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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(14): 416-418, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271726

RESUMO

In the Seattle, Washington metropolitan area, where the first case of novel coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) in the United States was reported (1), a community-level outbreak is ongoing with evidence of rapid spread and high morbidity and mortality among older adults in long-term care skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) (2,3). However, COVID-19 morbidity among residents of senior independent and assisted living communities, in which residents do not live as closely together as do residents in SNFs and do not require skilled nursing services, has not been described. During March 5-9, 2020, two residents of a senior independent and assisted living community in Seattle (facility 1) were hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 infection; on March 6, social distancing and other preventive measures were implemented in the community. UW Medicine (the health system linked to the University of Washington), Public Health - Seattle & King County, and CDC conducted an investigation at the facility. On March 10, all residents and staff members at facility 1 were tested for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and asked to complete a questionnaire about their symptoms; all residents were tested again 7 days later. Among 142 residents and staff members tested during the initial phase, three of 80 residents (3.8%) and two of 62 staff members (3.2%) had positive test results. The three residents had no symptoms at the time of testing, although one reported an earlier cough that had resolved. A fourth resident, who had negative test results in the initial phase, had positive test results 7 days later. This resident was asymptomatic on both days. Possible explanations for so few cases of COVID-19 in this residential community compared with those in several Seattle SNFs with high morbidity and mortality include more social distancing among residents and less contact with health care providers. In addition, early implementation of stringent isolation and protective measures after identification of two COVID-19 cases might have been effective in minimizing spread of the virus in this type of setting. When investigating a potential outbreak of COVID-19 in senior independent and assisted living communities, symptom screening is unlikely to be sufficient to identify all persons infected with SARS-CoV-2. Adherence to CDC guidance to prevent COVID-19 transmission in senior independent and assisted living communities (4) could be instrumental in preventing a facility outbreak.


Assuntos
Moradias Assistidas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Habitação para Idosos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Perinatol ; 40(2): 219-225, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between neonatal jaundice and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD developmental disorder (DD). STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from the Study to Explore Early Development, a US multisite, case-control study conducted from 2007 to 2011. Developmental assessment classified children aged 2-5 years into: ASD (n = 636), DD (n = 777), or controls (POP; n = 926). Neonatal jaundice (n = 1054) was identified from medical records and maternal interviews. We examined associations between neonatal jaundice and ASD and DD using regression models to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aOR). RESULTS: Our results showed interaction between gestational age and neonatal jaundice. Neonatal jaundice was associated with ASD at 35-37 weeks (aOR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.05, 3.19), but not ≥38 weeks gestation (aOR = 0.97, 95%CI 0.76, 1.24). Similar results were observed with DD. CONCLUSIONS: Further exploration of timing and severity of neonatal jaundice and ASD/DD is warranted.

3.
Epidemiology ; 31(1): 103-114, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between prenatal and early postnatal air pollution exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, findings differ by pollutant and developmental window. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between early life exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and ozone in association with ASD across multiple US regions. METHODS: Our study participants included 674 children with confirmed ASD and 855 population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born from 2003 to 2006 in the United States. We used a satellite-based model to assign air pollutant exposure averages during several critical periods of neurodevelopment: 3 months before pregnancy; each trimester of pregnancy; the entire pregnancy; and the first year of life. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for study site, maternal age, maternal education, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal smoking, and month and year of birth. RESULTS: The air pollution-ASD associations appeared to vary by exposure time period. Ozone exposure during the third trimester was associated with ASD, with an OR of 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) per 6.6 ppb increase in ozone. We additionally observed a positive association with PM2.5 exposure during the first year of life (OR = 1.3 [95% CI: 1.0, 1.6] per 1.6 µg/m increase in PM2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates previous findings of a positive association between early life air pollution exposure and ASD, and identifies a potential critical window of exposure during the late prenatal and early postnatal periods.

