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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(4): 787-891, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691761
2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(6): 775-781, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Physical activity (PA) and appropriate diet, if adopted in childhood and adolescence, may reduce the CVD burden in later life. The Olympic Experimental Gymnasium (OEG) project was implemented to increase the PA levels of students by means of regular physical exercise and healthy eating habits. OBJECTIVES: To estimate and compare the prevalence of CVD risk factors in OEG schools versus regular schools (RSch) and to examine associations between the school environment and CVD risk factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study with a comparator group, adolescents aged 12-13 years attending three OEG schools (n = 719) and three RSch (n = 394) were evaluated after one year of the ongoing program to estimate the prevalence of overweight, pre-hypertension/hypertension, altered glycemia, and lipid profile. An α level of 0.05 was set for statistical analysis. RESULTS: RSch students had higher odds to have high blood pressure (OR 1.86, 1.36-2.54) and to be overweight (OR 1.49, 1.13-1.98) than OEG students. Glucose levels were not altered in most cases regardless of school type, and no differences were found in lipid profile. In the sensitivity analysis stratified by gender, girls from RSch were more likely to have high body mass index than boys. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of adolescents to the OEG policies was positively associated with an important reduction in CVD risk factors, including high blood pressure and overweight.

3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 248-255, Mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888037

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths in the world, and many events could be prevented by healthy life habits. Objectives: To compare the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents enrolled at public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, including a renowned school for sport practices. Methods: Cross-sectional study, convenience sampling of 422 students enrolled at the Experimental Olympic Gymnasium (EOG) and at Figueiredo Pimentel School (FP). Using descriptive analyses, continuous variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile ranges, and the Student's t-test or the chi-square test, respectively, was used for comparisons. The sports were classified according to the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) (below or above 5). Results: We included 274 students enrolled at the EOG and 148 at FP. Mean age was similar between schools -12.5 ± 1.6 years at FP and 12.6 ± 0.9 at the EOG; 65.5% of the students at FP and 43.8% of the students at the EOG were female (p < 0.01). Significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension (20% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.01) and borderline cholesterol levels (27.7% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.01) were found between FP and EOG students, respectively. Conclusion: High prevalence of hypertension, overweight/obesity and altered blood lipid profile was found in this group of adolescents. Regular sports training program combined with little influence of their eating habits outside school may contribute to a better metabolic profile and reduction in cardiovascular risk factors in students. Public health measures are also need.


