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1.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(2)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597104

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak dramatically changed hospital everyday life, impairing the course of previous routine activity, also in urology. In the next months, together with keeping the focus on the prevention of contagion recrudescence, the health care system will face another stringent issue, i.e. to restore all the services not COVID-related. Leonardi et al. in their paper report an equilibrate overview on the incoming "Phase 2", in order to set up so-called COVID-free hospitals and departments. The authors offer an insight from a practical point of view, detailing protocols for any of the steps of the path of care, from the outpatient visit to surgery.

2.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(2)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of Holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP) in comparison with transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy (OP). METHODS: Between January 2017 and January 2018, we prospectively enrolled 151 men who underwent HoLEP, TURP or OP at tertiary Italian center, due to bladder outflow obstruction symptoms. Patients with prostate volume ≤ 70 cc and those with prostate volume > 70 cc were scheduled for TURP or HoLEP and OP or HoLEP, respectively. Intraoperative and early post-operative functional outcomes were recorded up to 6 months follow up. Cost analysis was carried out considering direct costs (operating room [OR] utilization costs, nurse, surgeons and anesthesiologists' costs, OR disposable products costs and OR products sterilization costs), indirect costs (hospital stay costs and diagnostics costs) and global costs as sum of both direct and indirect plus general costs related to hospitalization. Cost analysis was performed comparing patients referred to TURP and HoLEP with prostate volume ≤ 70 cc and men underwent OP and HoLEP with prostate volume > 70 cc respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 53 (35.1%), 51 (33.7%) and 47 (31.1%) were scheduled to HoLEP, TURP and OP, respectively. Both TURP, HoLEP and OP proved to effectively improve urinary symptoms related to BPE. Considering patients with prostate volume ≤ 70 cc, median global cost of HoLEP was similar to median global cost of TURP (2151.69 € vs. 2185.61 €, respectively; p = 0.61). Considering patients with prostate volume > 70 cc, median global cost of HoLEP was found to be significantly lower than median global cost of OP (2174.15 € vs. 4064.97 €, respectively; p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Global costs of HoLEP are comparable to those of TURP, offering a cost saving of only 11.4 € in favor of HoLEP. Conversely, HoLEP proved to be a strong competitor of OP because of significant global cost sparing amounting to 1890.82 € in favor of HoLEP.

3.
CEN Case Rep ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572782

RESUMO

The presence of amyloid deposits in bladder walls is a rare histological finding. It can be linked to primary (limited to bladder) or secondary (systemic, associated with chronic inflammatory disorders) amyloidosis. Secondary bladder involvement is very uncommon; it usually presents with gross hematuria, which is challenging to manage, due to frail bladder mucosa and/or necrosis. We present a case of 54-year old man with secondary bladder amyloidosis due to Crohn's disease, that caused gross hematuria and severe anemia, which was managed conservatively by endoscopic transurethral resection, diatermocoagulation, clot evacuation and urinary drainage by bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy, with spontaneous resolution. Secondary bladder amyloidosis is a rare condition that presents with severe hematuria, difficult to control with standard management. Owing to chronic nature of the disease, treatment should be aimed to a conservative approach whenever possible. In case of failure, invasive procedures should be considered as salvage therapies.

4.
Urol Int ; : 1-6, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put a substantial burden on the Italian healthcare system, resulting in the restructuring of hospitals to care for COVID-19 patients. However, this has likely impacted access to care for patients experiencing other conditions. We aimed to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on access to care for patients with urgent/emergent urological conditions throughout Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 33 urological units in the AGILE consortium, asking clinicians to report on the number of urgent/emergent urological patients seen and/or undergoing surgery over a 3-week period during the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak and a reference week prior to the outbreak. ANOVA and linear regression models were used to quantify these changes. RESULTS: Data from 27 urological centres in Italy showed a decrease from 956 patients/week seen just prior to the outbreak to 291 patients/week seen by the end of the study period. There was a difference in the number of patients with urgent/emergent urological disease seen within/during the different weeks (all p values < 0.05). A significant decrease in the number of patients presenting with haematuria, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, scrotal pain, renal colic, or trauma and urgent/emergent cases that required surgery was reported (all p values < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In Italy, during the COVID-19 outbreak there has been a decrease in patients seeking help for urgent/emergent urological conditions. Restructuring of hospitals and clinics is mandatory to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the healthcare system should continue to provide adequate levels of care also to patients with other conditions.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354617

