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1.
Avian Pathol ; : 1-25, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787031

RESUMO

ABSTRACTAntimicrobials have been widely used in poultry, promoting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) emergence and spread. Resistant bacteria selected by antimicrobial use (AMU) can contaminate the farm environment and transfer resistance genes to other bacteria, providing opportunities for persistence and (re-)colonization of subsequent flocks and potentially jeopardizing antimicrobial treatments. We investigated the effects of AMU on AMR in poultry in the long-term (due to historical AMU in the farm) and in the short-term (due to current AMU in a flock). Litter samples from 35 broiler and 35 turkey farms in North-East Italy were sampled longitudinally for AMR testing of E. coli indicator bacteria in 2019/2020. Differences in AMR as a function of historical AMU (Defined Daily Doses in 2016-2018), current AMU in the sampled flock, farm size and season were tested using Generalized Estimating Equation regression analysis. In both broilers and turkeys, the highest resistance levels were observed for sulfamethoxazole (>70%), followed by ampicillin (54-60%). Only few positive associations between historical levels of penicillin use and the specific resistance levels to penicillin in broiler farms, and the overall historical AMU and resistance to trimethoprim in turkey flocks, were significant. Current AMU showed significant effects on resistance to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in turkey flocks. Significant effects of farm size on some AMR levels were also identified. We found a stronger association between current AMU and AMR compared to historical AMU and AMR. AMR persistence in the farm environment in absence of direct AMU pressure needs to be further investigated.

2.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 439-447, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769152

RESUMO

Laboratory tests provide essential support to the veterinary practitioner, and their use has grown exponentially. This growth is the result of several factors, such as the eradication of historical diseases, the occurrence of multifactorial diseases, and the obligation to control endemic and epidemic diseases. However, the introduction of novel techniques is counterbalanced by economic constraints, and the establishment of evidence- and consensus-based guidelines is essential to support the pathologist. Therefore, we developed standardized protocols, categorized by species, type of production, age, and syndrome at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), a multicenter institution for animal health and food safety. We have 72 protocols in use for livestock, poultry, and pets, categorized as, for example, "bovine enteric calf", "rabbit respiratory", "broiler articular". Each protocol consists of a panel of tests, divided into 'mandatory' and 'ancillary', to be selected by the pathologist in order to reach the final diagnosis. After autopsy, the case is categorized into a specific syndrome, subsequently referred to as a syndrome-specific panel of analyses. The activity of the laboratories is monitored through a web-based dynamic reporting system developed using a business intelligence product (QlikView) connected to the laboratory information management system (IZILAB). On a daily basis, reports become available at general, laboratory, and case levels, and are updated as needed. The reporting system highlights epidemiologic variations in the field and allows verification of compliance with the protocols within the organization. The diagnostic protocols are revised annually to increase system efficiency and to address stakeholder requests.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Patologia Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Itália
3.
Pathogens ; 9(7)2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635441

RESUMO

Italian beef production is mainly based on a feedlot system where calves are housed with mixed aged cattle often in conditions favourable to bovine respiratory disease (BRD). In Veneto, an indoor system is also used for imported bulls around 300-350 kg. Mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma dispar, contribute to BRD in young calves, but their role in the disease in older cattle has not been investigated. In this study, ten heads of cattle were selected from each of the 24 groups kept in 13 different farms. Bulls were sampled by nasal swabbing at 0, 15, and 60 days after arrival for Mycoplasma isolation. Identification was carried out by 16S-rDNA PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. M. bovis, M. dispar, and M. bovirhinis were identified, and prevalence was analysed by mixed-effects logistic regression models. This showed that most bulls arrived free of M. bovis, but within two weeks, approximately 40% became infected, decreasing to 13% by the last sampling. In contrast, the prevalence of M. dispar was not dependent on time or seasonality, while M. bovirhinis only showed a seasonality-dependent trend. The Italian fattening system creates an ideal environment for infection with M. bovis, probably originating from previously stabled animals.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523585

