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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by fibrosis, vascular disease and inflammation. Adenosine signaling plays a central role in fibroblast activation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of adenosine depletion with pegylated adenosine deaminase (PEG-ADA) in preclinical models of SSc. METHODS: The effects of PEG-ADA on inflammation, vascular remodeling and tissue fibrosis were analyzed in Fos-related antigen-2 transgenic (Fra2) mice and in the B10.D2→Balb/c(H-2d) model of sclerodermatous-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease (scl-cGvHD). The effects of PEG-ADA were confirmed in vitro in a human full-thickness-skin-model. RESULTS: PEG-ADA effectively inhibited myofibroblast differentiation and reduced pulmonary (with decreased collagen expression by 34.3%, p=0.0079, n=6), dermal (51.8%, p=0.0006, n=6) and intestinal fibrosis (17.7%, p=0.0228, n=6) in Fra2 mice. Antifibrotic effects of PEG-ADA were also demonstrated in scl-cGvHD (38.4%, p=0.0063, n=8), and in a human full-thickness-skin model. PEG-ADA decreased inflammation and corrected the M2-Th2-ILC2-bias. Moreover, PEG-ADA inhibited proliferation of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (40.5%, p<0.0001, n=6), prevented thickening of the vessel walls (39.6%, p=0.0028, n=6) and occlusions of pulmonary arteries (63.9%, p=0.0147, n=6). Treatment with PEG-ADA inhibited apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cells (65.4%, p=0.0001, n=6) and blunted the capillary rarefication (32.5%, p=0.0199, n=6). RNASeq demonstrated that treatment with PEG-ADA normalized multiple pathways related to fibrosis, vasculopathy and inflammation in Fra2 mice. CONCLUSION: Treatment with PEG-ADA ameliorates the three cardinal features of SSc in pharmacologically relevant and well-tolerated doses. These findings may have direct translational implications as PEG-ADA is already FDA-approved for the treatment of patients with ADA-deficient-SCID.

2.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(Supplement_1): i10-i14, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159793

RESUMO

Enthesitis is a key manifestation of PsA and current knowledge supports the concept that it may be among the primary events in the development of this disease, as well as other forms of SpA. Patients with PsA seem to have a different threshold to mechanical stress, which may be genetically determined. Hence patients with psoriatic disease respond pathologically with inflammation after being exposed to physiological mechanical stress. Activation of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-17 and TNF-α as well as the influx of innate immune cells are key events in the development of enthesitis in PsA. Chronic entheseal inflammation is accompanied by new bone formation, leading to bony spurs in peripheral (entheseophytes) and axial (syndesmophytes) structures. This article reviews the current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in the development of enthesitis in patients with PsA.

3.
Cell Rep ; 30(12): 4082-4095.e6, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209470

RESUMO

Systemic immune dysregulation contributes to the development of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The precise effect of chronic peripheral immune stimulation on myeloid cells across anatomical brain regions is unclear. Here, we demonstrate brain-region-specific differences in myeloid responses induced by chronic peripheral inflammation. This shift in the myeloid compartment is associated with the appearance of an inflammatory myeloid subpopulation in the cortex, striatum, and thalamus accompanied by regional transcriptomic fingerprints that include induction of chemokines, complement factors, and endothelial adhesion molecules. In contrast, myeloid immune responses within the hippocampus and cerebellum are subtle or absent. Treatment with the anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNF-α) antibody infliximab ablates the region-specific inflammatory response. A region-specific myeloid cell response to chronic peripheral inflammation is observed in postmortem brains from individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Our data suggest that chronic peripheral inflammation has heterogeneous effects on the brain, as evidenced by the spectrum of myeloid cell responses observed across brain regions.