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3-dimensional (3D) digital reconstructions of renal models on the arterial clamping approach during partial nephrectomy (PN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with T1 renal mass, referred for PN, were prospectively enrolled in 2 groups: Group 1 (n = 32) with revision of both 2-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) imaging and 3D virtual model before surgery; Group 2 (n = 25) with revision of 2D CT imaging. Segmentation of the 3D models from preoperative high-quality CT scan was achieved using D2P software. In a sub-analysis of patients treated with PN with the on-clamp approach (n = 36), the effective intraoperative level of arterial clamping was compared with the preoperative planning. RESULTS: In the sub-group of patients referred to PN with the on-clamp approach, the intraoperative selective clamping was performed in 12 (57.1%) patients of Group 1 and in 2 (13.3%) cases of Group 2 (P = .01). The intraoperative management of the renal pedicle was done as preoperatively planned in 61.9% of patients in Group 1 and in 86.6% of cases in Group 2 (P = .1). CONCLUSION: The 3D-guided plan of PN allows to perform selective clamping in higher proportion of patients compared with the standard 2D-guided approach without increasing intraoperative and postoperative complications.

6.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the difference in terms of feasibility and detection rate of two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided biopsy approaches (MRI fusion versus "in-bore" MRI) in a single tertiary centre. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 297 patients with suspected prostate cancer who underwent MRI based target prostate biopsy (FUSION or "in-bore" approaches) between January 2016 and January 2018 in a single tertiary centre. RESULTS: Lesion site (peripheral vs central) and localization (anterior vs posterior) were equally comparable among two groups, but maximum diameter of multiparametric-MRI index lesion was slightly superior in the in-bore MRI-GB group (14 vs 12 mm, p=0.002). Mean random biopsy cores taken were 11.2±2.1, with 1.3±2 positive cores in FUSION-GB group. Mean number of targeted biopsy cores taken was significantly superior in the FUSION-GB group as compared to the in-bore MRI-GB group(2.6±0.7 vs 1.7±1, p<0.001), whereas mean number of positive targeted biopsy cores was comparable between two groups (1±1.3 vs 1±0.9, p=0.1). 70 (45.5%) and 75 (52.8%) patients had positive targeted bioptic cores at pathologic examination among FUSION-GB and in-bore MRI-GB groups, respectively (p=0.2). Bioptical ISUP grade was also comparable among two groups (p=0.2) in multivariate analysis PI-RADS score (OR=3.04 and OR=8.32 for PI-RADS 4 and 5, respectively) and PSA density (OR=2.69) were identified as independent predictors of positive targeted cores at histological examination (p<0.001 and p=0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In-bore MRI-GB approaches represent a promising technique that may offer some advantages compared to standard systematic FUSION-GB despite higher costs of in bore-procedure. Our experience, although not showing a clear advantage between the FUSION technique and the "in- bore" technique, resulted safe and feasible and represents a viable procedure for the diagnosis and characterization of prostate especially in a subgroup of patient with clinically significant disease. Further investigations are needed in order to identify the best approach for MRI-GB.

7.
Urol Oncol ; 38(6): 601.e11-601.e16, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare segmental ureterectomy (SU) and radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in terms of overall survival (OS) and impact on postoperative renal function in patients treated for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) of the ureter with preoperatively reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected the data of consecutive patients treated for UTUC, in 6 Italian tertiary referral centers, from 2003 to 2013, and analyzed those treated with RNU or SU for ureteral cancer and with a preoperative eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73m2. The primary outcome was to compare the postoperative eGFR variation and the OS according to the surgical technique chosen. RESULTS: Out of 521 patients with UTUC, 228 patients had preoperative reduced eGFR. Out of these patients, 93 had ureteral cancer and were included in the primary analyses - 67 (72.0%) treated with RNU and 26 (28.0%) with SU. Preoperative characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The overall median follow-up period was 26.5 months. A nonsignificant postoperative eGFR decrease of 3.0 ml/min/1.73m2 was found overall (P = 0.094), with nonsignificant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.735). A comparable 5-year OS was calculated for RNU and SU patients (P = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The type of surgery (SU vs. RNU) has a low impact on postoperative renal function and OS in patients with ureteral cancer and preoperative eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73m2. The indications for kidney sparing surgery for UTUC should be based on the surgical and oncological risks in these patients.