RESUMO

Bovine is considered the main reservoir of influenza D virus (IDV), however, low levels of seropositivity in other farmed species suggest a wide range of potential hosts. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether this scenario is the result of rare spillover events upon contact with bovines, or a lack of adaptation of IDV to these hosts. Among these species, sheep represents a crucial component of the rural economy in many developing countries, but little is known about its role in the ecology of the disease. To evaluate the susceptibility of sheep to IDV viruses of different origin, we used ovine respiratory tissues as an ex vivo model and investigated the infective phenotype of two IDV strains isolated from either bovine (IDV-BOV) or swine (IDV-SW). For translatability purposes, we included a parainfluenza type 3 virus, as positive control, given its known respiratory tropism in sheep. We performed a timed evaluation of the viral infectivity, cell tropism and the associated histopathology, by means of tissue culture infectious dose assays on supernatants and histological/immunohistochemical analyses on explanted tissues, respectively. To further investigate differences in the phenotype of these two strains and to identify the potential targets of replication in the most commonly land-based farmed mammalian species, we carried out virus binding assays on histological sections of the respiratory tract of bovine, caprine, ovine, horse and swine. Our results demonstrated that IDV successfully replicates in nasal, tracheal and lung ovine tissues, suggesting a moderate susceptibility of this species to IDV infection. Interestingly, despite the high genetic identity of these strains, IDV- BOV consistently replicated to higher titers than IDV-SW in all respiratory tracts, suggesting IDV viruses might display considerable levels of variability in their phenotype when crossing the species barrier. Virus binding assays confirmed a superior affinity of the IDV viruses for the bovine upper respiratory tract, and a preference for the pharyngeal epithelium of small ruminants, indicating possible targets to improve the sensitivity of virological sampling for diagnostic and post-mortem purposes. Further pathogenesis and cross-species transmission studies will be necessary to elucidate the ecology of IDV and eventually allow the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies.

5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1353-1362, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157394

RESUMO

Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variations among Neospora caninum, a cyst-forming protozoan parasite that is one of the main causes of bovine abortion in the cattle industry worldwide. Previous genetic studies based on multilocus microsatellite genotyping (MLGs) of different Ibero-American populations showed a high genetic diversity. These studies provided clear clues of a predominant clonal propagation in cattle and population sub-structuring partially associated with geographical origin. Although, these reports were limited to a reduced number of countries. In this study, the N. caninum isolates from aborted bovine fetuses and stillbirths and a goat abortion from Northern Italy were investigated genetically using 9 microsatellite markers. Complete or nearly complete isolate profiles were obtained from 30 fetuses and stillbirths. An extensive genetic diversity was also found in this Italian N. caninum population. The study of genetic relationships among Italian MLGs using network (eBURST) and principal component analyses based on the allele-sharing coefficient (PCoA) showed different clonal subpopulations disseminated throughout Northern Italy without apparent segregation depending on the geographic origin, cattle breed, or time of collection. The presence of linkage disequilibrium supports a predominant clonal propagation of Italian N. caninum. In addition, most of Italian MLGs segregated from other global populations including Spain, Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Germany, and Scotland, suggesting the existence of specific N. caninum subpopulations in the Northern Italy and different subpopulations of N. caninum circulating in Europe.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/genética , Feto Abortado/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Feto/parasitologia , Variação Genética/genética , Geografia , Cabras/genética , Itália , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Neospora/classificação , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez
6.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683971

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) on the performance of finishing Charolais bulls in the Italian rearing system. Animals were fed two diets, differing only in the CP level (low protein (LP), 13.5% CP versus control (CON), 15.0% CP). Dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and animals' weights were recorded to obtain average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Feed and fecal samples were collected to evaluate digestibility of diet components. Daily cost of the ration (DRC), feed cost per kg of daily weight gain (CDG) and daily gross margin (DGM) were calculated to analyze the possible benefits of decreasing the protein level. Meat quality analyses were also conducted. Higher DMI (10.6 versus 10 kg/d; p < 0.05) and ADG (1.47 versus 1.36 kg/d; p < 0.05) were observed for CON. No differences in FCR or digestibility were found. Even if the DRC was lower (p < 0.05) for the LP diet (2.26 versus 1.97 €; CON versus LP), no difference was reported for CDG and DGM. Meat lightness and redness were significantly lower and higher in the LP, respectively. To conclude, the CP requirement in these rearing conditions appeared to be higher than 13.5%.

