência coronariana constitui a principal causa de morte no mundo, e a identificação de pacientes de maior risco para doença arterial coronariana (DAC) constitui um desafio. Objetivos Testar os biomarcadores interleucina 18 (IL-18) e proteína precursora do trombo (TpP), envolvidos na aterogênese, para auxílio na avaliação precoce de DAC. Métodos Coorte transversal de 119 pacientes, estratificados em três grupos: Grupo I - síndrome coronariana aguda (39); Grupo II - DAC crônica (40); e Grupo III - controle, sem lesão coronariana, mas podendo apresentar fatores de risco para DAC (40). Análise estatística através do programa estatístico SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) para Windows versão 17.0 de 2008. Fixou-se em 0,05 ou 5% (p<0,05) nível de significância e intervalo de confiança de 95%. Teste do qui-quadrado (χ2). Análise de variância (ANOVA), Teste de Tukey. Resultados Idade média, 60,36±9,64 anos; prevalência do sexo feminino no Grupo III (65,0% p=0,002), porém sem significado estatístico para os valores médios de IL-18 e TpP. Os valores médios de IL-18 e TpP mostravam-se aumentados no Grupo I, quando comparados aos valores dos demais grupos: IL-18 = 1325,44±1860,13 ng/dL, p=0,002; TpP = 35,86±28,36 µg/mL, p<0,001. Na comparação dois a dois, observou-se que o Grupo I apresentou valor médio de IL-18 e TpP maior que o do Grupo II (IL-18 = 353,81±273,65 ng/dL; TpP = 25,66±12,17 µg/mL) e o do Grupo III (IL-18 = 633,25±993,93 ng/dL; TpP=18,00±8,45 µg/mL). Conclusão Na vigência de DAC aguda, houve elevação desses biomarcadores, sugerindo relação com o processo de instabilidade da placa aterosclerótica, mas não com a fase crônica. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(4):692-698)


Abstract Background Coronary failure is the leading cause of death worldwide and identifying patients at higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) is a challenge. Objectives To test the biomarkers interleukin 18 (IL-18) and thrombus precursor protein (TpP), involved in atherogenesis, to aid in the early assessment of CAD. Methods This was a cross-sectional cohort of 119 patients, stratified into three groups: Group I - acute coronary syndrome (39); Group II - chronic CAD (40) and Group III - control, without coronary lesion, but who might have risk factors for CAD (40). Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical program SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) for Windows ,version 17.0 of 2008. The significance level was set at 0.05 or 5% (p <0.05), with a 95% confidence interval. Chi-square test (χ2), Analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey's test were used. Results The mean age was 60.36 ± 9.64 years; there was a prevalence of females in Group III (65.0% p = 0.002), but without statistical significance for the means of IL-18 and TpP. The means of IL-18 and TpP were increased in Group I when compared to the other groups; IL-18 = 1325.44 ± 1860.13 ng/dL, p = 0.002; TpP = 35.86 ± 28.36 µg / mL, p <0.001). When compared two-by-two, it was observed that Group I had higher mean IL-18 and TpP values than Group II (IL-18 = 353.81 ± 273.65 ng / dL; TpP = 25.66 ± 12, 17 µg / mL) and Group III (IL-18 = 633.25 ± 993.93 ng / dL; TpP = 18.00 ± 8.45 µg / mL). Conclusion There was an increase in these biomarkers in acute CAD, suggesting a relationship with the atherosclerotic plaque instability process, but not with the chronic phase. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(4):692-698)

5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(4): 787-891, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691761
6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(6): 775-781, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Physical activity (PA) and appropriate diet, if adopted in childhood and adolescence, may reduce the CVD burden in later life. The Olympic Experimental Gymnasium (OEG) project was implemented to increase the PA levels of students by means of regular physical exercise and healthy eating habits. OBJECTIVES: To estimate and compare the prevalence of CVD risk factors in OEG schools versus regular schools (RSch) and to examine associations between the school environment and CVD risk factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study with a comparator group, adolescents aged 12-13 years attending three OEG schools (n = 719) and three RSch (n = 394) were evaluated after one year of the ongoing program to estimate the prevalence of overweight, pre-hypertension/hypertension, altered glycemia, and lipid profile. An α level of 0.05 was set for statistical analysis. RESULTS: RSch students had higher odds to have high blood pressure (OR 1.86, 1.36-2.54) and to be overweight (OR 1.49, 1.13-1.98) than OEG students. Glucose levels were not altered in most cases regardless of school type, and no differences were found in lipid profile. In the sensitivity analysis stratified by gender, girls from RSch were more likely to have high body mass index than boys. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of adolescents to the OEG policies was positively associated with an important reduction in CVD risk factors, including high blood pressure and overweight.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 248-255, Mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-888037