4.
Lancet ; 395(10222): 427-440, 2020 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual neutralisation of interleukin 17A (IL17A) and interleukin 17F (IL17F) is a potential novel therapeutic approach in psoriatic arthritis. We assessed bimekizumab, a monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralises IL17A and IL17F, in patients with active psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: BE ACTIVE was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase 2b study done at 41 sites in the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, and the USA. Eligible patients aged 18 years or older with active adult-onset psoriatic arthritis and symptoms for at least 6 months were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) to placebo, 16 mg bimekizumab, 160 mg bimekizumab, 160 mg bimekizumab with a one-off 320 mg loading dose, or 320 mg bimekizumab, which were administered as subcutaneous injections every 4 weeks for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, patients assigned to the placebo and 16 mg bimekizumab groups were randomly reassigned (1:1) to either 160 mg or 320 mg bimekizumab, and all other patients remained on their originally assigned initial dose up to 48 weeks. Both participants and researchers were blinded to treatment allocation in the first 12 weeks, and blinded to the dose of bimekizumab thereafter. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with at least 50% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology response criteria at week 12, which was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had a valid measurement of the primary efficacy endpoint at baseline. The trial, including all follow-up, has been completed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02969525. FINDINGS: Between Oct 27, 2016, and July 16, 2018, 308 patients were screened, and 206 were randomly assigned: 42 to the placebo group, and 41 each to the four bimekizumab groups. At 12 weeks, compared with the placebo group, significantly more patients in the 16 mg bimekizumab (odds ratio [OR] 4·2 [95% CI 1·1-15·2]; p=0·032), 160 mg bimekizumab (8·1 [2·3-28·7]; p=0·0012), and 160 mg (loading dose) bimekizumab (9·7 [2·7-34·3]; p=0·0004) groups achieved an ACR50 response. At 12 weeks, 24 (57%) of 42 patients in the placebo group and 68 (41%) of the 164 patients in the bimekizumab groups reported treatment-emergent adverse events. Most of these adverse events were mild or moderate. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in nine patients, eight of whom were receiving bimekizumab. No deaths or cases of inflammatory bowel disease were reported. INTERPRETATION: Bimekizumab doses of 16 mg and 160 mg (with or without a 320 mg loading dose) were associated with significant improvements in ACR50 compared with placebo, with an acceptable safety profile. Our results support phase 3 investigation of bimekizumab as a treatment for psoriatic arthritis. FUNDING: UCB Pharma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 26, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is often normal in patients with psoriatic disease. Herein, we aimed to define markers of systemic inflammation in patients with monomorphic and polymorphic psoriatic skin, entheseal, and joint disease. METHODS: Three-step approach: (i) selection of serum markers elevated in psoriatic arthritis compared healthy controls from a panel of 10 different markers reflecting the pathophysiology of psoriatic disease; (ii) testing of these selected markers as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) in a larger cohort of 210 individuals- 105 healthy controls and 105 patients with psoriatic disease with either monomorphic skin (S), entheseal (E) or joint (A) involvement or polymorphic disease with various combinations of skin, entheseal and joint disease (SE, SA, EA, SEA); (iii) testing whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-17 inhibitor therapy normalizes these markers. RESULTS: CRP was not elevated or was rarely elevated in the subgroups (S 0%, E 0%, A 20%, SE 7%, SA 33%, EA 27%, SEA 33%) despite active psoriatic disease. In sharp contrast, beta-defensin 2 and lipocalin-2 levels were elevated in the majority of patients with monomorphic skin (93% and 73%) and entheseal (both 53%), but not joint disease (27% and 20%). Conversely, elevations of calprotectin and IL-8 were found in the majority of patients with monomorphic joint disease (both 73%). IL-22 was elevated in all three monomorphic disease manifestations (S 60%, E 46%; A 60%). Furthermore, the vast majority of patients with polymorphic psoriatic disease (SE, SA, EA, SEA) showed widespread marker elevation. IL-17- and TNF inhibitor treatment significantly lowered all 5 markers of inflammation in PsA patients. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation is detectable in the majority of patients with psoriatic disease, even if CRP is normal. The respective marker pattern depends on the manifestation of psoriatic disease with respect to skin, entheseal, and joint involvement.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(530)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051226