4.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the national prevalence of 10 developmental disabilities in US children aged 3 to 17 years and explore changes over time by associated demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, using the National Health Interview Survey. METHODS: Data come from the 2009 to 2017 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Parents reported physician or other health care professional diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; autism spectrum disorder; blindness; cerebral palsy; moderate to profound hearing loss; learning disability; intellectual disability; seizures; stuttering or stammering; and other developmental delays. Weighted percentages for each of the selected developmental disabilities and any developmental disability were calculated and stratified by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2011 and 2015 to 2017, there were overall significant increases in the prevalence of any developmental disability (16.2%-17.8%, P < .001), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (8.5%-9.5%, P < .01), autism spectrum disorder (1.1%-2.5%, P < .001), and intellectual disability (0.9%-1.2%, P < .05), but a significant decrease for any other developmental delay (4.7%-4.1%, P < .05). The prevalence of any developmental disability increased among boys, older children, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children, children with private insurance only, children with birth weight ≥2500 g, and children living in urban areas and with less-educated mothers. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of developmental disability among US children aged 3 to 17 years increased between 2009 and 2017. Changes by demographic and socioeconomic subgroups may be related to improvements in awareness and access to health care.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Prevalência , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Gagueira/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Autism Res ; 12(10): 1551-1561, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317667

RESUMO

Maternal infection and fever during pregnancy have been implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, studies have not been able to separate the effects of fever itself from the impact of a specific infectious organism on the developing brain. We utilized data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a case-control study among 2- to 5-year-old children born between 2003 and 2006 in the United States, to explore a possible association between maternal infection and fever during pregnancy and risk of ASD and other developmental disorders (DDs). Three groups of children were included: children with ASD (N = 606) and children with DDs (N = 856), ascertained from clinical and educational sources, and children from the general population (N = 796), randomly sampled from state birth records. Information about infection and fever during pregnancy was obtained from a telephone interview with the mother shortly after study enrollment and maternal prenatal and labor/delivery medical records. ASD and DD status was determined by an in-person standardized developmental assessment of the child at 3-5 years of age. After adjustment for covariates, maternal infection anytime during pregnancy was not associated with ASD or DDs. However, second trimester infection accompanied by fever elevated risk for ASD approximately twofold (aOR = 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.14-4.23). These findings of an association between maternal infection with fever in the second trimester and increased risk of ASD in the offspring suggest that the inflammatory response to the infectious agent may be etiologically relevant. Autism Res 2019, 12: 1551-1561. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Using data from a large multisite study in the United States-the Study to Explore Early Development-we found that women who had an infection during the second trimester of pregnancy accompanied by a fever are more likely to have children with ASD. These findings suggest the possibility that only more severe infections accompanied by a robust inflammatory response increase the risk of ASD.

6.
Autism Res ; 12(6): 967-975, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969030

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown complications of pregnancy, often examined in aggregate, to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results for specific complications, such as maternal diabetes and hypertension, have not been uniformly consistent and should be investigated independently in relation to ASD in a large community-based sample. The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a US multisite case-control study, enrolled children born in 2003-2006 at 2-5 years of age. Children were classified into three groups based on confirmation of ASD (n = 698), non-ASD developmental delay (DD; n = 887), or controls drawn from the general population (POP; n = 979). Diagnoses of any diabetes or hypertensive disorder during pregnancy were identified from prenatal medical records and maternal self-report. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking during pregnancy, and study site. Models for hypertension were additionally adjusted for parity and plurality. Among 2,564 mothers, we identified 246 (9.6%) with any diabetes and 386 (15.1%) with any hypertension in pregnancy. After adjustment for covariates, any diabetes during pregnancy was not associated with ASD (aOR = 1.10 [95% CI 0.77, 1.56]), but any hypertension was associated with ASD (aOR = 1.69 [95% CI 1.26, 2.26]). Results were similar for DD, and any diabetes (aOR = 1.29 [95% CI 0.94, 1.78]) or any hypertension (aOR = 1.71 [95% CI 1.30, 2.25]). Some pregnancy complications, such as hypertension, may play a role in autism etiology and can possibly serve as a prompt for more vigilant ASD screening efforts. Autism Res 2019, 12: 967-975. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: We studied if common complications in pregnancy are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a large sample of mothers and children. Our results show an association between conditions marked by high blood pressure and ASD, but no association with conditions marked by high blood sugar and ASD. Associations were similar for children who had a developmental disorder that was not ASD, suggesting that this relationship may not be specific to ASD.

