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1.
Radiol Med ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the role of the multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) in predicting the cribriform pattern in both the peripheral and transition zones (PZ and TZ) clinically significant prostate cancers (csPCas). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 150 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for csPCa and preoperative mpMRI. Patients with negative (n = 25) and positive (n = 125) mpMRI, stratified according to the presence of prevalent cribriform pattern (PCP, ≥ 50%) and non-PCP (< 50%) at specimen, were included. Difference between the two groups were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of PCP among mpMRI parameters. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the area under the curve (AUC) of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and ADC ratio in detecting lesions harboring PCP. RESULTS: Considering 135 positive lesions at the mpMRI, 30 (22.2%) and 105 (77.8%) harbored PCP and non-PCP PCa. The PCP lesions had more frequently nodular morphology (83.3% vs 62.9%; p = 0.04) and significantly lower mean ADC value (0.87 ± 0.16 vs 0.95 ± 0.18; p = 0.03) and ADC ratio (0.52 ± 0.09 vs 0.60 ± 0.14; p = 0.003) when compared with non-PCP lesions. At univariate and multivariate analyses, mean ADC and ADC ratio resulted as independent predictors of the presence of the PCP of the PZ tumors(OR: 0.025; p = 0.03 and OR: 0.001; p = 0.004, respectively). At the ROC analysis, the AUC of mean ADC and ADC ratio to predict the presence of PCP in patients with PZ suspicious lesion at the mpMRI were 0.69 (95% CI 0.56-0.81P, p = 0.003) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.62-0.82P, p = 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The mpMRI may correctly identify PCP tumors of the PZ and the mean ADC value and ADC ratio can predict the presence of the cribriform pattern in the PCa.

2.
Cent European J Urol ; 74(3): 366-371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729227

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this article was to describe, step-by-step, an original technique (T-L technique) in a single centre series of patients who underwent holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia and analyze perioperative outcomes. Material and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of 567 patients who underwent HoLEP. The T-L technique consists of a series of incisions used as landmarks, performed at the beginning of the procedure before enucleation. Two T-shape incisions are performed at the level of bladder neck (at the 5-7 and 12 o'clock positions); two L-shape incisions are performed at the level of verumontanum, bilaterally, to mark the apex and to limit the sphincter. Another T-shape incision is performed on the bladder neck at the 12 o'clock position posterior to the level of verumontanum. Results: The median operative time (OT) was 80 minutes (IQR 64-105); 50 minutes (IQR 35-70) and 15 minutes (IQR 10-20) for enucleation and the morcellation phase, respectively. Conversion to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was necessary in 3/567 (0.6%) patients. Intraoperative complications occurred in 3.4% of cases, capsule perforation occurred in 12/567 (2%) of cases, while bladder perforation during morcellation occurred in 8/567 (1.4%) of cases. Postoperative complications were observed in 20/567 (3.5%) of patients. Specifically, grade 1-2 occurred in 19/567 (3.3%) and grade 3 was recorded in 1/567 (0.2%). Conclusions: The T-L technique for HoLEP is safe and reproducible with a low rate of perioperative complications. The positioning of some landmarks before enucleation allows for the better orientation during enucleation and could be very useful in case of large prostates.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the diagnosis and treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using an Italian multi-institutional database of TURBT patients with high-risk urothelial NMIBC between January 2019 and February 2021, followed by Re-TURBT and/or adjuvant intravesical BCG. RESULTS: A total of 2591 patients from 27 institutions with primary TURBT were included. Of these, 1534 (59.2%) and 1056 (40.8%) underwent TURBT before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, respectively. Time between diagnosis and TURBT was significantly longer during the COVID-19 period (65 vs. 52 days, p = 0.002). One thousand and sixty-six patients (41.1%) received Re-TURBT, 604 (56.7%) during the pre-COVID-19. The median time to secondary resection was significantly longer during the COVID-19 period (55 vs. 48 days, p < 0.0001). A total of 977 patients underwent adjuvant intravesical therapy after primary or secondary resection, with a similar distribution across the two groups (n = 453, 86% vs. n = 388, 86.2%). However, the proportion of the patients who underwent maintenance significantly differed (79.5% vs. 60.4%, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic represented an unprecedented challenge to our health system. Our study did not show significant differences in TURBT quality. However, a delay in treatment schedule and disease management was observed. Investigation of the oncological impacts of those differences should be advocated.