RESUMO

Janus kinase (JAK)-mediated cytokine signaling has emerged as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accordingly, JAK inhibitors compose a new class of drugs, among which tofacitinib and baricitinib have been approved for the treatment of RA. Periarticular bone erosions contribute considerably to the pathogenesis of RA. However, although the immunomodulatory aspect of JAK inhibition (JAKi) is well defined, the current knowledge of how JAKi influences bone homeostasis is limited. Here, we assessed the effects of the JAK inhibitors tofacitinib and baricitinib on bone phenotype (i) in mice during steady-state conditions or in mice with bone loss induced by (ii) estrogen-deficiency (ovariectomy) or (iii) inflammation (arthritis) to evaluate whether effects of JAKi on bone metabolism require noninflammatory/inflammatory challenge. In all three models, JAKi increased bone mass, consistent with reducing the ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin in serum. In vitro, effects of tofacitinib and baricitinib on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation were analyzed. JAKi significantly increased osteoblast function (P < 0.05) but showed no direct effects on osteoclasts. Additionally, mRNA sequencing and ingenuity pathway analyses were performed in osteoblasts exposed to JAKi and revealed robust up-regulation of markers for osteoblast function, such as osteocalcin and Wnt signaling. The anabolic effect of JAKi was illustrated by the stabilization of ß-catenin. In humans with RA, JAKi induced bone-anabolic effects as evidenced by repair of arthritic bone erosions. Results support that JAKi is a potent therapeutic tool for increasing osteoblast function and bone formation.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether the presence of structural entheseal lesions in psoriasis patients influences the risk for the progression to psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Prospective cohort study on psoriasis patients without clinical evidence of musculoskeletal involvement receiving baseline assessment of structural entheseal lesions and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at entheseal and intra-articular sites by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Adjusted relative risks of developing PSA associated with baseline volumetric bone density and the presence of structural entheseal lesions were calculated using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: The cohort included 114 psoriasis patients (M/F 72/42) with a mean (SD) follow-up duration of 28.2 (17.7) months, during which 24 patients developed PsA (9.7 /100 patient-years, 95%CI 6.2 to 14.5). Patients with structural entheseal lesions were at higher risk of developing PsA compared to patients without such lesions (21.4/100 patient-years, 95%CI 12.5 to 34.3, HR 5.10, 95%CI 1.53 to 16.99, p=0.008). With respect to vBMD, a 1-standard deviation increase in entheseal, but not intra-articular vBMD was associated with an approximate 30% reduced risk to progress to PsA. Especially, higher cortical vBMD at entheseal segments was associated with a lower risk of developing PsA (HR 0.32 per SD, 95%CI 0.14 to 0.71), and remained robust after multiple imputation of missing data (HR 0.64, 95%CI 0.42 to 0.98). CONCLUSION: Presence of structural entheseal lesions as well as low cortical vBMD at entheseal segments are associated with an increased risk of developing PsA in patients with psoriasis.

8.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(4): 193-207, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080619

RESUMO

Mechanical loading is an important factor in musculoskeletal health and disease. Tendons and ligaments require physiological levels of mechanical loading to develop and maintain their tissue architecture, a process that is achieved at the cellular level through mechanotransduction-mediated fine tuning of the extracellular matrix by tendon and ligament stromal cells. Pathological levels of force represent a biological (mechanical) stress that elicits an immune system-mediated tissue repair pathway in tendons and ligaments. The biomechanics and mechanobiology of tendons and ligaments form the basis for understanding how such tissues sense and respond to mechanical force, and the anatomical extent of several mechanical stress-related disorders in tendons and ligaments overlaps with that of chronic inflammatory arthritis in joints. The role of mechanical stress in 'overuse' injuries, such as tendinopathy, has long been known, but mechanical stress is now also emerging as a possible trigger for some forms of chronic inflammatory arthritis, including spondyloarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, seemingly diverse diseases of the musculoskeletal system might have similar mechanisms of immunopathogenesis owing to conserved responses to mechanical stress.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess if microstructural bone lesions in RA at-risk individuals are related to the spectrum of anti-modified protein antibodies (AMPA) and affect the risk to develop RA. METHODS: Cortical micro-channels (CoMiCs) as well as cortical and trabecular bone volumes were analyzed by high-resolution computed tomography in the hand joints of RA at-risk individuals. Anti-modified protein antibody (AMPA) response was profiled including reactivities against citrullinated proteins (vimentin, enolase, fibrinogen) as well as carbamylated and acetylated vimentin. All subjects were followed for the development of RA. RESULTS: RA at-risk subjects (all N=74) with broad spectrum AMPA (6-8 reactivties) had significantly more severe microstructural changes (CoMiCs: 95±35/joint; total bone volume: 265±45 HA/cm3; trabecular bone volume: 176±42; cortical bone volume: 585±138) compared to subjects with moderate (3-5 reactivties; 79±30; 293±33; 195±32, 627±91, respectively) or narrow (1-2 reactivties; 47±20, 311±34, 211±30, 674±56, respectively) AMPA reactivity. Progressors to RA had significantly higher numbers of CoMiCs and lower bone volumes (CoMiCs: 103±30 vs. 71±35; total bone volume: 258±37 vs.295±34). Furthermore, progression to RA was high in subjects with broad (48%) vs. those with medium (26%) or narrow (0%) AMPA as well as in those with high (44%) vs. low (10%) CoMiCs. CONCLUSION: Microstructural changes in RA at-risk individuals are associated with broad-spectrum autoimmunity and predict the onset of RA. These data support the concept of structural priming of joints by autoimmunity before the onset of the inflammatory phase of the disease.