7.
Autism Res ; 12(5): 816-829, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852853

RESUMO

Studies report inconsistent findings on the relationship between ASD and breastfeeding. We explored associations between ASD and breastfeeding initiation (yes/no) and duration (months categorized in tertiles) in the Study to Explore Early Development, a community-based case-control study in six sites in the Unites States. We adjusted for various child and mother demographic and pregnancy factors. Breastfeeding initiation was reported in 85.7% of mothers of children with ASD and 90.6% of mothers of controls. After adjustment, we found no significant difference in breastfeeding initiation (adjusted odds-ratio [aOR]: 0.88 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-1.28). However, mothers of children with ASD were less likely to report duration of breastfeeding in the high (≥12 months) versus low tertile (<6 months) (aOR and 95% CI: 0.61 [0.45-0.84]) or the middle (6-<12 months) versus low tertile (0.72: 0.54-0.98). The association of ASD and breastfeeding duration was slightly attenuated when the presence of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in the mother was accounted for, but still remained for the highest tertile. This association does not appear to be totally explained by maternal BAP. We were unable to distinguish whether the difference in duration was due to difficulties breastfeeding children who later develop ASD, other factors not adjusted in our study, or greater ASD risk resulting from shorter breastfeeding duration. Longitudinal studies that compare reasons why mothers stop breastfeeding between ASD and controls and establish a temporal relation between ASD and breastfeeding are needed. Future studies should also evaluate interactions between ASD risk genes and breastfeeding. Autism Research 2019, 12: 816-829. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: In this study, we compared breastfeeding practices between mothers of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We found that the percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding was similar between the two groups, but mothers of children with ASD breastfed for a shorter amount of time compared to mothers of children without ASD. Future studies are needed to evaluate the reasons why the duration of breastfeeding was shorter for mothers of children with ASD compared to those without ASD.

8.
Pediatrics ; 143(3)2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745433

RESUMO

: media-1vid110.1542/5984243260001PEDS-VA_2018-0492Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Sleep problems can impact daytime behavior, quality of life, and overall health. We compared sleep habits in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental delays and disorders and in children from the general population (POP). METHODS: We included 2- to 5-year-old children whose parent completed all items on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) in a multisite case-control study: 522 children with ASD; 228 children with other developmental delays and disorders with autism spectrum disorder characteristics (DD w/ASD); 534 children with other developmental delays and disorders without autism spectrum disorder characteristics (DD w/o ASD); and 703 POP. Multivariable analysis of variance compared CSHQ mean total score (TS) and subscale scores between groups. Logistic regression analysis examined group differences by using TS cutoffs of 41 and 48. Analyses were adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Mean CSHQ TS for children in each group: ASD (48.5); DD w/ASD (50.4); DD w/o ASD (44.4); and POP (43.3). Differences between children with ASD and both children with DD w/o ASD and POP were statistically significant. Using a TS cutoff of 48, the proportion of children with sleep problems was significantly higher in children in the ASD group versus DD w/o ASD and POP groups (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 2.12 [1.57 to 2.87] and 2.37 [1.75 to 3.22], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems are more than twice as common in young children with ASD and DD w/ASD. Screening for sleep problems is important in young children to facilitate provision of appropriate interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(5): 2184-2202, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783897

RESUMO

The presence of multiple dysmorphic features in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might identify distinct ASD phenotypes and serve as potential markers for understanding causes and prognoses. To evaluate dysmorphology in ASD, children aged 3-6 years with ASD and non-ASD population controls (POP) from the Study to Explore Early Development were evaluated using a novel, systematic dysmorphology review approach. Separate analyses were conducted for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic children. In each racial/ethnic group, ~ 17% of ASD cases were Dysmorphic compared with ~ 5% of POP controls. The ASD-POP differential was not explained by known genetic disorders or birth defects. In future epidemiologic studies, subgrouping ASD cases as Dysmorphic vs. Non-dysmorphic might help delineate risk factors for ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/complicações , Facies , Fenótipo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Autism Res ; 12(1): 136-146, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475448