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths in the world, and many events could be prevented by healthy life habits. Objectives: To compare the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents enrolled at public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, including a renowned school for sport practices. Methods: Cross-sectional study, convenience sampling of 422 students enrolled at the Experimental Olympic Gymnasium (EOG) and at Figueiredo Pimentel School (FP). Using descriptive analyses, continuous variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile ranges, and the Student's t-test or the chi-square test, respectively, was used for comparisons. The sports were classified according to the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) (below or above 5). Results: We included 274 students enrolled at the EOG and 148 at FP. Mean age was similar between schools -12.5 ± 1.6 years at FP and 12.6 ± 0.9 at the EOG; 65.5% of the students at FP and 43.8% of the students at the EOG were female (p < 0.01). Significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension (20% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.01) and borderline cholesterol levels (27.7% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.01) were found between FP and EOG students, respectively. Conclusion: High prevalence of hypertension, overweight/obesity and altered blood lipid profile was found in this group of adolescents. Regular sports training program combined with little influence of their eating habits outside school may contribute to a better metabolic profile and reduction in cardiovascular risk factors in students. Public health measures are also need.


Resumo Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares são a maior causa de mortes no mundo e muitos eventos poderiam ser evitados por meio de hábitos saudáveis de vida. Objetivos: Comparar a ocorrência de fatores de risco cardiovascular em adolescentes de escolas públicas do município do Rio de Janeiro, sendo uma delas, modelo em práticas esportivas. Métodos: Estudo transversal; amostra de conveniência de 422 escolares do Ginásio Experimental Olímpico (GEO) e da Escola Municipal Figueiredo Pimentel (FP). Foi realizada análise descritiva dos dados utilizando média e desvio-padrão (DP) ou mediana e intervalo interquartil para variáveis contínuas (testes t de Student e qui-quadrado para comparação, respectivamente). As modalidades esportivas foram classificadas de acordo com o equivalente metabólico (MET), se abaixo ou acima de 5. Resultados: duzentos e setenta e quatro alunos eram do GEO e 148 da FP. A média de idade era semelhante - 12,5 ± 1,6 na EMFP e 12,6 ± 0,9 no GEO; 65,5% dos alunos eram do sexo feminino na FP e 43,8% no GEO (p < 0,01). Da amostra geral, 40% apresentaram sobrepeso ou obesidade. Observaram-se diferenças entre a prevalência de hipertensão (20% vs. 6,3%; p < 0,01 nos alunos da FP e do GEO, respectivamente) e de níveis de colesterol total considerados limítrofes (27,7% vs. 17,3%; p = 0,01 na FP e no GEO, respectivamente). Conclusão: Hipertensão, sobrepeso/obesidade e lipidograma capilar alterado foram muito prevalentes nos adolescentes. Um programa de treinamento esportivo regular com menos interferência alimentar extraescola parece contribuir para um melhor perfil metabólico e menor risco cardiovascular entre estudantes. Ainda, medidas efetivas de saúde pública são necessárias.