4.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the value of clinical and radiological data, using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), to predict prostate cancer (PCa) in prostate imaging reporting and data system version 2.1 (PIRADSv2.1) 3 lesions of the peripheral and the transition zones (PZ and TZ). METHODS: The mpMRI of patients with PIRADSv2.1 3 lesions who had undergone fusion targeted biopsy was reviewed. Morphological pattern, diffusion parameters and vascularisation were evaluated. The radiological/histopathological data of benign and malignant lesions, between the PZ and TZ were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify the clinical and radiological data capable of predicting PCa. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-three lesions were assessed, 93 (76%) in the PZ and 30 (24%) in the TZ. Of these, 56 (46%) were PCa and 67 (54%) were benign. The majority of the PCas were Grade Group System (GGS) 1 (38%) and GGS 2 (39%); tumours having a GGS ≥ 3 were more frequently in the TZ (p = 0.02). Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation between PCa and prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density, lesion zone and the apparent diffusion coefficient. At multivariate logistic regression PSA density > 0.15 ng/ml/ml {Odds ratio [OR] 2.38; p = 0.001} and lesion zone (i.e. TZ OR 7.55) were independent predictors of PCa (all p ≤ 0.04). CONCLUSION: In solitary PIRADSv2.1 3 lesions, the most important predictive factor was the location zone, with a much greater risk for TZ lesions.

5.
Urol Int ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sacrocolpopexy (SC) is the main treatment option for the repair of anterior and apical pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Indications and technical aspects are not standardized, and the question remains whether it is necessary to place a mesh on both anterior and posterior vaginal walls, particularly in cases with only minor or no posterior compartment prolapse. The present study aimed to compare the anatomical and functional outcomes of single anterior mesh only versus anterior and posterior mesh procedures in SC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our prospectively maintained database on POP was used to identify patients who had undergone either abdominal or mini-invasive SC from January 2006 to October 2019. Patients with symptomatic or unmasked stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were not included in the study and were treated using the pubo-vaginal cystocele sling procedure. Objective outcomes included clinical evaluation of pre-existing or de novo POP by the halfway system and POP-q classifications, as well as the development of de novo SUI. Subjective outcomes were assessed using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) with questions on bladder, bowel, and vaginal functions. Persistent or de novo constipation and overactive bladder were defined as bowel symptoms and urinary urgency/frequency/urinary incontinence after surgery. RESULTS: Ninety-five women with symptomatic anterior and apical POP underwent SC. Forty-one patients were treated with only anterior vaginal mesh (group A), and 54 with anterior and posterior mesh (group B). There were no differences between the pre- and post-operative characteristics of the 2 groups. In group B, there were 2 blood transfusions, 1 wound dehiscence, and 3 mesh erosions/extrusion after abdominal SC (Clavien-Dindo II), and in group A, there was 1 ileal lesion after laparoscopic SC (Clavien-Dindo III). There were no differences between the 2 groups in either anatomical or functional outcomes during 3 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: SC with single anterior vaginal mesh has similar results to SC with combined anterior/posterior mesh, regardless of the surgical approach. The single anterior mesh may reduce the risk of complications (mesh erosion/extrusion), and offers better subjective outcomes with improved quality of life. Anterior/posterior mesh may be justified in the presence of clinically significant posterior POP.