RESUMO

Immune system abnormalities have been widely reported among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may increase the risk of childhood infections. The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multisite case-control study of children aged 30-69 months, born in 2003-2006. Cases are children previously diagnosed and newly identified with ASD enrolled from education and clinical settings. Children with a previously diagnosed non-ASD developmental condition were included in the developmental delay/disorder (DD) control group. The population (POP) control group included children randomly sampled from birth certificates. Clinical illness from infection during the first 28 days ("neonatal," from medical records) and first three years of life (caregiver report) in cases was compared to DD and POP controls; and between cases with and without regression. Children with ASD had greater odds of neonatal (OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.9) and early childhood infection (OR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.5, 1.9) compared to POP children, and greater odds of neonatal infection (OR = 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.0) compared to DD children. Cases with regression had 1.6 times the odds (95%CI: 1.1, 2.3) of caregiver-reported infection during the first year of life compared to cases without regression, but neonatal infection risk and overall early childhood infection risk did not differ. Our results support the hypothesis that children with ASD are more likely to have infection early in life compared to the general population and to children with other developmental conditions. Future studies should examine the contributions of different causes, timing, frequency, and severity of infection to ASD risk. Autism Research 2019, 12: 136-146. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: We looked at infections during early childhood in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We found that children with ASD were more likely to have an infection in the first 28 days of life and before age three compared to children with typical development. Children with ASD were also more likely than children with other developmental delays or disorders to have an infection in the first 28 days of life.

11.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 47(4): 731-740, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128718

RESUMO

This study explored whether ASD phenotypes in the child were associated with a history of anxiety or depression in the mother. We hypothesized that an ASD profile in children characterized by mild delays and increased rates of dysregulation would be associated with preexisting maternal anxiety or depression. Participants were 672 preschool children with ASD and their mothers. Children were classified as ASD after a comprehensive developmental evaluation. Mothers reported whether a healthcare provider ever diagnosed them with anxiety or depression before the birth of their child. Four child ASD phenotypes were derived from latent class analysis: Mild Language Delay with Cognitive Rigidity (Type 1), Significant Developmental Delay with Repetitive Motor Behaviors (Type 2), General Developmental Delay (Type 3), and Mild Language and Motor Delay with Dysregulation (i.e., aggression, anxiety, depression, emotional reactivity, inattention, somatic complaints, and sleep problems) (Type 4). Type 2 ASD served as the referent category in statistical analyses. Results showed that 22.6% of mothers reported a diagnosis of anxiety or depression before the birth of their child. Maternal anxiety or depression was associated with 2.7 times the odds (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 5.3) of Type 4 or Dysregulated ASD in the child; maternal anxiety and depression was associated with 4.4 times the odds (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 14.0) of Type 4 or Dysregulated ASD in the child. Our findings suggest an association between Dysregulated ASD in the child and anxiety and depression in the mother. These findings can enhance screening methods and inform future research efforts.

12.
Autism Res ; 12(1): 123-135, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095240

RESUMO

Numerous studies have reported immune system disturbances in individuals with autism and their family members; however, there is considerable variability in findings with respect to the specific immune conditions involved, their timing, and the family members affected and little understanding of variation by autism subphenotype. Using data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site case-control study of children born 2003-2006 in the United States, we examined the role of family history of autoimmune diseases, asthma, and allergies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as other developmental disorders (DD). We investigated maternal immune conditions during the pregnancy period, as well as lifetime history of these conditions in several family members (mother, father, siblings, and study child). Logistic regression analyses included 663 children with ASD, 984 children with DD, and 915 controls ascertained from the general population (POP). Maternal history of eczema/psoriasis and asthma was associated with a 20%-40% increased odds of both ASD and DD. Risk estimates varied by specific ASD subphenotypes in association with these exposures. In addition, children with ASD were more likely to have a history of psoriasis/eczema or allergies than POP controls. No association was observed for paternal history or family history of these immune conditions for either ASD or DD. These data support a link between maternal and child immune conditions and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, and further suggest that associations may differ by ASD phenotype of the child. Autism Research 2019, 12: 123-135. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Using data from a large multi-site study in the US-the Study to Explore Early Development-we found that women with a history of eczema/psoriasis and asthma are more likely to have children with ASD or DD. In addition, children with ASD are more likely to have a history of psoriasis/eczema or allergies than typically developing children. These data support a link between maternal and child immune conditions and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.