Resumo Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares são a maior causa de mortes no mundo e muitos eventos poderiam ser evitados por meio de hábitos saudáveis de vida. Objetivos: Comparar a ocorrência de fatores de risco cardiovascular em adolescentes de escolas públicas do município do Rio de Janeiro, sendo uma delas, modelo em práticas esportivas. Métodos: Estudo transversal; amostra de conveniência de 422 escolares do Ginásio Experimental Olímpico (GEO) e da Escola Municipal Figueiredo Pimentel (FP). Foi realizada análise descritiva dos dados utilizando média e desvio-padrão (DP) ou mediana e intervalo interquartil para variáveis contínuas (testes t de Student e qui-quadrado para comparação, respectivamente). As modalidades esportivas foram classificadas de acordo com o equivalente metabólico (MET), se abaixo ou acima de 5. Resultados: duzentos e setenta e quatro alunos eram do GEO e 148 da FP. A média de idade era semelhante - 12,5 ± 1,6 na EMFP e 12,6 ± 0,9 no GEO; 65,5% dos alunos eram do sexo feminino na FP e 43,8% no GEO (p < 0,01). Da amostra geral, 40% apresentaram sobrepeso ou obesidade. Observaram-se diferenças entre a prevalência de hipertensão (20% vs. 6,3%; p < 0,01 nos alunos da FP e do GEO, respectivamente) e de níveis de colesterol total considerados limítrofes (27,7% vs. 17,3%; p = 0,01 na FP e no GEO, respectivamente). Conclusão: Hipertensão, sobrepeso/obesidade e lipidograma capilar alterado foram muito prevalentes nos adolescentes. Um programa de treinamento esportivo regular com menos interferência alimentar extraescola parece contribuir para um melhor perfil metabólico e menor risco cardiovascular entre estudantes. Ainda, medidas efetivas de saúde pública são necessárias.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(3): 248-255, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths in the world, and many events could be prevented by healthy life habits. OBJECTIVES: To compare the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents enrolled at public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, including a renowned school for sport practices. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, convenience sampling of 422 students enrolled at the Experimental Olympic Gymnasium (EOG) and at Figueiredo Pimentel School (FP). Using descriptive analyses, continuous variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile ranges, and the Student's t-test or the chi-square test, respectively, was used for comparisons. The sports were classified according to the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) (below or above 5). RESULTS: We included 274 students enrolled at the EOG and 148 at FP. Mean age was similar between schools -12.5 ± 1.6 years at FP and 12.6 ± 0.9 at the EOG; 65.5% of the students at FP and 43.8% of the students at the EOG were female (p < 0.01). Significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension (20% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.01) and borderline cholesterol levels (27.7% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.01) were found between FP and EOG students, respectively. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of hypertension, overweight/obesity and altered blood lipid profile was found in this group of adolescents. Regular sports training program combined with little influence of their eating habits outside school may contribute to a better metabolic profile and reduction in cardiovascular risk factors in students. Public health measures are also need.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Esportes/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/fisiologia , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(2 Supl 1): 1-76, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813069
6.
Faludi, André Arpad; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Chacra, Ana Paula Marte; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Afiune Neto, Abrahão; Bertolami, Adriana; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Lottenberg, Ana Maria; Sposito, Andrei C.; Chagas, Antonio Carlos Palandri; Casella Filho, Antonio; Simão, Antônio Felipe; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles Comte de; Caramelli, Bruno; Magalhães, Carlos Costa; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos; Scherr, Carlos; Feio, Claudine Maria Alves; Kovacs, Cristiane; Araújo, Daniel Branco de; Magnoni, Daniel; Calderaro, Daniela; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Mello Junior, Edgard Pessoa de; Alexandre, Elizabeth Regina Giunco; Sato, Emília Inoue; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki; Rached, Fabiana Hanna; Santos, Fábio César dos; Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Fonseca, Henrique Andrade Rodrigues da; Xavier, Hermes Toros; Mota, Isabela Cardoso Pimentel; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Diament, Jayme; Pesquero, João Bosco; Santos, José Ernesto dos; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Melo Filho, José Xavier de; Kato, Juliana Tieko; Torres, Kerginaldo Paulo; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Assad, Marcelo Heitor Vieira; Miname, Márcio Hiroshi; Scartezini, Marileia; Forti, Neusa Assumpta; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Alves, Renato Jorge; Cassani, Roberta Lara; Betti, Roberto Tadeu Barcellos; Carvalho, Tales de; Martinez, Tânia Leme da Rocha; Giraldez, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha; Salgado Filho, Wilson.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(2,supl.1): 1-76, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887919
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 225: 123-127, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing use of conducted electronic weapons (CEW) cause concern regarding its secure application, specially regarding the implications in the cardiovascular system. METHODS: The objective was to determine Spark CEW safety through cardiovascular parameters analysis of healthy volunteers subjected to its use. RESULTS: Volunteers over 18years without cardiovascular disease or recent use of illegal drugs were submitted, before and after being affected with Spark CEW, to clinical evaluation; blood collection for serum laboratory tests; transthoracic electrocardiography at rest, transthoracic echodopplercardiogram and 24hour Holter. RESULTS: All 71 patients reported being incapable of any voluntary reaction during the shock of the application time. No arrhythmia or myocardial necrosis was related to the use of non-lethal weapon SPARK. Reported adverse events were self-limited, and mostly mild. CONCLUSIONS: SPARK brand CEW is effective in incapacitating individuals by the shock of the application time, without causing.


Assuntos
Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Armas , Adulto , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/diagnóstico , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/diagnóstico , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(2): 152-158, 02/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741145

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. Methods: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops) and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. Results: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish) and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g). Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g) and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g). Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. Conclusion: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3. .