10.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 116, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seven T ultra-high field MRI systems have recently been approved for clinical use by the U.S. and European regulatory agencies. These systems are now being used clinically and will likely be more widely available in the near future. One of the applications of 7 T systems is musculoskeletal disease and particularly peripheral arthritis imaging. Since the introduction of potent anti-rheumatic therapies over the last two decades MRI has gained increasing importance particularly for assessment of disease activity in early stages of several rheumatic disorders. Commonly gadolinium-based contrast agents are used for assessment of synovitis. Due to potential side-effects of gadolinium non-enhanced techniques are desirable that enable visualization of inflammatory disease manifestations. The feasibility of 7 T MRI for evaluation of peripheral arthritis has not been shown up to now. Aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced (CE) and non-enhanced MRI at 7 T for the assessment of knee joint synovitis. METHOD: Seven T MRI was acquired for 10 patients with an established diagnosis of psoriatic or rheumatoid arthritis. The study pulse sequence protocol was comprised of a sagittal intermediate-weighted fat-suppressed (FS), axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) FS, sagittal 3D T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and an axial static 2D T1-weighted FS contrast-enhanced sequence (T1-FS CE). Ordinal scoring on non-enhanced (Hoffa- and effusion-synovitis) and enhanced MRI (11-point synovitis score), and comparison of FLAIR-FS with static T1-FS CE MRI using semiquantitative (SQ) grading and volume assessment was performed. For inter- and intra-reader reliability assessment weighted kappa statistics for ordinal scores and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables were used. RESULTS: The total length of study protocol was 15 min 38 s. Different amounts of synovitis were observed in all patients (mild: n = 3; moderate: n = 5; severe: n = 2). Consistently, SQ assessment yielded significantly lower peripatellar summed synovitis scores for the FLAIR-FS sequence compared to the CE T1-FS sequence (p < 0.01). FLAIR-FS showed significantly lower peripatellar synovial volumes (p < 0.01) compared to CE T1-FS imaging with an average percentage difference of 18.6 ± 9.5%. Inter- and intra-reader reliability for ordinal SQ scoring ranged from 0.21 (inter-reader Hoffa-synovitis) to 1.00 (inter-reader effusion-synovitis). Inter- and intra-observer reliability of SQ 3D-DCE parameters ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: Seven T FLAIR-FS ultra-high field MRI is a potential non-enhanced imaging method able to visualize synovial inflammation with high conspicuity and holds promise for further application in research endeavors and clinical routine by trained readers.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 120, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913287

RESUMO

Monomeric serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) can contribute to the development of various autoimmune diseases, but the regulation of serum IgA effector functions is not well defined. Here, we show that the two IgA subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) differ in their effect on immune cells due to distinct binding and signaling properties. Whereas IgA2 acts pro-inflammatory on neutrophils and macrophages, IgA1 does not have pronounced effects. Moreover, IgA1 and IgA2 have different glycosylation profiles, with IgA1 possessing more sialic acid than IgA2. Removal of sialic acid increases the pro-inflammatory capacity of IgA1, making it comparable to IgA2. Of note, disease-specific autoantibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis display a shift toward the pro-inflammatory IgA2 subclass, which is associated with higher disease activity. Taken together, these data demonstrate that IgA effector functions depend on subclass and glycosylation, and that disturbances in subclass balance are associated with autoimmune disease.