8.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(1): 55-57, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Holmium laser has demonstrated high efficacy in urethral disobstruction. Venous air embolism (VAE) is a rare complication of prostate surgery. Only two cases of venous air embolism (VAE) in patients submitted to HoLEP, have been described. In this paper we show a third case of not fatal VAE after HoLEP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case of VAE occurred in holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) due to obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in a 70 years old patient. After the procedure, patient's end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels dramatically decreased at 17 mmHg, with pressure airway (PAW)16 mmHg; oxygen saturation level was at 75%, without any loss in the ventilation circuit and with arterial blood pressure of 94/54 mmHg. Due to the negativity for other suspicions, the suspect of VAE was postulated. RESULT: The immediate switching from laryngeal mask to Oro Tracheal Intubation increased the oxygen level. A cardiac transthoracic ultrasound was negative for air bubbles inside cardiac cavities, without any alteration in the cardiac kinetics. Arterial blood sample turned negative for any alteration compatible with VAE and catheter continuous vesical irrigation was started to obtain clear washing fluid without blood cloths. The extubated patient showed no neurological defects. CONCLUSIONS: An invasive monitoring system is the key to rapidly and correctly identify any embolic episode during this kind of surgery.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(536)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213630

RESUMO

Acute tissue injury causes DNA damage and repair processes involving increased cell mitosis and polyploidization, leading to cell function alterations that may potentially drive cancer development. Here, we show that acute kidney injury (AKI) increased the risk for papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) development and tumor relapse in humans as confirmed by data collected from several single-center and multicentric studies. Lineage tracing of tubular epithelial cells (TECs) after AKI induction and long-term follow-up in mice showed time-dependent onset of clonal papillary tumors in an adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Among AKI-related pathways, NOTCH1 overexpression in human pRCC associated with worse outcome and was specific for type 2 pRCC. Mice overexpressing NOTCH1 in TECs developed papillary adenomas and type 2 pRCCs, and AKI accelerated this process. Lineage tracing in mice identified single renal progenitors as the cell of origin of papillary tumors. Single-cell RNA sequencing showed that human renal progenitor transcriptome showed similarities to PT1, the putative cell of origin of human pRCC. Furthermore, NOTCH1 overexpression in cultured human renal progenitor cells induced tumor-like 3D growth. Thus, AKI can drive tumorigenesis from local tissue progenitor cells. In particular, we find that AKI promotes the development of pRCC from single progenitors through a classical adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

10.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 46(7): 1353-1359, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007380

