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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488895

RESUMO

Variants in the KIF1A gene can cause autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia 30, autosomal recessive hereditary sensory neuropathy, or autosomal (de novo) dominant mental retardation type 9. More recently, variants in KIF1A have also been described in a few cases with autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia. Here, we describe 20 KIF1A variants in 24 patients from a clinical exome sequencing cohort of 347 individuals with a mostly 'pure' spastic paraplegia. In these patients, spastic paraplegia was slowly progressive and mostly pure, but with a highly variable disease onset (0-57 years). Segregation analyses showed a de novo occurrence in seven cases, and a dominant inheritance pattern in 11 families. The motor domain of KIF1A is a hotspot for disease causing variants in autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, similar to mental retardation type 9 and recessive spastic paraplegia type 30. However, unlike these allelic disorders, dominant spastic paraplegia was also caused by loss-of-function variants outside this domain in six families. Finally, three missense variants were outside the motor domain and need further characterization. In conclusion, KIF1A variants are a frequent cause of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia in our cohort (6-7%). The identification of KIF1A loss-of-function variants suggests haploinsufficiency as a possible mechanism in autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 139-156, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595372

RESUMO

Type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) are highly expressed in the brain and regulate neuronal signaling by catalyzing phospho-Ser/Thr dephosphorylations in diverse substrates. PP2A holoenzymes comprise catalytic C-, scaffolding A-, and regulatory B-type subunits, which determine substrate specificity and physiological function. Interestingly, de novo mutations in genes encoding A- and B-type subunits have recently been implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD). We now report 16 individuals with mild to profound ID and DD and a de novo mutation in PPP2CA, encoding the catalytic Cα subunit. Other frequently observed features were severe language delay (71%), hypotonia (69%), epilepsy (63%), and brain abnormalities such as ventriculomegaly and a small corpus callosum (67%). Behavioral problems, including autism spectrum disorders, were reported in 47% of individuals, and three individuals had a congenital heart defect. PPP2CA de novo mutations included a partial gene deletion, a frameshift, three nonsense mutations, a single amino acid duplication, a recurrent mutation, and eight non-recurrent missense mutations. Functional studies showed complete PP2A dysfunction in four individuals with seemingly milder ID, hinting at haploinsufficiency. Ten other individuals showed mutation-specific biochemical distortions, including poor expression, altered binding to the A subunit and specific B-type subunits, and impaired phosphatase activity and C-terminal methylation. Four were suspected to have a dominant-negative mechanism, which correlated with severe ID. Two missense variants affecting the same residue largely behaved as wild-type in our functional assays. Overall, we found that pathogenic PPP2CA variants impair PP2A-B56(δ) functionality, suggesting that PP2A-related neurodevelopmental disorders constitute functionally converging ID syndromes.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 716-724, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100085