13.
Autism ; 23(4): 954-962, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102071

RESUMO

We examined associations between child body mass index at 2-5 years and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and rapid weight gain during infancy in children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delays, or population controls. The Study to Explore Early Development is a multi-site case-control study of children, aged 2-5 years, classified as autism spectrum disorder ( n = 668), developmental delays ( n = 914), or population controls ( n = 884). Maternal gestational weight gain was compared to the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Rapid weight gain was a change in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 6 months > 0.67 standard deviations. After adjusting for case status, mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity were 2.38 times (95% confidence interval: 1.96-2.90) more likely, and mothers who exceeded gestational weight gain recommendations were 1.48 times (95% confidence interval: 1.17-1.87) more likely, to have an overweight/obese child than other mothers ( P < 0.001). Children with autism spectrum disorder showed the highest frequency of rapid weight gain (44%) and were 3.47 times (95% confidence interval: 1.85-6.51) more likely to be overweight/obese as children with autism spectrum disorder without rapid weight gain ( P < 0.001). Helping mothers achieve a healthy pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain represent important targets for all children. Healthy infant growth patterns carry special importance for children at increased risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

14.
Epidemiology ; 30(1): 154-159, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2003 revision of the US Standard Certificate of Live Birth (birth certificate) and Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) are important for maternal weight research and surveillance. We examined quality of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and component variables from these sources. METHODS: Data are from a PRAMS data quality improvement study among a subset of New York City and Vermont respondents in 2009. We calculated mean differences comparing prepregnancy BMI data from the birth certificate and PRAMS (n = 734), and gestational weight gain data from the birth certificate (n = 678) to the medical record, considered the gold standard. We compared BMI categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese) and gestational weight gain categories (below, within, above recommendations), classified by different sources, using percent agreement and the simple κ statistic. RESULTS: For most maternal weight variables, mean differences between the birth certificate and PRAMS compared with the medical record were less than 1 kg. Compared with the medical record, the birth certificate classified similar proportions into prepregnancy BMI categories (agreement = 89%, κ = 0.83); PRAMS slightly underestimated overweight and obesity (agreement = 84%, κ = 0.73). Compared with the medical record, the birth certificate overestimated gestational weight gain below recommendations and underestimated weight gain within recommendations (agreement = 81%, κ = 0.69). Agreement varied by maternal and pregnancy-related characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Classification of prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain from the birth certificate or PRAMS was mostly similar to the medical record but varied by maternal and pregnancy-related characteristics. Efforts to understand how misclassification influences epidemiologic associations are needed.


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Registros Médicos/normas , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Declaração de Nascimento , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Vermont/epidemiologia
15.
J Pediatr ; 205: 202-209, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess contributing factors to increased obesity risk, by comparing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delays/disorders, and general population controls in weight status, and to examine associations between weight status and presence of co-occurring medical, behavioral, developmental, or psychiatric conditions across groups and ASD severity among children with ASD. STUDY DESIGN: The Study to Explore Early Development is a multisite cross-sectional study of children, 2-5 years of age, classified as children with ASD (n = 668), children with developmental delays/disorders (n = 914), or general population controls (n = 884). Using an observational cohort design, we compared the 3 groups. Children's heights and weights were measured during a clinical visit. Co-occurring conditions (medical, behavioral, developmental/psychiatric) were derived from medical records, interviews, and questionnaires. ASD severity was measured by the Ohio State University Global Severity Scale for Autism. RESULTS: The odds of overweight/obesity were 1.57 times (95% CI 1.24-2.00) higher in children with ASD than general population controls and 1.38 times (95% CI 1.10-1.72) higher in children with developmental delays/disorders than general population controls. The aORs were elevated for children with ASD after controlling for child co-occurring conditions (ASD vs general population controls: aOR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.14-2.00). Among children with ASD, those with severe ASD symptoms were 1.7 times (95% CI 1.1-2.8) more likely to be classified as overweight/obese compared with children with mild ASD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of excess weight gain in children with ASD, especially those with severe symptoms, and in children with developmental delays/disorders represents an important target for intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Vigilância da População/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Autism ; 23(2): 436-448, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376397