Fundamento: Inúmeros estudos demonstram os efeitos benéficos do consumo de peixe para o aparelho cardiovascular. Isso seria decorrente da presença de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados nesses alimentos. Contudo, as concentrações desses nutrientes podem variar conforme a região. Objetivo: Analisar a composição e a quantidade de colesterol e ácidos graxos de peixes brasileiros e do salmão de cativeiro, habitualmente consumidos em nosso meio. Métodos: Foi analisada a concentração de colesterol e ácidos graxos, particularmente o ômega-3, de 10 tipos diferentes de peixes grelhados, sendo um deles o salmão. Cada amostra foi composta por três subamostras (“postas”), e cada uma retirada de uma porção, do início, do meio e do final do peixe, com o objetivo de minimizar problemas com relação a possíveis diferenças entre as porções musculares e de gorduras. Resultados: O maior teor de colesterol encontrado foi no cherne (107,6 mg/100 g), e o menor foi no badejo (70 mg/100 g). A concentração de ômega-3 variou de 0,01 g/100 g no badejo a 0,900 g/100 g na pescadinha. Já a gordura saturada variou de 0,687 g/100 g no pirarucu a 4,530 g/100 g no filhote. O salmão apresentou a maior quantidade de gordura poli-insaturada (3,29 g/100 g), e a pescadinha, o maior teor de gordura monoinsaturada (5,98 g/100 g). Quando avaliada as relações ômega 6/3, as melhores foram as do badejo (2,22) e do namorado (1,19), no entanto essas espécies apresentam muito pouca quantidade de ômega-3. Conclusão: Todos os peixes brasileiros estudados e o salmão importado têm baixos teores de gordura saturada, contudo a maioria desses peixes também tem baixos teores de ômega-3. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Viés , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Coleta de Dados , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Grupos Focais , Medição de Risco
9.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 104(2): 152-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. METHODS: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops) and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. RESULTS: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish) and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g). Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g) and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g). Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. CONCLUSION: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3.


Assuntos
Colesterol/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Peixes , Análise de Variância , Animais , Brasil , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Valores de Referência , Salmão , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
10.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 13(5): 676-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25277697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent findings have highlighted enhanced fish consumption as a potential measure to increase intake of healthy fatty acids, particularly omega-3. The generalizability of this recommendation, however, may fall short of differences in fish species and cooking techniques. Hence, we investigated how these 2 variables affect the lipid content in fish flesh. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine species of freshwater, deep sea or shore fish were grilled, steamed or fried with or without the addition of soybean oil, olive oil or butter. The lipid composition was analysed and a significant difference was observed in cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids contents between species (p<0.05). The use of soybean or olive oil was associated with a significant change in flesh concentration of polyunsaturated, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study calls attention to the specific lipid content that must be expected from different fish species and cooking techniques.


Assuntos
Culinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Lipídeos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Manteiga , Colesterol/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/química , Peixes , Azeite de Oliva/química , Óleo de Soja/química , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(4): 307-307, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-685515
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 59(2): 148-54, 2013 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23582556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of food preparation methods on the composition of fatty acids and cholesterol in foods. METHODS: The chemical composition of cholesterol and fatty acids was analyzed in eight different types of meat and feijoada in relation to different methods of preparation. RESULTS: Feijoada, when prepared with the beans and meats in separate pots, has less cholesterol (12.1 vs. 16.1mg, respectively, p=0.005) and saturated fat (1.4 vs. 1.9mg, p=0.046) than when it is prepared in a single pot. Broiled chicken without the skin has less saturated fat when compared with skinless fried chicken (1,505 vs. 7,645mg, p=0.049). Broiled shrimp also has a lower saturated fat content than fried shrimp (532 vs. 1,262mg, p=0.049). Broiled ribeye steak without fat has a lower cholesterol content when compared with the fried steak (102 vs. 114mg, p=0.049). CONCLUSION: The analysis indicates that the method of food preparation influences the fat content of foods, with potential impact on the prescription of low-fat and low-cholesterol diets.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Culinária/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Carne/análise , Animais , Colesterol/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fabaceae , Peixes , Penaeidae , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(2): 148-154, mar.-abr. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-673382