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to evaluate clinical predictors of positive surgical margins (PSMs) in a large multicenter prospective observational study and to develop a clinic nomogram to predict the likelihood of PSMs after partial nephrectomy (PN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 4308 patients who had surgical treatment for renal tumors between January 2013 and December 2016 at 26 urological Italian Centers (RECORd 2 project). Two multivariable logistic models were evaluated to predict the likelihood of PSMs. Center caseload was dichotomized using a visual assessment adjusted for several predictors of PSMs. A nomogram predicting PSMs was developed. RESULTS: Overall, 2076 patients treated with PN were evaluated. pT1a, pT1b, pT2 and pT3a were recorded in 68.7%, 22.6%, 2.1% and 6.6% of the patients, respectively. PSMs were recorded in 342 (16.5%) patients. From a null multivariable model against number of PN/year, 60 PN/year were identified as the best cut-off to define a high-volume centre. At multivariable analysis, clinical stage (cT1a vs. cT2 [OR 1.94]; p = 0.03), volume centre (≤60 PN/year) (OR 2.22; p < 0.0001), imperative vs elective indication (OR 2.10; p = 0.04), surgical technique (laparoscopic vs. open [OR 1.62; p = 0.002), lymphovascular invasion (OR 2.27; p = 0.01) and upstaging to pT3a (OR 2.81; p < 0.0001) were independent predictors of PSMs. The final nomogram included age, ASA score, Charlson score, clinical tumor stage, surgical indication, surgical approach, surgical technique, PADUA score, clamp procedure and volume centre. CONCLUSIONS: PSMs after PN were significantly more likely in patients with lower clinical stage, higher PADUA score, in individuals referred to laparoscopic PN and in those treated at lower volume centers. We used these data to develop a nomogram to predict such risk.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To perform an external validation of a recently published nomogram aimed to predict positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) by Rauscher et al. (Eur Urol 73(5):656-661, 2018). METHODS: Overall, 413 PCa patients with BCR after RP (two consecutive PSA ≥ 0.2 ng/ml) and PSA value between 0.2 and 1 ng/ml were included. A multivariable logistic regression model was produced to assess the predictors of positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT results. The performance characteristics of the model were assessed by quantifying the predictive accuracy, according to model calibration. Yuden's index was used to find the best nomogram's cut-off. Finally, decision curve analysis (DCA) was implemented to quantify the nomogram's clinical value. RESULTS: In the external cohort, the overall detection rate of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was 44% vs. 64.7% in the original population. At multivariate analysis, PSA at 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT (OR: 7.06, p < 0.001) and ongoing ADT at time of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT (OR: 2.07, p = 0.03) were the only independent predictors of PET/CT positivity. The predictive accuracy of nomogram was suboptimal and comparable to that reported in the original model (64% vs. 67%, respectively). The calibration plot indicated suboptimal concordance. The best nomogram's cut-off to predict positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was 35% (AUC = 0.61). In DCA, the nomogram revealed clinical net benefit when the threshold probabilities of positive 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT is > 35%. CONCLUSION: We assessed similar suboptimal predictive accuracies in the external cohort compared to the original one. PSA and ongoing ADT were confirmed as positive predictors, and the most informative nomogram cut-off resulted 35%.

12.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 91(4): 205-210, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination therapy with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) and alpha-blocker can be considered as a gold standard intervention for medical management of lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). On the other hand, 5-ARI monotherapy and in particular Finasteride alone is currently getting focus of attention especially due to lack of systematic reviews investigating efficacy outcomes and/or adverse events associated. OBJECTIVES: Aim of the present critical review was to analyze current knowledge of clinical efficacy and incidence of adverse events associated with 5-ARI treatment for LUTS/BPH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of clinical trials of the literature of the past 20 years was performed using database from PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration and Embase. A total of 8821 patients were included in this study and inclusion criteria for studies selection were: data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) focusing their attention on the clinical role of Finasteride monotherapy for symptomatic BPH. Parameters of research included prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume (PV), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPPS), postvoid residual urine (PVR), voiding symptoms of IPSS (voiding IPSS), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Overall 12 original articles were included and critically evaluated. Sample sizes of patient actively treated with finasteride varied from 13 to 1524 cases analyzed in a single study. Follow-up after treatments ranged from 3 to 54 months. The effect of finasteride in reducing prostate volume (PV) was moderate (standardized mean difference (SMD) effect between 0.5 to 0.8 for all trials evaluable) while the effect on IPSS score and Qmax was considered significant (SMD in the 0.2 to 0.5 variation range). No severe AEs and/or psychiatric disorders were retrieved among the studies. Sexual health dysfunctions were significantly influenced by finasteride therapy when compared with placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although significant clinical benefits of finasteride monotherapy were demonstrated, the effective size of the available reports included in the analysis is limited. Additional head-to-head studies would be needed to re-evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of 5-ARI in combination or not with alpha blockers.

13.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 91(4): 211-217, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the detection rate of Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Transrectal Ultrasound (MRI/TRUS) Fusion Biopsy performed in a series of patients with suspicious prostate cancer in an ambulatory setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2018 and January 2019 a series of 155 patients undergoing MRI/TRUS fusionguided biopsy were prospectively enrolled. All patients presented a suspected diagnosis for prostate cancer because of raised Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) serum level and/or abnormal physical examination (digital rectal examination), and showed at least one suspicious area at the multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI). RESULTS: Of 155 patients, 58 (37.4%) were biopsy-naïve, 97 (62.6%) had at least 1 previous negative TRUS-guided biopsy. The median age of the patient cohort was 66 years (IQR, 61- 69); the median prebiopsy PSA value was 7.1 ng/ml (IQR, 5- 8.9). Overall, the Fusion-TB findings were positive in 94 of 155 patients with a detection rate (DR) of 60%; a significantly high DR was obtained in terms of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) by Fusion-TB (61 pts; 41.9%). The overall DR in the 121 biopsy-naive patients was 60.6%. In the subgroup of the 34 patients with at least 1 previous set of TRUS-GB, overall DR was 39.3% (35/50). CONCLUSIONS: The targeted MRI/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy represents a safe and accurate approach for diagnosis of csPCa, especially in patient with previous TRUS guided biopsy negative and suspicious prostate cancer.