RESUMO

The autism spectrum disorder phenotype varies by social and communication ability and co-occurring developmental, behavioral, and medical conditions. Etiology is also diverse, with myriad potential genetic origins and environmental risk factors. Examining the influence of parental broader autism phenotype-a set of sub-clinical characteristics of autism spectrum disorder-on child autism spectrum disorder phenotypes may help reduce heterogeneity in potential genetic predisposition for autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the associations between parental broader autism phenotype and child phenotype among children of age 30-68 months enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (N = 707). Child autism spectrum disorder phenotype was defined by a replication of latent classes derived from multiple developmental and behavioral measures: Mild Language Delay with Cognitive Rigidity, Mild Language and Motor Delay with Dysregulation (e.g. anxiety/depression), General Developmental Delay, and Significant Developmental Delay with Repetitive Motor Behaviors. Scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult measured parent broader autism phenotype. Broader autism phenotype in at least one parent was associated with a child having increased odds of being classified as mild language and motor delay with dysregulation compared to significant developmental delay with repetitive motor behaviors (odds ratio: 2.44; 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 5.09). Children of parents with broader autism phenotype were more likely to have a phenotype qualitatively similar to broader autism phenotype presentation; this may have implications for etiologic research.

17.
Autism Res ; 12(2): 316-327, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575327

RESUMO

Most prior studies examining maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in relation to offspring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have reported an association, though findings are not uniform and few have also examined gestational weight gain (GWG). Therefore, we examined both in the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born in 2003-2006. Children identified from clinics, schools, and birth certificates were enrolled at ages 2-5 year and using standardized developmental evaluations, classified as: ASD, other developmental delays (DD), or population-based controls. Maternal height, weight, and GWG were self-reported during the telephone interview. Three primary weight risk factors were examined: (a) Pre-pregnancy BMI, classified as underweight to obese, (b) GWG continuous and categorized as quintiles, and (c) Institute of Medicine clinical weight-gain recommendations. Odds ratios adjusted (AOR) for sociodemographic and prenatal factors were calculated among term singletons, comparing the ASD (n = 540) or DD (n = 720) groups to the control group (n = 776). The AOR of ASD and maternal obesity was 1.37 (95%CI 0.98-1.92). Associations with higher GWG were stronger (Quintile5 vs. Quintile3 AOR = 1.58, 95%CI 1.08-2.31), and particularly so among overweight/obese women (AOR = 1.90, 95%CI 0.98-3.68). DD was associated with maternal overweight and obesity (obesity AOR = 1.48, 95%CI 1.08-2.02), but not with total GWG or clinical recommendations. High maternal BMI and GWG are risk factors for other pregnancy and child outcomes, and our results suggest they may also represent modifiable risk factors for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Autism Res 2019, 12: 316-327 © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: In a large, national study, we found that children with autism were more likely than unaffected children to have mothers with higher weight gain during pregnancy; risk of autism may be even stronger if mothers were also overweight before pregnancy. Children with other developmental delays were more likely to have mothers who were overweight or obese before pregnancy, but not who gained more weight during pregnancy. Overweight and weight gain may represent factors that could be modified.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatrics ; 142(6)2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478241

RESUMO

: media-1vid110.1542/5839990273001PEDS-VA_2017-4161Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To estimate the national prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis among US children aged 3 to 17 years as well as their treatment and health care experiences using the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). METHODS: The 2016 NSCH is a nationally representative survey of 50 212 children focused on the health and well-being of children aged 0 to 17 years. The NSCH collected parent-reported information on whether children ever received an ASD diagnosis by a care provider, current ASD status, health care use, access and challenges, and methods of treatment. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates of ASD, compared health care experiences of children with ASD to other children, and examined factors associated with increased likelihood of medication and behavioral treatment. RESULTS: Parents of an estimated 1.5 million US children aged 3 to 17 years (2.50%) reported that their child had ever received an ASD diagnosis and currently had the condition. Children with parent-reported ASD diagnosis were more likely to have greater health care needs and difficulties accessing health care than children with other emotional or behavioral disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, behavioral or conduct problems, depression, developmental delay, Down syndrome, intellectual disability, learning disability, Tourette syndrome) and children without these conditions. Of children with current ASD, 27% were taking medication for ASD-related symptoms, whereas 64% received behavioral treatments in the last 12 months, with variations by sociodemographic characteristics and co-occurring conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated prevalence of US children with a parent-reported ASD diagnosis is now 1 in 40, with rates of ASD-specific treatment usage varying by children's sociodemographic and co-occurring conditions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Pais , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Emerg Themes Epidemiol ; 15: 12, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147744