8.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(3): 248-255, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths in the world, and many events could be prevented by healthy life habits. OBJECTIVES: To compare the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents enrolled at public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, including a renowned school for sport practices. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, convenience sampling of 422 students enrolled at the Experimental Olympic Gymnasium (EOG) and at Figueiredo Pimentel School (FP). Using descriptive analyses, continuous variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile ranges, and the Student's t-test or the chi-square test, respectively, was used for comparisons. The sports were classified according to the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) (below or above 5). RESULTS: We included 274 students enrolled at the EOG and 148 at FP. Mean age was similar between schools -12.5 ± 1.6 years at FP and 12.6 ± 0.9 at the EOG; 65.5% of the students at FP and 43.8% of the students at the EOG were female (p < 0.01). Significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension (20% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.01) and borderline cholesterol levels (27.7% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.01) were found between FP and EOG students, respectively. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of hypertension, overweight/obesity and altered blood lipid profile was found in this group of adolescents. Regular sports training program combined with little influence of their eating habits outside school may contribute to a better metabolic profile and reduction in cardiovascular risk factors in students. Public health measures are also need.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Esportes/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
9.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(2 Supl 1): 1-76, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813069
10.
Faludi, André Arpad; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Chacra, Ana Paula Marte; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Afiune Neto, Abrahão; Bertolami, Adriana; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Lottenberg, Ana Maria; Sposito, Andrei C.; Chagas, Antonio Carlos Palandri; Casella Filho, Antonio; Simão, Antônio Felipe; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles Comte de; Caramelli, Bruno; Magalhães, Carlos Costa; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos; Scherr, Carlos; Feio, Claudine Maria Alves; Kovacs, Cristiane; Araújo, Daniel Branco de; Magnoni, Daniel; Calderaro, Daniela; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Mello Junior, Edgard Pessoa de; Alexandre, Elizabeth Regina Giunco; Sato, Emília Inoue; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki; Rached, Fabiana Hanna; Santos, Fábio César dos; Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Fonseca, Henrique Andrade Rodrigues da; Xavier, Hermes Toros; Mota, Isabela Cardoso Pimentel; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Diament, Jayme; Pesquero, João Bosco; Santos, José Ernesto dos; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Melo Filho, José Xavier de; Kato, Juliana Tieko; Torres, Kerginaldo Paulo; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Assad, Marcelo Heitor Vieira; Miname, Márcio Hiroshi; Scartezini, Marileia; Forti, Neusa Assumpta; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Alves, Renato Jorge; Cassani, Roberta Lara; Betti, Roberto Tadeu Barcellos; Carvalho, Tales de; Martinez, Tânia Leme da Rocha; Giraldez, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha; Salgado Filho, Wilson.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(2,supl.1): 1-76, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-887919
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 225: 123-127, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing use of conducted electronic weapons (CEW) cause concern regarding its secure application, specially regarding the implications in the cardiovascular system. METHODS: The objective was to determine Spark CEW safety through cardiovascular parameters analysis of healthy volunteers subjected to its use. RESULTS: Volunteers over 18years without cardiovascular disease or recent use of illegal drugs were submitted, before and after being affected with Spark CEW, to clinical evaluation; blood collection for serum laboratory tests; transthoracic electrocardiography at rest, transthoracic echodopplercardiogram and 24hour Holter. RESULTS: All 71 patients reported being incapable of any voluntary reaction during the shock of the application time. No arrhythmia or myocardial necrosis was related to the use of non-lethal weapon SPARK. Reported adverse events were self-limited, and mostly mild. CONCLUSIONS: SPARK brand CEW is effective in incapacitating individuals by the shock of the application time, without causing.


Assuntos
Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Armas , Adulto , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/diagnóstico , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/diagnóstico , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 152-158, 02/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741145

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. Methods: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops) and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. Results: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish) and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g). Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g) and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g). Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. Conclusion: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3. .