6.
Prostate ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP) represents one of the most studied surgical techniques for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Its efficacy in symptom relief has been widely depicted. However, few evidence is available regarding the possible predictors of symptom recurrence. We aimed to evaluate long-term outcomes, symptom recurrence rate, and predictors in patients that underwent HoLEP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from patients that consecutively underwent HoLEP for BPH from 2012 to 2015 at two tertiary referral centers. Functional outcomes were evaluated by uroflowmetry parameters and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire administration at follow-up visits at 12, 24, and 60 months. The primary outcome was the symptomatic patients' rate presenting lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after 60 months from surgery, defined as in case of one or more of the following: IPSS more than 7, post voidal residue (PVR) more than 20 ml, need for medical therapy for LUTS or redo surgery for bladder outlet obstruction. Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated predictors for being symptomatic at follow-up. Covariates consisted of: preoperative peak flow rate (PFR), PVR, and IPSS, prostate volume, age (all as continuous), and surgical technique. RESULTS: A total of 567 patients were available for our analyses. Median prostate volume was 80cc, with a median PFR of 8 ml/s and median PVR of 100cc. One hundred and twenty-five (22%) patients were found to be symptomatic at follow-up. Redo surgery was needed for 25 (4.4%) patients. After adjusting for possible confounders, an increase in preoperative PVR (odds ratio [OR] 1.005) and IPSS (OR 1.12) resulted as independent predictors for symptom recurrence (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HoLEP can provide durable symptom relief regardless of the chosen technique. Patients with an important preoperative symptom burden or a high PVR should be carefully counseled on the risk of symptom recurrence.

7.
Urol Int ; : 1-13, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569529

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature and describe perioperative complications of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), including the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications. METHODS: All English language publications on HoLEP were evaluated. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines to evaluate PubMed®, Scopus®, and Web of Science™ databases from January 1, 1998, to June 1, 2020. RESULTS: Fifty-seven studies were included, for a total of 10,371 procedures. We distinguished between intra-, peri-, and postoperative complications. Overall, the rate of complications is 0-7%. Intraoperative complications include incomplete morcellation (2.3%), capsular perforation (2.2%), bladder (2.4%), and ureteric orifice (0.4%) injuries. Perioperative complications include postoperative urinary retention (0.2%), hematuria and clot retention (2.6%), and cystoscopy for clot evacuation (0.7%). Postoperative complications include dysuria (7.5%), stress (4.0%), urge (1.8%), transient (7%) and permanent (1.3%) urinary incontinence, urethral stricture (2%) and bladder neck contracture (1%). CONCLUSIONS: HoLEP is a safe procedure, with a satisfactory low complication rate. The most common reported perioperative complications are not severe (Clavien-Dindo classification grades 1-2). Further randomized studies are certainly warranted to fully determine the predictor of surgical complications in order to prevent them and improve this technique.

8.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is increasingly adopted for the treatment of localized renal tumors; however, rates and predictors of significant renal function (RF) loss after RAPN are still poorly investigated, especially at a long-term evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the predictive factors and develop a clinical nomogram for predicting the likelihood of ultimate RF loss after RAPN. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively evaluated all patients treated with RAPN in a multicenter series (RECORd2 project). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Significant RF loss was defined as >25% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from preoperative assessment at 48th month follow-up after surgery. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses for RF loss were performed. The area under the receiving operator characteristic curve (AUC) was used to quantify predictive discrimination. A nomogram was created from the multivariable model. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 981 patients were included. The median age at surgery was 64.2 (interquartile range [IQR] 54.3-71.4) yr, and 62.4% of patients were male. The median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 1 (IQR 0-2), 12.9% of patients suffered from diabetes mellitus, and 18.6% of patients showed peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The median Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score was 7 (IQR 7-9). Imperative indications to partial nephrectomy were present in 3.6% of patients. Significant RF loss at 48th month postoperative evaluation was registered in 108 (11%) patients. At multivariable analysis, age (p = 0.04), female gender (p < 0.0001), CCI (p < 0.0001), CCI (p < 0.0001), diabetes (p < 0.0001), PVD (p < 0.0001), eGFR (p = 0.02), imperative (p = 0.001) surgical indication, and PADUA score (p < 0.0001) were found to be predictors of RF loss. The developed nomogram including these variables showed an AUC of 0.816. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a clinical nomogram for the prediction of late RF loss after RAPN using preoperative and surgical variables from a large multicenter dataset. PATIENT SUMMARY: We developed a nomogram that could represent a clinical tool for early detection of patients at the highest risk of significant renal function impairment after robotic conservative surgery for renal tumors.