RESUMO

DHX30 is a member of the family of DExH-box helicases, which use ATP hydrolysis to unwind RNA secondary structures. Here we identified six different de novo missense mutations in DHX30 in twelve unrelated individuals affected by global developmental delay (GDD), intellectual disability (ID), severe speech impairment and gait abnormalities. While four mutations are recurrent, two are unique with one affecting the codon of one recurrent mutation. All amino acid changes are located within highly conserved helicase motifs and were found to either impair ATPase activity or RNA recognition in different in vitro assays. Moreover, protein variants exhibit an increased propensity to trigger stress granule (SG) formation resulting in global translation inhibition. Thus, our findings highlight the prominent role of translation control in development and function of the central nervous system and also provide molecular insight into how DHX30 dysfunction might cause a neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adolescente , Aminoácidos/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , RNA/genética
7.
Genet Med ; 19(9): 1055-1063, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Implementation of novel genetic diagnostic tests is generally driven by technological advances because they promise shorter turnaround times and/or higher diagnostic yields. Other aspects, including impact on clinical management or cost-effectiveness, are often not assessed in detail prior to implementation. METHODS: We studied the clinical utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in complex pediatric neurology in terms of diagnostic yield and costs. We analyzed 150 patients (and their parents) presenting with complex neurological disorders of suspected genetic origin. In a parallel study, all patients received both the standard diagnostic workup (e.g., cerebral imaging, muscle biopsies or lumbar punctures, and sequential gene-by-gene-based testing) and WES simultaneously. RESULTS: Our unique study design allowed direct comparison of diagnostic yield of both trajectories and provided insight into the economic implications of implementing WES in this diagnostic trajectory. We showed that WES identified significantly more conclusive diagnoses (29.3%) than the standard care pathway (7.3%) without incurring higher costs. Exploratory analysis of WES as a first-tier diagnostic test indicates that WES may even be cost-saving, depending on the extent of other tests being omitted. CONCLUSION: Our data support such a use of WES in pediatric neurology for disorders of presumed genetic origin.Genet Med advance online publication 23 March 2017.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Neurologia/métodos , Neurologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Padrão de Cuidado/economia , Padrão de Cuidado/normas , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Pediatr Neurol ; 59: 71-75.e1, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical syndrome of cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) was first described 20 years ago, but it was only recently that whole exome sequencing unveiled the causative mutation in the ATP1A3 gene. We present four patients from the seventh and eighth family identified worldwide, provide a critical review of all patients published thus far, and speculate about the pathophysiologic processes underlying the acute neurological manifestations. CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: The individuals presented here experienced one to three paroxysmal, short-lasting episodes in childhood with cerebellar symptoms and signs, hypotonia, ophthalmoparesis, motor weakness, areflexia, and/or lethargy that were consistently associated with febrile illness. An underlying c.2452G>A mutation in the ATP1A3 gene was found in all four individuals. Besides the persisting CAPOS features, other possibly related sequelae included dystonia, myoclonus, and emotional and behavioral changes. After initiation of acetazolamide in two patients, no further episodes occurred. CONCLUSION: Targeted sequencing of the ATP1A3 gene is recommended in children exhibiting paroxysmal, fever-induced ataxia and in adults with a more or less stationary or slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome since childhood accompanied by mixed combinations of areflexia, pes cavus, profound visual impairment, and/or sensorineural hearing loss. Similar to some other types of episodic ataxia, acetazolamide may be considered in patients with CAPOS syndrome to prevent or attenuate bouts of ataxia, but this requires further study.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Mutação Puntual , Reflexo Anormal/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Radiat Oncol ; 10: 241, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26597178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To report on the acute toxicity in children with medulloblastoma undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with daily intrafractionally modulated junctions. METHODS: Newly diagnosed patients, aged 3-21, with standard-risk (SR) or high-risk (HR) medulloblastoma were eligible. A dose of 23.4 or 36.0 Gy in daily fractions of 1.8 Gy was prescribed to the craniospinal axis, followed by a boost to the primary tumor bed (54 or 55.8 Gy) and metastases (39.6-55.8 Gy), when indicated. Weekly, an intravenous bolus of vincristine was combined for patients with SR medulloblastoma and patients participating in the COG-ACNS-0332 study. Common toxicity criteria (CTC, version 2.0) focusing on skin, alopecia, voice changes, conjunctivitis, anorexia, dysphagia, gastro-intestinal symptoms, headache, fatigue and hematological changes were scored weekly during radiotherapy. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2014, data from 15 consecutive patients (SR, n = 7; HR, n = 8) were collected. Within 72 h from onset of treatment, vomiting (66 %) and headache (46 %) occurred. During week 3 of treatment, a peak incidence in constipation (33 %) and abdominal pain/cramping (40 %) was observed, but only in the subgroup of patients (n = 9) receiving vincristine (constipation: 56 vs 0 %, P = .04; pain/cramping: 67 vs 0 %, P = .03). At week 6, 73 % of the patients developed faint erythema of the cranial skin with dry desquamation (40 %) or moist desquamation confined to the skin folds of the auricle (33 %). No reaction of the skin overlying the spinal target volume was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Headache at onset and gastro-intestinal toxicity, especially in patients receiving weekly vincristine, were the major complaints of patients with medulloblastoma undergoing craniospinal irradiation with IMRT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/radioterapia , Radiação Cranioespinal/efeitos adversos , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 2(6): 648-61, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26125040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic etiology of the X-linked disorder "Hypomyelination of Early Myelinating Structures" (HEMS). METHODS: We included 16 patients from 10 families diagnosed with HEMS by brain MRI criteria. Exome sequencing was used to search for causal mutations. In silico analysis of effects of the mutations on splicing and RNA folding was performed. In vitro gene splicing was examined in RNA from patients' fibroblasts and an immortalized immature oligodendrocyte cell line after transfection with mutant minigene splicing constructs. RESULTS: All patients had unusual hemizygous mutations of PLP1 located in exon 3B (one deletion, one missense and two silent), which is spliced out in isoform DM20, or in intron 3 (five mutations). The deletion led to truncation of PLP1, but not DM20. Four mutations were predicted to affect PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing by creating exonic splicing silencer motifs or new splice donor sites or by affecting the local RNA structure of the PLP1 splice donor site. Four deep intronic mutations were predicted to destabilize a long-distance interaction structure in the secondary PLP1 RNA fragment involved in regulating PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing. Splicing studies in fibroblasts and transfected cells confirmed a decreased PLP1/DM20 ratio. INTERPRETATION: Brain structures that normally myelinate early are poorly myelinated in HEMS, while they are the best myelinated structures in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, also caused by PLP1 alterations. Our data extend the phenotypic spectrum of PLP1-related disorders indicating that normal PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing is essential for early myelination and support the need to include intron 3 in diagnostic sequencing.