7.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 221-229, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599546

RESUMO

Porcine astroviruses (PoAstV) are found in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy and diseased pigs worldwide. However, their role in causing enteric disease in pigs and other animals has not been elucidated. In the present report, we describe for the first time in Italy, the identification and genetic characterization, through whole genome sequencing, of a PoAstV2 in pigs in Northeast Italy in 2015. This instance is the first detection of PoAstV2 in pigs in Italy. The phylogenetic analysis of the complete ORF2 segment highlights the high similarity of this virus to those circulating that same year in Japan. There are very few full astrovirus genomes available, and the present data represent an important contribution towards a better understanding of the characteristics and evolution of these viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Mamastrovirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Itália , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
8.
Vet Ital ; 55(4): 375-379, 2019 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955561

RESUMO

Veneto region, Northeast Italy, has been declared officially free from bovine tuberculosis since 2008, although the disease is sporadically detected in association with cattle trade. In September 2015, bovine tuberculosis was detected in a dairy cattle farm of the region, in a holding with 69 animals. The herd underwent single intradermal tuberculin testing as part of the regional surveillance plan, and 24 animals resulted positive. Mycobacterium caprae was evidenced in 22 samples, further genotyped by PCR-based assays, as Allgäu type. Epidemiological investigation reported that sixteen animals were introduced from an officially tuberculosis free Member State in previous years. Nevertheless, spoligotyping and multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) indicated that M. caprae was strictly related to the strain circulating in 2007-2009 in Trento province, although no at-risk contacts were described. M. caprae is a zoonotic pathogen and further analyses are warranted in order to control its spread and impact on public health and animal trade.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Genótipo , Itália/epidemiologia , Repetições Minissatélites , Mycobacterium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose/microbiologia
9.
J Virol Methods ; 260: 21-25, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981296

RESUMO

Prompt and accurate diagnosis is warranted for infectious diseases of domestic animals which may have a significant impact on animal production or clinical practice. In this study, the identification and genetic characterization of a bovine enterovirus (BEV) strain isolated from a calf with diarrhea, are described. Two different next generation sequencing platforms were employed. Shotgun metagenomic accomplished by MinION sequencing (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) allowed the identification of BEV RNA from a cell-culture isolate. BEV was then confirmed by a specific real time RT-PCR assay. To achieve the whole genome of this isolate, sequence reads obtained by MinION were coupled with those originating from NextSeq500 (Illumina). Genomic relatedness and phylogeny with extant BEV strains is also reported. Overall, this manuscript highlights the use of the portable MinION sequence technology as a tool for support diagnostics in veterinary practice.


Assuntos
Diarreia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Enterovirus Bovino/genética , Enterovirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Animais , Bovinos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Enterovirus/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células Vero , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Vet J ; 231: 41-47, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429486

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to measure the level of activity and rumination in young bulls and to assess whether these data can be used as indicators of health status and average daily weight gain (ADG). Two groups of animals (period 1: n=108 animals; period 2: n=106 animals) were fitted with sensors to measure daily activity and rumination, were weighed on arrival and at the end of the trial (70 days) and were checked twice daily to verify their health condition. Any clinical signs and therapies were recorded. The dishomogeneity index of rumination (DR), and the daily dishomogeneity indices of activity (DDA) and rumination (DDR), were calculated. Bulls had an ADG of 1.42±0.38kg/day and showed an average duration of daily rumination of 404±63min and an average activity of 474±46 bits, respectively. Animals characterised by low ADG had lower values of minimum daily rumination (P=0.01) and DDA (P<0.001), and a greater rumination range (P=0.007) and DR (P=0.003). Bovine respiratory disease and lameness were detected 31 and five times, respectively; among affected animals, the average daily activity, rumination and DDA were lower (P<0.05) at 3-6days before the onset of visible clinical signs, whereas DDR increased compared to the values when individuals were apparently healthy. The use of individual sensors appears promising for the early diagnosis of disease in beef cattle and for improving herd management.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Mastigação , Atividade Motora , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/veterinária , Ganho de Peso , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Itália , Masculino , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 95(3): 1271-3, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24012347