9.
Urol Oncol ; 39(12): 836.e1-836.e9, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 3D models are increasingly used as additional preoperative tools for renal surgery. We aim to evaluate the impact of 3D renal models in the assessment of PADUA, RENAL, Contact Surface Area (CSA) and Arterial Based Complexity (ABC) for the prediction of complications after Robot assisted Partial Nephrectomy (RAPN). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Overall, 57 patients with T1 and 1 patient with T2 renal mass referred to RAPN, were prospectively enrolled. 3D virtual modelling was obtained from 2D computed tomography (CT). Two radiologists recorded PADUA2D, RENAL2D, CSA2D and ABC2D by evaluation of 2D images; two bioengineers recorded PADUA3D, RENAL3D, CSA3D and ABC3D by evaluation of the 3D model, using MeshMixer software. To evaluate the concordance between 2D and 3D nephrometry scores, Cohen's j coefficient was calculated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the accuracy of 3D and 2D nephrometry scores to predict overall complications. Finally, the impact of 3D model on clamping approach during RAPN was compared to 2D imaging. RESULTS: PADUA3D, RENAL3D, CSA3D and ABC3D scores had a significant different distribution compared to PADUA2D, RENAL2D, CSA2D and ABC2D (all p≤0.03). 2D nephrometry scores may be unchanged, reduced or increased after assessment by 3D models: CSA3D, PADUA3D, RENAL3D and ABC3D were reduced in14%, 26%, 29% and 16% and increased in 16%, 36%, 38% and 29% of cases, respectively. At ROC curve analysis, PADUA3D, RENAL3D and ABC3D showed were significantly better accuracy to predict complications compared to PADUA2D, RENAL2D and ABC2D. PADUA3D (OR: 1.66), RENAL3D (OR: 1.69) and ABC3D (OR: 2.44) revealed a significant correlation with postoperative complications (all P ≤0.03). CONCLUSION: Nephrometry scores calculated via 3D models predict complications after RAPN with higher accuracy than conventional 2D imaging.

10.
Cent European J Urol ; 74(2): 222-228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336242

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the short-term functional outcomes and the efficacy of hemostasis performed with holmium laser performed following prostatic hydroablation with the Aquabeam® system. Material and methods: Between June 2019 and July 2020, 53 consecutive patients underwent Aquabeam® with our modified hemostasis approach with holmium laser. The following standard preoperative assessments were retrospectively recorded: prostate volume; International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Quality of Life (IPSS-QoL); uroflowmetry including Qmax and post void residual volume (PVR). Results: Fifty-three patients consecutively underwent aquablation and holmium laser hemostasis. Median age at surgery, median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and median prostate volume were 62 years (IQR: 57-66), 2.95 ng/ml (IQR: 1.6-4.8) and 55 ml (IQR: 43-65), respectively.Median operative time was 60 minutes (IQR: 40-80). Median catheterization time and length of hospital stay were 2 days (IQR: 1-3) for both parameters. The median hemoglobin decrease between the preoperative values and those assessed on the second day was equal to 1.25 g/dl (IQR: 0.7-1.85).Continence rate was 100% at catheter removal. Thirty-six patients (72%) reported anterograde ejaculation preservation. IPSS (6, 3-21) and Qmax (19, 9-26) changed dramatically between baseline and 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: The combination of Aquabeam® and holmium laser energy for hemostasis is a safe, reproducible technique to relieve moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) while preserving ejaculation in younger and sexually active individuals. The short-term results showed a lower rate of complications; the encouraging functional results confirm that this can be a valid surgical approach for treatment of BPH.