RESUMO

Background: Participation in epidemiologic studies has declined, raising concerns about selection bias. While estimates derived from epidemiologic studies have been shown to be robust under a wide range of scenarios, additional empiric study is needed. The Georgia Study to Explore Early Development (GA SEED), a population-based case-control study of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), provided an opportunity to explore factors associated with non-participation and potential impacts of non-participation on association studies. Methods: GA SEED recruited preschool-aged children residing in metropolitan-Atlanta during 2007-2012. Children with ASD were identified from multiple schools and healthcare providers serving children with disabilities; children from the general population (POP) were randomly sampled from birth records. Recruitment was via mailed invitation letter with follow-up phone calls. Eligibility criteria included birth and current residence in study area and an English-speaking caregiver. Many children identified for potential inclusion could not be contacted. We used data from birth certificates to examine demographic and perinatal factors associated with participation in GA SEED and completion of the data collection protocol. We also compared ASD-risk factor associations for the final sample of children who completed the study with the initial sample of all likely ASD and POP children invited to potentially participate in the study, had they been eligible. Finally, we derived post-stratification sampling weights for participants who completed the study and compared weighted and unweighted associations between ASD and two factors collected via post-enrollment maternal interview: infertility and reproductive stoppage. Results: Maternal age and education were independently associated with participation in the POP group. Maternal education was independently associated with participation in the ASD group. Numerous other demographic and perinatal factors were not associated with participation. Moreover, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for associations between ASD and several demographic and perinatal factors were similar between the final sample of study completers and the total invited sample. Odds ratios for associations between ASD and infertility and reproductive stoppage were also similar in unweighted and weighted analyses of the study completion sample. Conclusions: These findings suggest that effect estimates from SEED risk factor analyses, particularly those of non-demographic factors, are likely robust.

20.
Mol Autism ; 9: 40, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988321

RESUMO

Background: Several reports have suggested a role for epigenetic mechanisms in ASD etiology. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may shed light on particular biological mechanisms. However, studies of ASD cases versus controls have been limited by post-mortem timing and severely small sample sizes. Reports from in-life sampling of blood or saliva have also been very limited in sample size and/or genomic coverage. We present the largest case-control EWAS for ASD to date, combining data from population-based case-control and case-sibling pair studies. Methods: DNA from 968 blood samples from children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED 1) was used to generate epigenome-wide array DNA methylation (DNAm) data at 485,512 CpG sites for 453 cases and 515 controls, using the Illumina 450K Beadchip. The Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) provided 450K array DNAm data on an additional 343 cases and their unaffected siblings. We performed EWAS meta-analysis across results from the two data sets, with adjustment for sex and surrogate variables that reflect major sources of biological variation and technical confounding such as cell type, batch, and ancestry. We compared top EWAS results to those from a previous brain-based analysis. We also tested for enrichment of ASD EWAS CpGs for being targets of meQTL associations using available SNP genotype data in the SEED sample. Findings: In this meta-analysis of blood-based DNA from 796 cases and 858 controls, no single CpG met a Bonferroni discovery threshold of p < 1.12 × 10- 7. Seven CpGs showed differences at p < 1 × 10- 5 and 48 at 1 × 10- 4. Of the top 7, 5 showed brain-based ASD associations as well, often with larger effect sizes, and the top 48 overall showed modest concordance (r = 0.31) in direction of effect with cerebellum samples. Finally, we observed suggestive evidence for enrichment of CpG sites controlled by SNPs (meQTL targets) among the EWAS CpG hits, which was consistent across EWAS and meQTL discovery p value thresholds. Conclusions: No single CpG site showed a large enough DNAm difference between cases and controls to achieve epigenome-wide significance in this sample size. However, our results suggest the potential to observe disease associations from blood-based samples. Among the seven sites achieving suggestive statistical significance, we observed consistent, and stronger, effects at the same sites among brain samples. Discovery-oriented EWAS for ASD using blood samples will likely need even larger samples and unified genetic data to further understand DNAm differences in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Metilação de DNA , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
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