14.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 91(4): 224-229, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937084

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Purpose of our study was to investigate the role of a negative in-bore MRI-guided biopsy (MRI-GB) in comparison to a negative multiparametric prostate MRI (mpMRI) and a contextual negative transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate with regard to incidental prostate cancer findings in the surgical specimen of men who underwent to Holmium Laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP) with a preoperative suspicion of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 117 of symptomatic patients for bladder outflow obstruction who subsequently underwent to HoLEP was retrospectively analyzed form a multicentric database. All patients had a raised serum PSA and/or an abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) with a pre-interventional mpMRI. Prostate cancer was excluded either with an en-bore MRI-GB (group "IN-BORE MRI-GB" n = 57) in case of a suspect area at the mpMRI or with a standard biopsy (group "mpMRI + TRUS-GB" n = 60) in case of a negative mpMRI. Preoperative characteristic surgical and histological outcomes were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression model was performed to investigate independent predictors of incidental Prostate Cancer (iPCa). RESULTS: Both groups presented moderate to severe lower tract urinary symptoms: median IPSS was 19 (IQR: 17.0-22.0) in the IN-BORE MRI-GB group and 20 (IQR: 17.5-22.0) in the mpMRI + TRUS-GB (p = 0.71). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups besides total prostate volume with 68 cc (IQR: 58.0-97.0) in the IN-BORE MRI-GB group and 84 cc (IQR: 70.0-115.0) in the mpMRI + TRU-GB group (p = 0.01) No differences were registered in surgical time, removed tissue, catheterization time, hospital stay and complications rate. No different rates (p = 0.50) of iPCa were found in the IN-BORE MRI-GB group (14%) in comparison with mpMRI + TRUS-GB group (10 %); pT stage and ISUP Grade Group in iPCa stratification were comparable between the two groups. In multivariate analysis a statistically significant correlation with age as an independent predictive factor of iPCa was found (OR 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02-1.27; p = 0.02) while no correlations were revealed with PSA (OR 1.12; 95% CI: 0.99-1.28; p = 0.08) and a negative in-bore MRI-GB (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 0.51-5.77; p = 0.37). CONCLUSIONS: Including a mpMRI and an eventual in-bore MRIGB represents a novel clinical approach before surgery in patients with symptomatic obstruction with a concomitant suspicion of PCa, leading to low rate of iPCa and avoiding unnecessary standard TRUS-GB biopsies.

15.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 91(4): 230-236, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937087

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Radical Cystectomy (RC) with ileal urinary diversion is one of the most complex urological surgical procedure, and many Fast Track (FT) protocols have been described to reduce hospitalization, without increasing postoperatory complications. We present the one-year results of a dedicated protocol developed at a high volume centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The FT protocol was designed after a review of the literature and a multidisciplinary collegiate discussion, and it was applied to patients scheduled to open RC with intestinal urinary diversion. To validate its feasibility, we compared its results with data collected from a 1:1 matched population of patients who had undergone the same surgical procedure, without the implementation of the FT protocol. RESULTS: We enrolled in the FT group 11 (55%) patients scheduled to RC with ileal conduit diversion, and 9 patients (45%) scheduled to orthotopic neobladder (Studer) substitution, while a numerically equivalent population was enrolled in the control group, matched according to age at surgery, BMI, gender, ASA score, CCI, preoperative stage and type of urinary diversion. No statistically significant difference was found in terms of pre-operatory and intra-operatory domains. Median overall age was 71 years (Inter Quartile Range - IQR: 63-76) and mean operatory time was 276 ± 57 minutes. Hospitalization time was significantly reduced in the FT group, considering oralization and canalization items we found a significant advantage in the FT group. No statistically significant difference was found in the control of the post-operatory pain. We found no difference, in terms of both early and late complications ratio, among the two populations. Complications graded Clavien ≥ 3 were found in 4 patients of the control group (20%), while in only one patient (5%) in the Fast Track group, though this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The Fast Track protocol developed in this study has proven to be effective in significantly reducing hospitalization time in patients submitted to RC with intestinal urinary diversion, without increasing post-operatory complications ratio.