11.
Cent European J Urol ; 74(2): 259-268, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336248

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the safety of elective urological surgery performed during the pandemic by estimating the prevalence of COVID-19-like symptoms in the postoperative period and its correlation with perioperative and clinical factors. Material and methods: In this multicenter, observational study we recorded clinical, surgical and postoperative data of consecutive patients undergoing elective urological surgery in 28 different institutions across Italy during initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic (between February 24 and March 30, 2020, inclusive). Results: A total of 1943 patients were enrolled. In 12%, 7.1%, 21.3%, 56.7% and 2.6% of cases an open, laparoscopic, robotic, endoscopic or percutaneous surgical approach was performed, respectively. Overall, 166 (8.5%) postoperative complications were registered, 77 (3.9%) surgical and 89 (4.6%) medical. Twenty-eight (1.4%) patients were readmitted to hospital after discharge and 13 (0.7%) died. In the 30 days following discharge, fever and respiratory symptoms were recorded in 101 (5.2%) and 60 (3.1%) patients. At multivariable analysis, not performing nasopharyngeal swab at hospital admission (HR 2.3; CI 95% 1.01-5.19; p = 0.04) was independently associated with risk of developing postoperative medical complications. Number of patients in the facility was confirmed as an independent predictor of experiencing postoperative respiratory symptoms (p = 0.047, HR:1.12; CI95% 1.00-1.05), while COVID-19-free type of hospitalization facility was a strong independent protective factor (p = 0.02, HR:0.23, CI95% 0.07-0.79). Conclusions: Performing elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic does not seem to affect perioperative outcomes as long as proper preventive measures are adopted, including nasopharyngeal swab before hospital admission and hospitalization in dedicated COVID-19-free facilities.

12.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) models improve the comprehension of renal anatomy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of novel 3D-derived parameters, to predict surgical outcomes after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-nine patients with cT1-T2 renal mass scheduled for RAPN were included. Three-dimensional virtual modeling was achieved from computed tomography. The following volumetric and morphological 3D parameters were calculated: VT (volume of the tumor); VT/VK (ratio between tumor volume and kidney volume); CSA3D (ie, contact surface area); UCS3D (contact to the urinary collecting system); Tumor-Artery3D: tumor's blood supply by tertiary segmental arteries (score = 1), secondary segmental artery (score = 2), or primary segmental/main renal artery (scoren = 3); ST (tumor's sphericity); ConvT (tumor's convexity); and Endophyticity3D (ratio between the CSA3D and the global tumor surface). INTERVENTION: RAPN with a 3D model. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Three-dimensional parameters were compared between patients with and without complications. Univariate logistic regression was used to predict overall complications and type of clamping; linear regression was used to predict operative time, warm ischemia time, and estimated blood loss. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, 11 (15%) individuals experienced overall complications (7.2% had Clavien ≥3 complications). Patients with urinary collecting system (UCS) involvement at 3D model (UCS3D = 2), tumor with blood supply by primary or secondary segmentary arteries (Tumor-Artery3D = 1 and 2), and high Endophyticity3D values had significantly higher rates of overall complications (all p ≤ 0.03). At univariate analysis, UCS3D, Tumor-Artery3D, and Endophyticity3D are significantly associated with overall complications; CSA3D and Endophyticity3D were associated with warm ischemia time; and CSA3D was associated with selective clamping (all p ≤ 0.03). Sample size and the lack of interobserver variability are the main limits. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional modeling provides novel volumetric and morphological parameters to predict surgical outcomes after RAPN. PATIENT SUMMARY: Novel morphological and volumetric parameters can be derived from a three-dimensional model to describe surgical complexity of renal mass and to predict surgical outcomes after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439099

RESUMO

Many efforts have been carried out for the standardization of multiparametric Magnetic Resonance (mp-MR) images evaluation to detect Prostate Cancer (PCa), and specifically to differentiate levels of aggressiveness, a crucial aspect for clinical decision-making. Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) has contributed noteworthily to this aim. Nevertheless, as pointed out by the European Association of Urology (EAU 2020), the PI-RADS still has limitations mainly due to the moderate inter-reader reproducibility of mp-MRI. In recent years, many aspects in the diagnosis of cancer have taken advantage of the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) such as detection, segmentation of organs and/or lesions, and characterization. Here a focus on AI as a potentially important tool for the aim of standardization and reproducibility in the characterization of PCa by mp-MRI is reported. AI includes methods such as Machine Learning and Deep learning techniques that have shown to be successful in classifying mp-MR images, with similar performances obtained by radiologists. Nevertheless, they perform differently depending on the acquisition system and protocol used. Besides, these methods need a large number of samples that cover most of the variability of the lesion aspect and zone to avoid overfitting. The use of publicly available datasets could improve AI performance to achieve a higher level of generalizability, exploiting large numbers of cases and a big range of variability in the images. Here we explore the promise and the advantages, as well as emphasizing the pitfall and the warnings, outlined in some recent studies that attempted to classify clinically significant PCa and indolent lesions using AI methods. Specifically, we focus on the overfitting issue due to the scarcity of data and the lack of standardization and reproducibility in every step of the mp-MR image acquisition and the classifier implementation. In the end, we point out that a solution can be found in the use of publicly available datasets, whose usage has already been promoted by some important initiatives. Our future perspective is that AI models may become reliable tools for clinicians in PCa diagnosis, reducing inter-observer variability and evaluation time.