Fundamento: Inúmeros estudos demonstram os efeitos benéficos do consumo de peixe para o aparelho cardiovascular. Isso seria decorrente da presença de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados nesses alimentos. Contudo, as concentrações desses nutrientes podem variar conforme a região. Objetivo: Analisar a composição e a quantidade de colesterol e ácidos graxos de peixes brasileiros e do salmão de cativeiro, habitualmente consumidos em nosso meio. Métodos: Foi analisada a concentração de colesterol e ácidos graxos, particularmente o ômega-3, de 10 tipos diferentes de peixes grelhados, sendo um deles o salmão. Cada amostra foi composta por três subamostras (“postas”), e cada uma retirada de uma porção, do início, do meio e do final do peixe, com o objetivo de minimizar problemas com relação a possíveis diferenças entre as porções musculares e de gorduras. Resultados: O maior teor de colesterol encontrado foi no cherne (107,6 mg/100 g), e o menor foi no badejo (70 mg/100 g). A concentração de ômega-3 variou de 0,01 g/100 g no badejo a 0,900 g/100 g na pescadinha. Já a gordura saturada variou de 0,687 g/100 g no pirarucu a 4,530 g/100 g no filhote. O salmão apresentou a maior quantidade de gordura poli-insaturada (3,29 g/100 g), e a pescadinha, o maior teor de gordura monoinsaturada (5,98 g/100 g). Quando avaliada as relações ômega 6/3, as melhores foram as do badejo (2,22) e do namorado (1,19), no entanto essas espécies apresentam muito pouca quantidade de ômega-3. Conclusão: Todos os peixes brasileiros estudados e o salmão importado têm baixos teores de gordura saturada, contudo a maioria desses peixes também tem baixos teores de ômega-3. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Viés , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Coleta de Dados , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Grupos Focais , Medição de Risco
13.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 13(5): 676-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25277697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent findings have highlighted enhanced fish consumption as a potential measure to increase intake of healthy fatty acids, particularly omega-3. The generalizability of this recommendation, however, may fall short of differences in fish species and cooking techniques. Hence, we investigated how these 2 variables affect the lipid content in fish flesh. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine species of freshwater, deep sea or shore fish were grilled, steamed or fried with or without the addition of soybean oil, olive oil or butter. The lipid composition was analysed and a significant difference was observed in cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids contents between species (p<0.05). The use of soybean or olive oil was associated with a significant change in flesh concentration of polyunsaturated, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study calls attention to the specific lipid content that must be expected from different fish species and cooking techniques.


Assuntos
Culinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Lipídeos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Manteiga , Colesterol/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/química , Peixes , Azeite de Oliva/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 104(2): 152-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. METHODS: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops) and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. RESULTS: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish) and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g). Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g) and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g). Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. CONCLUSION: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Peixes , Análise de Variância , Animais , Brasil , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Valores de Referência , Salmão , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(4): 307-307, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-685515
16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 59(2): 148-54, 2013.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23582556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of food preparation methods on the composition of fatty acids and cholesterol in foods. METHODS: The chemical composition of cholesterol and fatty acids was analyzed in eight different types of meat and feijoada in relation to different methods of preparation. RESULTS: Feijoada, when prepared with the beans and meats in separate pots, has less cholesterol (12.1 vs. 16.1mg, respectively, p=0.005) and saturated fat (1.4 vs. 1.9mg, p=0.046) than when it is prepared in a single pot. Broiled chicken without the skin has less saturated fat when compared with skinless fried chicken (1,505 vs. 7,645mg, p=0.049). Broiled shrimp also has a lower saturated fat content than fried shrimp (532 vs. 1,262mg, p=0.049). Broiled ribeye steak without fat has a lower cholesterol content when compared with the fried steak (102 vs. 114mg, p=0.049). CONCLUSION: The analysis indicates that the method of food preparation influences the fat content of foods, with potential impact on the prescription of low-fat and low-cholesterol diets.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Culinária/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Carne/análise , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fabaceae , Peixes , Penaeidae , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(2): 148-154, mar.-abr. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-673382

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do modo de preparo na composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol em alimentos. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição química do colesterol e ácidos graxos de oito tipos diferentes de carnes e da feijoada, em relação a diferentes métodos de preparo. RESULTADOS: A feijoada preparada com as carnes em separado tem menos colesterol (12,1 e 16,1 mg, respectivamente; p = 0,005) e gordura saturada (1,4 e 1,9 mg; p = 0,046) do que quando preparada junto. O frango grelhado sem pele apresenta menor quantidade de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frango frito sem pele (7645 e 1505 mg; p = 0,049). O camarão grelhado também apresenta menor conteúdo de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frito (532 e 1262 mg; p = 0,049). O contrafilé grelhado sem gordura apresenta menor conteúdo de colesterol quando comparado com o frito (102 e 114 mg; p = 0,049). CONCLUSÃO: As análises aqui realizadas indicam que a forma de preparo influencia no teor de gordura dos alimentos, com potencial impacto na prescrição de dietas com baixo teor de gordura e colesterol.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of food preparation methods on the composition of fatty acids and cholesterol in foods. METHODS: The chemical composition of cholesterol and fatty acids was analyzed in eight different types of meat and feijoada in relation to different methods of preparation. RESULTS: Feijoada, when prepared with the beans and meats in separate pots, has less cholesterol (12.1 vs. 16.1 mg, respectively, p = 0.005) and saturated fat (1.4 vs. 1.9 mg, p = 0.046) than when it is prepared in a single pot. Broiled chicken without the skin has less saturated fat when compared with skinless fried chicken (1,505 vs. 7,645 mg, p = 0.049). Broiled shrimp also has a lower saturated fat content than fried shrimp (532 vs. 1,262 mg, p = 0.049). Broiled ribeye steak without fat has a lower cholesterol content when compared with the fried steak (102 vs. 114 mg, p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: The analysis indicates that the method of food preparation influences the fat content of foods, with potential impact on the prescription of low-fat and low-cholesterol diets.