12.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990678

RESUMO

Fibroblasts are key-effector cells in tissue remodeling. They remain persistently activated in fibrotic diseases, resulting in progressive deposition of extracellular matrix. Although fibroblast activation maybe initiated by external factors, prolonged activation can induce an "autonomous", self-maintaining pro-fibrotic phenotype in fibroblasts. Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play a central role to establish this persistently activated pathologic phenotype of fibroblasts. We demonstrated that in fibrotic skin of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), a prototypical idiopathic fibrotic disease, transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) induced the expression of DNA-methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and DNMT1 in fibroblasts in a SMAD-dependent manner to silence the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) by promoter hypermethylation. Downregulation of SOCS3 facilitated activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) to promote fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition, collagen release and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Re-establishment of the epigenetic control of STAT3 signaling by genetic or pharmacological inactivation of DNMT3A reversed the activated phenotype of SSc fibroblasts in tissue culture, inhibited TGFß-dependent fibroblast activation and ameliorated experimental fibrosis in murine models. These findings identify a novel pathway of epigenetic imprinting of fibroblasts in fibrotic disease with translational implications for the development of new targeted therapies in fibrotic diseases.

14.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(3): 360-368, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the experiences, values, and needs of people without arthritis who undergo predictive biomarker testing for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our study aimed to explore the perspectives of these individuals and describe their information needs. METHODS: A qualitative, multicenter interview study with a thematic analysis was conducted in Austria, Germany and the UK. Individuals were interviewed who underwent predictive biomarker testing for RA and had a positive test result but no diagnosis of any inflammatory joint disease. Participants included patients with arthralgia and asymptomatic individuals. Information and education needs were developed from the qualitative codes and themes using the Arthritis Educational Needs Assessment Tool as a frame of reference. RESULTS: Thematic saturation was reached in 34 individuals (76% female, 24 [71%] with arthralgia, and 10 [29%] asymptomatic individuals). Thirty-seven codes were summarized into 4 themes: 1) decision-making around whether to undergo initial predictive testing, 2) willingness to consider further predictive tests, and/or 3) preventive interventions, including medication, and 4) varying reactions after receiving a positive test result. Individuals with arthralgia were more likely to be willing to take preventive action, undergo further testing, and experience psychological distress than asymptomatic individuals. All participants expressed the need for tailored, patient-understandable information. CONCLUSION: Individuals at risk of RA are currently the subjects of research aimed at developing better predictive strategies and preventive approaches. Their perceptions and needs should be addressed to inform the future development of interventions combined with education.

15.
Bone ; 131: 115149, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715339

RESUMO

Arthritis induces bone loss by inflammation-mediated disturbance of bone homeostasis. On the other hand, pain and impaired locomotion are highly prevalent in arthritis and result in reduced general physical activity and less pronounced mechanical loading. Bone is affected by mechanical loading, directly through impact with the ground during movement and indirectly through muscular activity. Mechanical loading in its physiological range is essential for maintaining bone mass, whereas disuse leads to bone loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mechanical loading on periarticular bone as well as inflammation during arthritis. Mechanical loading was either blocked by botulinum neurotoxin A (Botox) injections before induction of arthritis, or enhanced by cyclic compressive loading, three times per week during arthritis induction. Arthritis was verified and evaluated histologically. Trabecular and cortical bone mass were investigated using micro-computed tomography (µCT), subchondral osteoclastogenesis and bone turnover was assessed by standard methods. Inhibition of mechanical loading enhanced arthritis-induced bone loss while it did not affect inflammation. In contrast, enhanced mechanical loading mitigated arthritis-induced bone loss. Furthermore, the increase in bone resorption markers by arthritis was partly blocked by mechanical loading. In conclusion, enhanced arthritic bone loss after abrogation of mechanical loading suggests that muscle forces play an essential role in preventing arthritic bone loss. In accordance, mechanical loading of the arthritic joints inhibited bone loss, emphasizing that weight bearing activities may have the potential to counteract arthritis-mediated bone loss.