14.
Eur Urol ; 80(4): 480-488, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) can guide the surgical plan during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), and intraoperative frozen section (IFS) can facilitate real-time surgical margin assessment. OBJECTIVE: To assess a novel technique of IFS targeted to the index lesion by using augmented reality three-dimensional (AR-3D) models in patients scheduled for nerve-sparing RARP (NS-RARP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between March 2019 and July 2019, 20 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent NS-RARP with IFS directed to the index lesion with the help of AR-3D models (study group). Control group consists of 20 patients matched with 1:1 propensity score for age, clinical stage, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score v2, International Society of Urological Pathology grade, prostate volume, NS approach, and prostate-specific antigen in which RARP was performed by cognitive assessment of mpMRI. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: In the study group, an AR-3D model was superimposed to the surgical field to guide the surgical dissection. Tissue sampling for IFS was taken in the area in which the index lesion was projected by AR-3D guidance. MEASUREMENTS: Chi-square test, Student t test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare, respectively, proportions, means, and medians between the two groups. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Patients in the AR-3D group had comparable preoperative characteristics and those undergoing the NS approach were referred to as the control group (all p ≥ 0.06). Overall, positive surgical margin (PSM) rates were comparable between the two groups; PSMs at the level of the index lesion were significantly lower in patients referred to AR-3D guided IFS to the index lesion (5%) than those in the control group (20%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The novel technique of AR-3D guidance for IFS analysis may allow for reducing PSMs at the level of the index lesion. PATIENT SUMMARY: Augmented reality three-dimensional guidance for intraoperative frozen section analysis during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy facilitates the real-time assessment of surgical margins and may reduce positive surgical margins at the index lesion.