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do modo de preparo na composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol em alimentos. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição química do colesterol e ácidos graxos de oito tipos diferentes de carnes e da feijoada, em relação a diferentes métodos de preparo. RESULTADOS: A feijoada preparada com as carnes em separado tem menos colesterol (12,1 e 16,1 mg, respectivamente; p = 0,005) e gordura saturada (1,4 e 1,9 mg; p = 0,046) do que quando preparada junto. O frango grelhado sem pele apresenta menor quantidade de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frango frito sem pele (7645 e 1505 mg; p = 0,049). O camarão grelhado também apresenta menor conteúdo de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frito (532 e 1262 mg; p = 0,049). O contrafilé grelhado sem gordura apresenta menor conteúdo de colesterol quando comparado com o frito (102 e 114 mg; p = 0,049). CONCLUSÃO: As análises aqui realizadas indicam que a forma de preparo influencia no teor de gordura dos alimentos, com potencial impacto na prescrição de dietas com baixo teor de gordura e colesterol.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of food preparation methods on the composition of fatty acids and cholesterol in foods. METHODS: The chemical composition of cholesterol and fatty acids was analyzed in eight different types of meat and feijoada in relation to different methods of preparation. RESULTS: Feijoada, when prepared with the beans and meats in separate pots, has less cholesterol (12.1 vs. 16.1 mg, respectively, p = 0.005) and saturated fat (1.4 vs. 1.9 mg, p = 0.046) than when it is prepared in a single pot. Broiled chicken without the skin has less saturated fat when compared with skinless fried chicken (1,505 vs. 7,645 mg, p = 0.049). Broiled shrimp also has a lower saturated fat content than fried shrimp (532 vs. 1,262 mg, p = 0.049). Broiled ribeye steak without fat has a lower cholesterol content when compared with the fried steak (102 vs. 114 mg, p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: The analysis indicates that the method of food preparation influences the fat content of foods, with potential impact on the prescription of low-fat and low-cholesterol diets.


Assuntos
Animais , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Culinária/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Carne/análise , Colesterol/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fabaceae , Peixes , Penaeidae , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 57(2): 153-7, 2011 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21537700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. METHODS: The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. RESULTS: According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48% (p < 0.05), higher content in the former. This study table found a cholesterol content 31% lower (94 mg/100 g vs. 123 mg/100 g, p < 0.05) for yellow cheese. For whole milk, we found a 52% difference regarding cholesterol content, while the difference for saturated fat ranged from 1.4 g/100 g in Unicamp table to 2.130 g/100 g in our study table (p < 0.05). For some food items, no statistically significant differences were found among the tables. However, when a 1,800-calorie diet was prescribed, the discrepancies among the tables and lack of information resulted in clinically relevant differences in dietary recommendations. CONCLUSION: There are important differences in food fat content between the fatty acid and cholesterol content formally analyzed and the content shown on commonly used tables, and this can compromise our recommendations on preventing atherosclerosis. One possible explanation for the differences would be the fact that the UNIFESP table is American in origin.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 57(2): 153-157, mar.-abr. 2011. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-584065

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Comparar a composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol de alimentos adquiridos no mercado brasileiro, com tabelas de referência mais usadas no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol de 41 alimentos mais usados na alimentação em nosso meio e modos de preparo, utilizando-se metodologias específicas e comparadas com as informações das tabelas adotadas pela Unicamp e UNIFESP. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de colesterol encontrado no queijo parmesão foi de 100,7 mg/100 g; já na tabela da UNIFESP foi de 68 mg/100 g (p < 0,05), ou seja, 48 por cento a mais. Para o queijo tipo prato, a tabela deste estudo apresentou medida 31 por cento menor de colesterol (94 mg/100 g versus 123 mg/100 g, p < 0,05). Para o leite integral, a variação é de 52 por cento com relação ao colesterol, enquanto a gordura saturada variou de 1,4 g/100 g, na tabela da Unicamp, a 2,130 g/100 g, na tabela do estudo (p < 0,05). Para alguns alimentos, não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as tabelas avaliadas. Entretanto, quando foi prescrita uma dieta de 1.800 calorias, as discrepâncias entre as tabelas e a falta de informações resultaram em diferenças clinicamente relevantes nas recomendações dietéticas. CONCLUSÃO: Existem importantes diferenças no teor das gorduras nos alimentos avaliados quando comparados com as tabelas mais usadas em nosso meio, o que pode comprometer as recomendações para a prevenção da aterosclerose. Uma das explicações seria o fato de a tabela da UNIFESP ser de origem americana.