16.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(2): e83-e90, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several models are adopted in clinical practice to estimate prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC); however, none of these models have evaluated patients treated by immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this study was to investigate if the site of initial metastasis could be a parameter able to stratified prognosis among patients with mRCC among different risk groups defined by the International Metastatic Renal Cell Database Consortium (IMDC) model. The site of initial metastasis was defined as the primary tissue or organ in which metastasis was diagnosed in the course of the medical history of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 134 patients treated between January 2010 and December 2018 in our institution were retrospectively evaluated. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) defined as the time from initiation of first-line therapy to death from any cause. Of note, 26 (19.4%) patients received immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Univariable analysis was performed through the log-rank test to estimate the effect of number of metastatic sites and site of initial metastasis on OS. Subsequently, a Cox regression proportional hazards model was employed in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Of the 12 variables analyzed, 4 were statistically associated to worse OS in univariable analysis (number of metastases and liver, bone, or central nervous system metastases). Multivariate analysis confirmed that bone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-3.13), liver (HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.59-4.42), and central nervous system (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.62-6.74) initial metastases were independent parameters related to worse OS. The presence of 1 or more of the selected sites recognized specific populations of patients associated to worse prognosis in both good (P = .003) and intermediate (P = .047) risk groups. CONCLUSION: The site of initial metastasis defines specific populations of patients associated with worse prognosis in the good and intermediate IMDC groups.

17.
J Urol ; 203(4): 760-766, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated possible factors predicting testicular cancer in patients undergoing testis sparing surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of all patients who underwent testis sparing surgery for a small testicular mass at a total of 5 centers. All patients with 1 solitary lesion 2 cm or less on preoperative ultrasound were enrolled in the study. Testis sparing surgery consisted of tumor enucleation for frozen section examination. Immediate radical orchiectomy was performed in all cases of malignancy at frozen section examination but otherwise the testes were spared. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed and ROC curves were produced to evaluate preoperative factors predicting testicular cancer. RESULTS: Overall 147 patients were included in the study. No patient had elevated serum tumor markers. Overall 21 of the 147 men (14%) presented with testicular cancer. On multivariate analysis the preoperative ultrasound diameter of the lesion was a predictor of malignancy (OR 6.62, 95% CI 2.26-19.39, p=0.01). On ROC analysis lesion diameter had an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.63-0.86, p=0.01) to predict testicular cancer. At the best cutoff of 0.85 the diameter of the lesion had 81% sensitivity, 58% specificity, 24% positive predictive value and 95% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that small testicular masses are often benign and do not always require radical orchiectomy. Preoperative ultrasound can assess lesion size and the smaller the nodule, the less likely that it is malignant. Therefore, we suggest a stepwise approach to small testicular masses, including tumorectomy, frozen section examination and radical orchiectomy or testis sparing surgery according to frozen section examination results.