17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(1): 150-156, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have systematically and quantitatively addressed the impact of urate-lowering therapy on monosodium urate (MSU) deposits. This study was undertaken to analyze the effect of lifestyle measures and conventional urate-lowering therapy on MSU deposits in patients with gout. METHODS: In this prospective study, subjects with gout according to the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria and presence of MSU deposits seen on dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scans received either lifestyle intervention or conventional urate-lowering therapy for a mean period of 18 months before a follow-up DECT scan. Detected MSU deposits were quantified by volumetric measurement and validated by semiquantitative scoring, and baseline and follow-up measurements were compared. RESULTS: Baseline and follow-up DECT scans were available for all 83 subjects. Six subjects discontinued treatment, and 77 subjects underwent a lifestyle intervention (n = 24) or were treated with allopurinol (n = 29), febuxostat (n = 22), or benzbromarone (n = 2) over the entire observation period. The mean serum uric acid (UA) level decreased from 7.2 to 5.8 mg/dl in the overall population. In patients who discontinued treatment, no change in MSU deposits or serum UA levels was observed. The burden of MSU deposits significantly decreased in patients undergoing lifestyle intervention (MSU volume P = 0.007; MSU score P = 0.001), and in patients treated with allopurinol (MSU volume and score P < 0.001) or febuxostat (MSU volume P < 0.001; MSU score P = 0.001). No significant decline in MSU deposits was noted in patients who discontinued treatment. CONCLUSION: These data show that lifestyle intervention and xanthine oxidase inhibitors significantly decrease the MSU deposit burden. Hence, conventional gout therapy not only lowers serum UA levels, but also reduces pathologic MSU deposits.

18.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(1): 137-149, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Expression of dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP-4) identifies a dermal fibroblast lineage involved in scarring during wound healing. The role of DDP-4 in tissue fibrosis is, however, unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate DPP-4 as a potential target for the treatment of fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Expression of DPP-4 in skin biopsy samples and dermal fibroblasts was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses. The activity of DPP-4 was modulated by overexpression, knockdown, and pharmacologic inhibition of DPP4 using sitagliptin and vildagliptin. The effects of DPP4 inhibition were analyzed in human dermal fibroblasts and in different mouse models of SSc (each n = 6). RESULTS: The expression of DPP-4 and the number of DPP-4-positive fibroblasts were increased in the fibrotic skin of SSc patients, in a transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)-dependent manner. DPP-4-positive fibroblasts expressed higher levels of myofibroblast markers and collagen (each P < 0.001 versus healthy controls). Overexpression of DPP4 promoted fibroblast activation, whereas pharmacologic inhibition or genetic inactivation of DPP4 reduced the proliferation, migration, and expression of contractile proteins and release of collagen (each P < 0.001 versus control mice) by interfering with TGFß-induced ERK signaling. DPP4-knockout mice were less sensitive to bleomycin-induced dermal and pulmonary fibrosis (P < 0.0001 versus wild-type controls). Treatment with DPP4 inhibitors promoted regression of fibrosis in mice that had received bleomycin challenge and mice with chronic graft-versus-host disease, and ameliorated fibrosis in TSK1 mice (each P < 0.001 versus untreated controls). These antifibrotic effects were associated with a reduction in inflammation. CONCLUSION: DPP-4 characterizes a population of activated fibroblasts and shows that DPP-4 regulates TGFß-induced fibroblast activation in the fibrotic skin of SSc patients. Inhibition of DPP4 exerts potent antifibrotic effects when administered in well-tolerated doses. As DPP4 inhibitors are already in clinical use for diabetes, these results may have direct translational implications for the treatment of fibrosis in patients with SSc.