RESUMO

Adopting a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, this study evaluated whether continuous straw provision by racks, tail docking and gender (barrows vs. females) have an effect on the prevalence of lung lesions and oesophago-gastric ulcer (OGU) visually scored at slaughter in 635 Italian heavy pigs (169 ± 4 kg). The lung lesions were very low (72% of pigs with score 0), and were not significantly different among the experimental groups. Overall, OGU was diagnosed in 47% of the pigs. The consumption of small amounts of straw (70 g/day/pig) represented a protective factor against the onset of OGU (OR: 0.27). Barrows were more likely than females to have OGU (OR: 1.52), while no significant differences between docked and undocked pigs were detected. Nevertheless, the presence of straw acted as a protective factor particularly in undocked pigs (OR: 0.16), suggesting that in this group the absence of rooting material may have a stronger effect on welfare.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças do Esôfago/veterinária , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Úlcera/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Doenças do Esôfago/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Úlcera Gástrica/epidemiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Úlcera/epidemiologia , Úlcera/prevenção & controle
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 95(2): 825-30, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23876332

RESUMO

This study evaluated whether the specific heavy pig rearing context allowed the fattening of undocked pigs without an outbreak of tail biting. At the same time, gender and straw availability (small amounts) were considered to understand their possible interactions with tail presence in the display of tail biting. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design was adopted to test the effects of these factors on blood parameters, behaviour and tail/ear lesions. Few interactions among factors were detected. Undocked pigs showed lower cortisol (P<0.02), lying behaviour (P<0.001), and higher risk of tail/ear biting (weeks 3 and 9), but lower risk of tail lesions (week 14). Straw increased the motivation for exploring (P<0.001), reduced serum haptoglobin (P<0.001) and the risk for tail biting (weeks 3, 9, 18) and ear biting (weeks 3, 9). Results highlight the importance of straw as an environmental enrichment and seem to indicate that fattening undocked heavy pigs is possible.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia , Cauda , Agressão , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 139(1-2): 147-52, 2009 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19477085

RESUMO

Astroviruses have been described in several animals species frequently associated with diarrhoea, especially in young animals. In dogs, astrovirus-like particles have been observed sporadically and very little is known about their epidemiology and characteristics. In this paper, we describe the detection of astrovirus-like particles in symptomatic puppies. Furthermore, for the first time in this species, the presumptive identification made by electron microscopy was confirmed by genetic analysis of the viral RNA conducted directly on the clinical specimens. Genetic sequences of ORF2 (2443 nt), encoding for the capsid protein, and partial sequence of ORF1b (346 nt), encoding for the viral polymerase, identified the viruses as member of the family Astroviridae. The phylogenetic analysis clearly clustered canine astroviruses in the genus Mamastrovirus. Relative closest similarities were revealed with a cluster comprising human, porcine and feline astroviruses, based on the ORF2 sequences available. Based on the species definition for astroviruses and on the data obtained in this study, we suggest a new species of astrovirus - canine astrovirus, CaAstV - to be included in the genus Mamastrovirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Astroviridae/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Animais , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Diarreia/virologia , Cães/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 17(3): 288-90, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15945391

RESUMO

The macroscopic and microscopic features of a retroperitoneal perirenal pseudocyst in a 12-month-old ram without impairment of renal function are described. In humans and animals, uriniferous pseudocysts may be of traumatic origin, resulting from rupture of kidney, renal pelvis, or ureter, or congenital. Lymphatic pseudocysts may develop secondary to inflammatory obstruction of the hilar lymphatics after perinephritis or renal transplantation. In this case, histologic characteristics of the pseudocyst wall were suggestive of development from the parietal peritoneal layer encapsulating the kidney. This is the first case of retroperitoneal perirenal pseudocyst in a sheep.


Assuntos
Cistos/veterinária , Espaço Retroperitoneal/patologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Animais , Cistos/patologia , Rim , Masculino , Ovinos
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