Assuntos
Orquiectomia/métodos , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Testículo/patologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Secções Congeladas , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Período Pré-Operatório , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Neoplasias Testiculares/sangue , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/cirurgia , Carga Tumoral , Ultrassonografia
18.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 72(1): 22-29, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the past years several reviews have analysed different aspects of surgical techniques for patients with LUTS due to BPE however none of them have concentrated on large prostates treatment exclusively. Moreover, none of the reviews have focused on level 1 evidence which is essential to avoid bias and wrong conclusions. With this knowledge in mind, aim of the present review is to analyze the available randomized clinical trials assessing the management of patients with big prostates (>80 cc). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the literature using the Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases for relevant articles published until January 2019 was performed using both the Medical Subjects Heading and free test protocols. The search was conducted by combining the following terms: "Enucleation," "Prostate," "Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia," "Holmium," "laser," "adenomectomy," "Randomized clinical trial," "Big" "large" "prostate," ">80," "≥80," "transurethral resection of prostate," "Thulium," "Diode," "laparoscopy," "robotic," "Plasmakinetic," "green light" "532 nm" "YAG" "Lower Urinary tract symptoms". Only randomized clinical trials were included in the analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall 9 RCTs were retrieved with most of them reporting data at 1 year. The present trials compared enucleation, vaporization and open techniques between each other. In terms of perioperative outcomes all the techniques had similar operative times and resected weight however catheterization time and hospital stay were better in endoscopic techniques when compared to open surgery. In terms of functional outcomes (IPSS, QMAX and PVR) none of the techniques was proven superior to the other. When considering complications open procedures carried a higher risk of transfusions while no technique was proven superior to the others in terms of transient urge urinary incontinence, bladder neck contracture and reintervention. Only one trial was retrieved reporting five years data confirming the safety, efficacy and durability of simple prostatectomy SP and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate at five years. CONCLUSIONS: According to our review no technique may be considered better than the other when treating large adenomas. Studies are still lacking to prove long term efficacy and future studies should clarify the role of prostatic artery embolization and minimally invasive simple prostatectomy in the management of prostates larger than 80 mL.

19.
Eur Urol Focus ; 6(2): 344-353, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309817

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication after kidney surgery, associated with prolonged hospital stay, high morbidity, and mortality. Biomarkers represent a tool of increasing importance to identify renal impairment after partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) in order to optimize and anticipate the diagnosis of AKI. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this systematic review is to investigate current insights on the role of biomarkers in predicting renal impairment in patients undergoing PN or RN. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was conducted up to November 30, 2017 through PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases, to identify eligible studies evaluating the role of biomarkers for the prediction of AKI after PN or RN. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) criteria were applied to select articles. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: According to the study selection criteria, 10 publications were included with a total number of 728 patients. Incidence of AKI was 26.7% (range: 9-58%). Based on the evidence reviewed, serum cystatin C and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) showed a significant correlation with serum creatinine rise postoperatively, emerging as potential noninvasive and early biomarkers of AKI in patients undergoing renal surgery. In this setting, serum cystatin C and urinary NGAL have preceded the rise in serum creatinine peak from 3 up to 24h, even in case of mild renal damage. CONCLUSIONS: The literature underlines the potential usefulness of biomarkers such as cystatin C and NGAL as promising and early tools to predict AKI after PN or RN. However, no strong evidence in support of their use is available to date and further investigations are awaited. PATIENT SUMMARY: We looked at the role of biomarkers in predicting renal injury in patients undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy. Serum cystatin C and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin have emerged as promising noninvasive, accurate, and early biomarkers.

20.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(1): 136-146, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a clinical nomogram to predict gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT) positivity in different clinical settings of PSA failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred three (n = 703) prostate cancer (PCa) patients with confirmed PSA failure after radical therapy were enrolled. Patients were stratified according to different clinical settings (first-time biochemical recurrence [BCR]: group 1; BCR after salvage therapy: group 2; biochemical persistence after radical prostatectomy [BCP]: group 3; advanced-stage PCa before second-line systemic therapies: group 4). First, we assessed 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT positivity rate. Second, multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of positive scan. Third, regression-based coefficients were used to develop a nomogram predicting positive 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT result and 200 bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. Fourth, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to identify the most informative nomogram's derived cutoff. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was implemented to quantify nomogram's clinical benefit. RESULTS: 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT overall positivity rate was 51.2%, while it was 40.3% in group 1, 54% in group 2, 60.5% in group 3, and 86.9% in group 4 (p < 0.001). At multivariable analyses, ISUP grade, PSA, PSA doubling time, and clinical setting were independent predictors of a positive scan (all p ≤ 0.04). A nomogram based on covariates included in the multivariate model demonstrated a bootstrap-corrected accuracy of 82%. The nomogram-derived best cutoff value was 40%. In DCA, the nomogram revealed clinical net benefit of > 10%. CONCLUSIONS: This novel nomogram proved its good accuracy in predicting a positive scan, with values ≥ 40% providing the most informative cutoff in counselling patients to 68Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT. This tool might be important as a guide to clinicians in the best use of PSMA-based PET imaging.

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