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Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975481


Bone sarcomas are primary bone tumours found mainly in children and adolescents, as osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma, and in adults in their 40s as chondrosarcoma. The last four decades the development of therapeutic approaches was based on drug combinations have shown no real improvement in overall survival. Recently oncoimmunology has allowed a better understand of the crucial role played by the immune system in the oncologic process. This led to clinical trials with the aim of reprogramming the immune system to facilitate cancer cell recognition. Immune infiltrates of bone sarcomas have been characterized and their molecular profiling identified as immune therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, the clinical responses in trials remain anecdotal but highlight the necessity to improve the characterization of tumour micro-environment to unlock the immunotherapeutic response, especially in their paediatric forms. Bone sarcomas have entered the immunotherapy era and here we overview the recent developments in immunotherapies in these sarcomas.

Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1139: 187-200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134502


Osteosarcoma is the most common bone sarcoma and is one of the cancer entities characterized by the highest level of heterogeneity in humans. This heterogeneity takes place not only at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, with heterogeneous micro-environmental components, but also at the genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic levels. Recent investigations have revealed the existence in osteosarcoma of cancer cells with stemness properties. Cancer stem cells are characterized by their specific phenotype and low cycling capacity, and are linked to drug resistance, tumour growth and the metastatic process. In addition, cancer stem cells contribute to the enrichment of tumour heterogeneity. The present manuscript will describe the main characteristic features of cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma and will discuss their impact on maintaining tumour heterogeneity. Their clinical implications will also be briefly addressed.

Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica
Oncotarget ; 9(50): 29508-29524, 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034634


Background: Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKs) are established anti-cancer drug targets and a new generation of CDK inhibitors are providing clinical benefits to a sub-set of breast cancer patients. We have recently shown that human CDK18 promotes efficient cellular responses to replication stress. In the current study, we have investigated the clinicopathological and functional significance of CDK18 expression levels in breast cancers. Results: High CDK18 protein expression was associated with a triple negative and basal-like phenotype (p = 0.021 and 0.027 respectively) as well as improved patient survival, which was particularly significant in ER negative breast cancers (n = 594, Log Rank 6.724, p = 0.01) and those treated with chemotherapy (n = 270, Log Rank 4.575, p = 0.03). In agreement with these clinical findings, breast cancer cells genetically manipulated using a dCRISPR approach to express high levels of endogenous CDK18 exhibited an increased sensitivity to replication stress-inducing chemotherapeutic agents, as a consequence to defective replication stress signalling at the molecular level. Conclusions: These data reveal that CDK18 protein levels may predict breast cancer disease progression and response to chemotherapy, and provide further rationale for potential targeting of CDK18 as part of novel anti-cancer strategies for human cancers. Materials and Methods: CDK18 protein expression was evaluated in 1650 breast cancers and correlated to clinicopathological parameters and survival outcomes. Similar analyses were carried out for genetic and transcriptomic changes in CDK18 within several publically available breast cancer cohorts. Additionally, we used a deactivated CRISPR/Cas9 approach (dCRISPR) to elucidate the molecular consequences of heightened endogenous CDK18 expression within breast cancer cells.

Calcif Tissue Int ; 102(2): 174-195, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238848


Bone sarcomas are tumours belonging to the family of mesenchymal tumours and constitute a highly heterogeneous tumour group. The three main bone sarcomas are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma each subdivided in diverse histological entities. They are clinically characterised by a relatively high morbidity and mortality, especially in children and adolescents. Although these tumours are histologically, molecularly and genetically heterogeneous, they share a common involvement of the local microenvironment in their pathogenesis. This review gives a brief overview of their specificities and summarises the main therapeutic advances in the field of bone sarcoma.

Neoplasias Ósseas/etiologia , Sarcoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Feminino , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 12(4): 379-389, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277839


INTRODUCTION: Patients with metastatic cancer suffer the highest rate of cancer-related death, but existing animal models of metastasis have disadvantages that limit our ability to understand this process. The zebrafish is increasingly used for cancer modelling, particularly xenografting of human cancer cell lines, and drug discovery, and may provide novel scientific and therapeutic insights. However, this model system remains underexploited. Areas covered: The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the zebrafish xenograft model for the study of cancer, metastasis and drug discovery. They summarise previous work investigating the metastatic cascade, such as tumour-induced angiogenesis, intravasation, extravasation, dissemination and homing, invasion at secondary sites, assessing metastatic potential and evaluation of cancer stem cells in zebrafish. Expert opinion: The practical advantages of zebrafish for basic biological study and drug discovery are indisputable. However, their ability to sufficiently reproduce and predict the behaviour of human cancer and metastasis remains unproven. For this to be resolved, novel mechanisms must to be discovered in zebrafish that are subsequently validated in humans, and for therapeutic interventions that modulate cancer favourably in zebrafish to successfully translate to human clinical studies. In the meantime, more work is required to establish the most informative methods in zebrafish.

Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Peixe-Zebra