19.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 266, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enthesitis is one of the psoriatic arthritis (PsA) domains. Patients with enthesitis are associated with worse outcomes than those without enthesitis. The effect of secukinumab on the resolution of enthesitis in patients with PsA was explored using pooled data from the FUTURE 2 and 3 studies. METHOD: Assessments of enthesitis through week 104 used the Leeds Enthesitis Index. These post hoc analyses included resolution of enthesitis count (EC = 0), median time to first resolution of enthesitis (Kaplan-Meϊer estimate), and shift analysis (as observed) of baseline EC (1, 2, or 3-6) to full resolution (FR), stable (similar or reduction of EC), or worse (EC > baseline). Efficacy outcomes (ACR, PASI, HAQ-DI, SF-36 PCS, and DAS28-CRP) were assessed in patients with or without baseline enthesitis. Results are reported for secukinumab 300 and 150 mg in the overall population and by prior TNFi treatment. RESULTS: A total of 65% (466/712) of patients had baseline enthesitis. In the overall population, FR was achieved as early as week 16 in 65% (300 mg) and 56% (150 mg) versus 44% (placebo) patients, with further improvements to 91% (300 mg) and 88% (150 mg) at week 104. The majority (89%) of patients without enthesitis at baseline maintained this status at week 104. Median days to resolution of EC were shorter with secukinumab 300 and 150 mg versus placebo (57 and 85 vs 167 days, respectively). In patients with EC of 1 or 2, shift analysis from baseline to week 24 showed that more patients achieved FR with secukinumab 300 mg and 150 mg versus placebo, whereas no difference between secukinumab and placebo was shown in the more severe patients with EC of 3-6. Increases in proportions of patients with FR were observed with secukinumab irrespective of the severity of EC from baseline to week 104. Improvements in efficacy outcomes were similar in patients with or without enthesitis treated with secukinumab 300 mg. CONCLUSION: Secukinumab provided early and sustained resolution of enthesitis in patients with PsA over 2 years. Secukinumab 300 mg provided higher resolution than 150 mg in patients with more severe baseline EC and showed similar overall efficacy in patients with or without enthesitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: FUTURE 2: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01752634 (date of study registration: December 19, 2012), and EudraCT, 2012-004439-22 (date of study registration: December 12, 2012) FUTURE 3: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01989468 (date of study registration: November 21, 2013), and EudraCT, 2013-004002-25 (date of study registration: December 17, 2013).

20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 268, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether calprotectin (S100A8/A9 or MRP8/14), an inflammatory complex released by monocytes, could indicate residual subclinical inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who are in stable remission on disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and serve as a marker for disease flare after DMARD tapering. METHODS: We used data from two trials. Patients from the IMPROVED study had early (< 2 years) RA, and when they achieved disease activity score remission (DAS44 < 1.6), they stopped methotrexate to attempt drug-free remission. Patients from the RETRO study had established RA in stable remission (DAS28 < 2.6) and either tapered by 50% or stopped (biological or conventional) DMARDs. Circulating calprotectin at the tapering time point was determined by ELISA, and its predictive value for flare (loss of remission) within 12 months of DMARD tapering/stopping was determined. RESULTS: In both IMPROVED (n = 104) and RETRO (n = 57), patients that flared within 12 months had higher calprotectin at the moment of DMARD tapering/stopping. Twofold higher calprotectin at the moment of DMARD tapering/stopping was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio) of flare of 1.07 (95% CI 0.98-1.18, p = 0.14) in the IMPROVED and 3.62 (95% CI 1.76-7.46, p < 0.001) in the RETRO. Correcting for clinical predictors of flare (DAS at study inclusion, anti-CCP2 positivity, gender) did not change these estimates. The area under the receiver operating curve of calprotectin levels for predicting flare within 12 months was 0.63 (95% CIs 0.51-0.76) in the IMPROVED study and 0.80 (95% CIs 0.69 to 0.92) in the RETRO study. CONCLUSION: Circulating calprotectin levels in RA patients in remission on DMARDs are higher in patients that will flare upon DMARD tapering/stopping. Since the differences between the cohorts precluded definitive conclusions, more research is needed to determine whether calprotectin has prognostic value in predicting flare after attempting drug tapering in RA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IMPROVED, ISRCTN11916566. RETRO, 2009-015740-42.

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