OBJECTIVE: To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. METHODS: The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. RESULTS: According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48 percent (p < 0.05), higher content in the former. This study table found a cholesterol content 31 percent lower (94 mg/100 g vs. 123 mg/100 g, p < 0.05) for yellow cheese. For whole milk, we found a 52 percent difference regarding cholesterol content, while the difference for saturated fat ranged from 1.4 g/100 g in Unicamp table to 2.130 g/100 g in our study table (p < 0.05). For some food items, no statistically significant differences were found among the tables. However, when a 1,800-calorie diet was prescribed, the discrepancies among the tables and lack of information resulted in clinically relevant differences in dietary recommendations. CONCLUSION: There are important differences in food fat content between the fatty acid and cholesterol content formally analyzed and the content shown on commonly used tables, and this can compromise our recommendations on preventing atherosclerosis. One possible explanation for the differences would be the fact that the UNIFESP table is American in origin.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Necessidades Nutricionais
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(1): 55-60, jul. 2010. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-554519

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: Para o aconselhamento adequado de um planejamento alimentar, com vistas à prevenção da cardiopatia isquêmica, é necessário o conhecimento da composição química dos alimentos. OBJETIVO: Analisar a composição de gorduras, ácidos graxos e colesterol de alguns exemplos nacionais de óleos comestíveis, manteigas, margarinas, laticínios e ovos, utilizando os limites de uma dieta para prevenção de doença arterial coronariana. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição de óleos comestíveis, manteigas, margarinas, laticínios e ovos. Os resultados foram empregados de acordo com o recomendado pela American Heart Association para uma dieta de 1.800 calorias. RESULTADOS: Na comparação entre os óleos comestíveis, o de canola apresentou-se como o melhor. Já entre os leites, o desnatado é o mais recomendável, porém não há vantagens em relação ao semidesnatado. No caso do ovo, não existiram diferenças nos tipos encontrados no mercado. Em relação aos queijos, o tipo minas é o que apresentou o menor conteúdo de colesterol e gordura saturada. Na comparação margarina com manteiga, a primeira levou vantagem quando os níveis de gorduras trans que não ultrapassam o recomendado. CONCLUSÃO: A composição de alimentos usados no Brasil indica que dietas com objetivo de prevenção primária e secundária da cardiopatia isquêmica podem priorizar o uso de leite semidesnatado, óleo de girassol, margarinas com baixo teor de gorduras trans e queijo do tipo minas.


BACKGROUND: For appropriate advising on a meal plan aimed at the prevention of ischemic heart disease, it is necessary to know the chemical composition of foods. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the composition of fats, fatty acids and cholesterol in some Brazilian specimens of edible oils, butters, margarines, dairy products and eggs, using the limits of a diet to prevent coronary artery disease. METHODS: We analyzed the composition of edible oils, butters, margarines, dairy products and eggs. The findings were used as recommended by the American Heart Association for a 1,800 calorie diet. RESULTS: Comparing the edible oils, the canola oil was found to be the best.Among the milks, the skimmed milk is most advisable one, but no advantages were found over the semi-skimmed milk. For the eggs, no differences were found in the types of milk found in the market. For cheeses, the "minas" cheese had the lowest content of cholesterol and saturated fat. Comparing margarine and butter, the former was found to be better when trans fats do not exceed the recommended levels. CONCLUSION: The composition of foods used in Brazil indicates that diets designed to enable primary and secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease can prioritize the use of semi-skimmed milk, sunflower oil, margarines with low content of trans fats and "minas" cheese.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Laticínios/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Ovos/análise , Margarina/análise , Óleos/análise , Fatores de Risco
19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 95(1): 55-60, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20563513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For appropriate advising on a meal plan aimed at the prevention of ischemic heart disease, it is necessary to know the chemical composition of foods. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the composition of fats, fatty acids and cholesterol in some Brazilian specimens of edible oils, butter, margarines, dairy products and eggs, using the limits of a diet to prevent coronary artery disease. METHODS: We analyzed the composition of edible oils, butter, margarines, dairy products and eggs. The findings were used as recommended by the American Heart Association for a 1,800 calorie diet. RESULTS: Comparing the edible oils, the canola oil was found to be the best.Among the milks, the skimmed milk is most advisable one, but no advantages were found over the semi-skimmed milk. For the eggs, no differences were found in the types of milk found in the market. For cheeses, the "minas" cheese had the lowest content of cholesterol and saturated fat. Comparing margarine and butter, the former was found to be better when trans fats do not exceed the recommended levels. CONCLUSION: The composition of foods used in Brazil indicates that diets designed to enable primary and secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease can prioritize the use of semi-skimmed milk, sunflower oil, margarines with low content of trans fats and "minas" cheese.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Laticínios/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Ovos/análise , Humanos , Margarina/análise , Óleos/análise , Fatores de Risco
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 94(6): 730-737, jun. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-550698