15.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387596

RESUMO

AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS METHODS: Eligible studies were identified using Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and meeting abstracts. Outcomes of interest included: overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Platinum-based AC was associated with improved DFS, while the benefit in OS and CSS was not statistically significant compared to observation. Conversely, platinum-based AC showed a modest OS benefit in an analysis combing multivariable HRs with estimated HRs from Kaplan-Meier curves. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that platinum-based AC is associated with improved DFS and a modest OS benefit in patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinomas.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The conventional imaging flowchart for prostate cancer (PCa) staging may fail in correctly detecting lymph node metastases (LNM). Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) represents the only reliable method, although invasive. A new amino acid PET compound, [18F]-fluciclovine, was recently authorized in suspected PCa recurrence but not yet included in the standard staging work-up of primary PCa. A prospective monocentric study was designed to evaluate [18F]-fluciclovine PET/CT diagnostic performance for preoperative LN staging in primary high-risk PCa. METHODS: Consecutive patients (pts) with biopsy-proven PCa, standard staging (including [11C]choline PET/CT), eligible for PLND, were enrolled to undergo an investigational [18F]-fluciclovine PET/CT. Nodal uptake higher than surrounding background was reported by at least two readers (blinded to [11C]choline) using a visual 5-point scale (1-2 probably negative; 4-5 probably positive; 3 equivocal); SUVmax, target-to-background (aorta-A; bone marrow-BM) ratios (TBRs), were also calculated. PET results were validated with PLND. [18F]-fluciclovine PET/CT performance using visual score and semi-quantitative indexes was analyzed both per patient and per LN anatomical region, compared to conventional [11C]choline and clinical predictive factors (to note that diagnostic performance of [18F]-fluciclovine was explored for LNM but not examined for intrapelvic or extrapelvic M1 lesions). RESULTS: Overall, 94 pts underwent [18F]-fluciclovine PET/CT; 72/94 (77%) high-risk pts were included in the final analyses (22 pts excluded: 8 limited PLND; 3 intermediate-risk; 2 treated with radiotherapy; 4 found to be M1; 5 neoadjuvant hormonal therapy). Median LNM risk by Briganti nomogram was 19%. LNM confirmed on histology was 25% (18/72 pts). Overall, 1671 LN were retrieved; 45/1671 (3%) LNM detected. Per pt, median no. of removed LN was 22 (mean 23 ± 10; range 8-51), of LNM was 2 (mean 3 ± 2; range 1-10). Median LNM size was 5 mm (mean 5 ± 2.5; range 2-10). On patient-based analyses (n = 72), diagnostic performance for LNM resulted significant with [18F]-fluciclovine (AUC 0.66, p 0.04; 50% sensitivity, 81% specificity, 47% PPV, 83% NPV, 74% accuracy), but not with [11C]choline (AUC 0.60, p 0.2; 50%, 70%, 36%, 81%, and 65% respectively). Briganti nomogram (OR = 1.03, p = 0.04) and [18F]-fluciclovine visual score (≥ 4) (OR = 4.27, p = 0.02) resulted independent predictors of LNM at multivariable analyses. On region-based semi-quantitative analyses (n = 576), PET/CT performed better using TBR parameters (TBR-A similar to TBR-BM; TBR-A fluciclovine AUC 0.61, p 0.35, vs choline AUC 0.57 p 0.54; TBR-BM fluciclovine AUC 0.61, p 0.36, vs choline AUC 0.58, p 0.52) rather than using absolute LN SUVmax (fluciclovine AUC 0.51, p 0.91, vs choline AUC 0.51, p 0.94). However, in all cases, diagnostic performance was not statistically significant for LNM detection, although slightly in favor of the experimental tracer [18F]-fluciclovine for each parameter. On the contrary, visual interpretation significantly outperformed PET semi-quantitative parameters (choline and fluciclovine: AUC 0.65 and 0.64 respectively; p 0.03) and represents an independent predictive factor of LNM with both tracers, in particular [18F]-fluciclovine (OR = 8.70, p 0.002, vs OR = 3.98, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In high-risk primary PCa, [18F]-fluciclovine demonstrates some advantages compared with [11C]choline but sensitivity for metastatic LN detection is still inadequate compared to PLND. Visual (combined morphological and functional), compared to semi-quantitative assessment, is promising but relies mainly on readers' experience rather than on unquestionable LN avidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2014-003,165-15.

17.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 93(2): 132-138, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286543