Assuntos
Animais , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Culinária/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Carne/análise , Colesterol/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fabaceae , Peixes , Penaeidae , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 57(2): 153-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21537700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. METHODS: The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. RESULTS: According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48% (p < 0.05), higher content in the former. This study table found a cholesterol content 31% lower (94 mg/100 g vs. 123 mg/100 g, p < 0.05) for yellow cheese. For whole milk, we found a 52% difference regarding cholesterol content, while the difference for saturated fat ranged from 1.4 g/100 g in Unicamp table to 2.130 g/100 g in our study table (p < 0.05). For some food items, no statistically significant differences were found among the tables. However, when a 1,800-calorie diet was prescribed, the discrepancies among the tables and lack of information resulted in clinically relevant differences in dietary recommendations. CONCLUSION: There are important differences in food fat content between the fatty acid and cholesterol content formally analyzed and the content shown on commonly used tables, and this can compromise our recommendations on preventing atherosclerosis. One possible explanation for the differences would be the fact that the UNIFESP table is American in origin.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 57(2): 153-157, mar.-abr. 2011. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-584065

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Comparar a composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol de alimentos adquiridos no mercado brasileiro, com tabelas de referência mais usadas no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol de 41 alimentos mais usados na alimentação em nosso meio e modos de preparo, utilizando-se metodologias específicas e comparadas com as informações das tabelas adotadas pela Unicamp e UNIFESP. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de colesterol encontrado no queijo parmesão foi de 100,7 mg/100 g; já na tabela da UNIFESP foi de 68 mg/100 g (p < 0,05), ou seja, 48 por cento a mais. Para o queijo tipo prato, a tabela deste estudo apresentou medida 31 por cento menor de colesterol (94 mg/100 g versus 123 mg/100 g, p < 0,05). Para o leite integral, a variação é de 52 por cento com relação ao colesterol, enquanto a gordura saturada variou de 1,4 g/100 g, na tabela da Unicamp, a 2,130 g/100 g, na tabela do estudo (p < 0,05). Para alguns alimentos, não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as tabelas avaliadas. Entretanto, quando foi prescrita uma dieta de 1.800 calorias, as discrepâncias entre as tabelas e a falta de informações resultaram em diferenças clinicamente relevantes nas recomendações dietéticas. CONCLUSÃO: Existem importantes diferenças no teor das gorduras nos alimentos avaliados quando comparados com as tabelas mais usadas em nosso meio, o que pode comprometer as recomendações para a prevenção da aterosclerose. Uma das explicações seria o fato de a tabela da UNIFESP ser de origem americana.


OBJECTIVE: To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. METHODS: The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. RESULTS: According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48 percent (p < 0.05), higher content in the former. This study table found a cholesterol content 31 percent lower (94 mg/100 g vs. 123 mg/100 g, p < 0.05) for yellow cheese. For whole milk, we found a 52 percent difference regarding cholesterol content, while the difference for saturated fat ranged from 1.4 g/100 g in Unicamp table to 2.130 g/100 g in our study table (p < 0.05). For some food items, no statistically significant differences were found among the tables. However, when a 1,800-calorie diet was prescribed, the discrepancies among the tables and lack of information resulted in clinically relevant differences in dietary recommendations. CONCLUSION: There are important differences in food fat content between the fatty acid and cholesterol content formally analyzed and the content shown on commonly used tables, and this can compromise our recommendations on preventing atherosclerosis. One possible explanation for the differences would be the fact that the UNIFESP table is American in origin.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Necessidades Nutricionais
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