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: A doença coronariana é a maior causa mortis mundial, segundo a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), e a segunda no Brasil. Morte súbita ocorre de 4 a 6 vezes mais nos que já sofreram um infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM); em 6 anos, 18 por cento dos homens e 35 por cento das mulheres terão novo IAM. A prevenção secundária, cuja eficácia já foi demonstrada, é de fundamental importância. OBJETIVO: Testar a efetividade de um programa multiprofissional que visa a modificar fatores de risco para aterosclerose no sistema público. MÉTODOS: Dos 2.337 coronariopatas em tratamento ambulatorial, 513 com estudo coronariográfico concordaram em participar deste estudo, que utilizou como arma terapêutica palestras de como e por que controlar os fatores de risco. Análise estatística: variação significativa pré e pós-intervenção; teste t de Student emparelhado ou o teste de Wilcoxon; existência de diferença significativa entre dois grupos; teste t de Student para amostras independentes ou o teste de Mann-Whitney. Comparação entre três grupos: análise de variância (ANOVA) ou Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: Colesterol, LDL, triglicérides, índice de massa corpórea, índices de Castelli I e II e medida da cintura apresentaram diminuição significativa, mesmo nos pacientes sem hipolipemiante. Na avaliação do impacto em relação à dieta, verificou-se que 72 por cento dos que não faziam dieta passaram a fazê-la. Atividade física: dos 55 por cento sedentários, 71 por cento passaram a exercitar-se três ou mais vezes/semana. Tabagismo: dos fumantes, 60 por cento (9 por cento do total) interromperam este hábito e 32 por cento o diminuíram. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados demonstram a eficácia de programas para melhorar hábitos de vida, aplicados em unidades do sistema público de saúde.


BACKGROUND: Coronary disease is the major worldwide cause of death, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the second in Brazil. Sudden death occurs 4 to 6 times more frequently in those who have suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI); within 6 years, 18 percent of the men and 35 percent of the women will have a new AMI. The secondary prevention, of which effectiveness has been previously demonstrated, is of utmost importance. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a multiprofessional program that aims at modifying risk factors for atherosclerosis in the public health system. METHODS: Of the 2,337 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing outpatient treatment, 513 with a coronary angiography study agreed to participate in the present study, which used lectures on how and why to control risk factors as therapeutic tool. Statistical analysis: significant variation pre and post-intervention; paired Student's t test or Wilcoxon's test ; existence of a significant difference between the two groups; Student's t test for independent samples or Mann-Whitney test. Comparison among three groups: analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTS: Cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, body mass index, Castelli indexes I and II and waist circumference showed a significant decrease, even in patients without hypolipemiant treatment. The assessment of the diet impact showed that 72 percent of the patients that did not follow a diet, started to do so. Physical activity: of the 55 percent sedentary patients, 71 percent started to exercise three or more times a week. Smoking: of the smokers, 60 percent (9 percent of the total) stopped smoking and 32 percent decreased the number of cigarettes. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the programs to improve life habits when applied to the units of the public health system.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Nível de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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