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: ExactVuTM is a real-time micro-ultrasound system which provides, according to the Prostate Risk Identification Using Micro-Ultrasound protocol (PRI-MUS), a 300% higher resolution compared to conventional transrectal ultrasound. To evaluate the performance of ExactVuTM in the detection of Clinically significant Prostate Cancer (CsPCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with Prostate Cancer diagnosed at fusion biopsy were imaged with ExactVuTM. CsPCa was defined as any Gleason Score ≥ 3+4. ExactVuTM examination was considered as positive when PRI-MUS score was ≥ 3. PRI-MUS scoring system was considered as correct when the fusion biopsy was positive for CsPCa. A transrectal fusion biopsy- proven CsPCa was considered as a gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were calculated. RESULTS: 57 patients out of 68 (84%) had a csPCa. PRI-MUS score was correctly assessed in 68% of cases. Regarding the detection of CsPCa, ExactVuTM 's sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV was 68%, 73%, 93%, and 31%, respectively and the AUC was 0.7 (95% CI 0.5-0-8). For detecting CsPCa in the transition/ anterior zone the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV was 45%, 66%, 83% and 25% respectively ant the AUC was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-0.9). Accounting only the CsPCa located in the peripheral zone, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV raised up to 74%, 75%, 94%, 33%, respectively with AUC 0.75 (95% CI 0.5-0-9). CONCLUSIONS: ExactVuTM provides high resolution of the prostatic peripheral zone and could represent a step forward in the detection of CsPCa as a triage tool. Further studies are needed to confirm these promising results.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal definition and prognostic significance of persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after salvage lymph node dissection (sLND) for node-only recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the definition and clinical implications of persistently elevated PSA after sLND for node-only recurrent PCa after radical prostatectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 579 patients treated with sLND at 11 high-volume centers between 2000 and 2016. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We assessed the linear relationship between the first PSA after sLND and death from PCa. Different definitions of PSA persistence were included in a multivariable model predicting cancer-specific mortality (CSM) after surgery to identify the best cutoff value. We investigated the association between PSA persistence and oncologic outcomes using multivariable regression models. Moreover, the effect of early androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) after sLND was tested according to PSA persistence status and estimated risk of CSM. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We found an inverse relationship between the first PSA after sLND and the probability of cancer-specific survival. PSA persistence defined as first postoperative PSA ≥0.3 ng/ml provided the best discrimination accuracy (C index 0.757). According to this cutoff, 331 patients (57%) experienced PSA persistence. The median follow-up for survivors was 48 mo (interquartile range 27-74). After adjusting for confounders, men with persistently elevated PSA had higher risk of clinical recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61), overall mortality (HR 2.20), and CSM (HR 2.59; all p < 0.001) after sLND. Early ADT administration after sLND improved survival only for patients with PSA persistence after surgery (HR 0.49; p = 0.024). Similarly, when PSA persistence status was included in multivariable models accounting for pathologic features, early ADT use after sLND was beneficial only for patients with a predicted risk of CSM at 5 yr of >10%. CONCLUSIONS: PSA persistence after sLND independently predicts adverse prognosis, with the best discrimination accuracy for CSM provided by a definition of PSA ≥ 0.3 ng/ml. We showed that when stratifying patients by final pathology results and PSA persistence status, early ADT use after sLND was beneficial only for patients with PSA persistence or with a calculated 5-yr risk of CSM of >10%, which could be useful as we await results from ongoing prospective trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that for patients with prostate cancer who had lymph nodes removed after their cancer recurred, persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels predict poorer prognosis. We showed that a PSA level of ≥0.3 ng/ml provides the best accuracy in identifying patients with worse prognosis. This may help to improve risk stratification after lymph node removal and allow physicians to optimize treatment strategies after surgery.

19.
Urol Oncol ; 39(12): 833.e1-833.e8, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally-invasive approach is one of the mainstays of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) introduction has reduced the surgical burden on patient's recovery. Accordingly, ERAS protocol benefits may be more striking in RARC patients. We evaluated the impact of surgical approach on perioperative outcomes, Fast Track (FT) recovery steps and Trifecta success rates in patients undergoing RC followed by FT protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We considered 147 patients who underwent RC, with open (Open radical cystectomy [ORC]; 47.6%) or robotic (RARC; 52.4%) approach at 2 tertiary centers. Urinary diversions were ileal conduit or orthotopic neobladder. All patients underwent FT protocol. We analyzed perioperative surgical and functional outcomes and Trifecta success rates (namely, defecation <5 days, in-hospital stay <10 days and no major complications). Uni and multivariable logistic regression explored the predictors for Trifecta success and the impact of surgical approach on recovery steps. RESULTS: Patients undergoing RARC had higher FT adherence (95% vs. 61%) compared to ORCs (P < 0.01). Trifecta success rates were higher for RARC (79.2% vs 28.6%; P < 0.001). At multivariable analyses, RARC was an independent predictor for Trifecta success (OR 9.1), early mobilization (OR 5.9) and FT adherence (OR 3.33; all P < 0.001). Surgical technique was not associated with major complications or readmission within 90 days (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: RARC has more favorable perioperative outcomes compared to ORC, with higher Trifecta success rates. Accordingly, robotic approach should be ideally included in every center where ERAS protocol is applied to RC for maximizing patient's recovery.

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