11.
Neurology ; 85(7): 596-603, 2015 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26203087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of vaccination-associated seizure onset on disease course and estimate the risk of subsequent seizures after infant pertussis combination and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccinations in Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from hospital medical files, child health clinics, and the vaccination register for children with DS and pathogenic SCN1A mutations. Seizures within 24 hours after infant whole-cell, acellular, or nonpertussis combination vaccination or within 5 to 12 days after MMR vaccination were defined as "vaccination-associated." Risks of vaccination-associated seizures for the different vaccines were analyzed in univariable and in multivariable logistic regression for pertussis combination vaccines and by a self-controlled case series analysis using parental seizure registries for MMR vaccines. Disease courses of children with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset were compared. RESULTS: Children who had DS (n = 77) with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset (21% and 79%, respectively) differed in age at first seizure (median 3.7 vs 6.1 months, p < 0.001) but not in age at first nonvaccination-associated seizure, age at first report of developmental delay, or cognitive outcome. The risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures was significantly lower for acellular pertussis (9%; odds ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.71) and nonpertussis (8%; odds ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.59) than whole-cell pertussis (37%; reference) vaccines. Self-controlled case series analysis showed an increased incidence rate ratio of seizures of 2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.4) within the risk period of 5 to 12 days following MMR vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that vaccination-associated earlier seizure onset does not alter disease course in DS, while the risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures is probably vaccine-specific.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Neurol ; 76(1): 134-9, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24777941

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating disorders of the central nervous system are still a diagnostic challenge, as many patients remain without genetic diagnosis. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition and whole exome sequencing, we could ascertain compound heterozygous mutations in RARS in 4 patients with hypomyelination. Clinical features included severe spasticity and nystagmus. RARS encodes the cytoplasmic arginyl-tRNA synthetase, an enzyme essential for RNA translation. This protein is among the subunits of the multisynthetase complex, which emerges as a key player in myelination.


Assuntos
Arginina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Desmielinizantes/genética , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 85(2): 315-20, 2013 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22682807

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite conventional radiation therapy, 54 Gy in single doses of 1.8 Gy (54/1.8 Gy) over 6 weeks, most children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the role of hypofractionation radiation therapy given over 3 to 4 weeks. A 1:1 matched-cohort analysis with conventional radiation therapy was performed to assess response and survival. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-seven children, aged 3 to 14, were treated according to 1 of 2 hypofractionation regimens over 3 to 4 weeks (39/3 Gy, n=16 or 44.8/2.8 Gy, n=11). All patients had symptoms for ≤3 months, ≥2 signs of the neurologic triad (cranial nerve deficit, ataxia, long tract signs), and characteristic features of DIPG on magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-seven patients fulfilling the same diagnostic criteria and receiving at least 50/1.8 to 2.0 Gy were eligible for the matched-cohort analysis. RESULTS: With hypofractionation radiation therapy, the overall survival at 6, 9, and 12 months was 74%, 44%, and 22%, respectively. Progression-free survival at 3, 6, and 9 months was 77%, 43%, and 12%, respectively. Temporary discontinuation of steroids was observed in 21 of 27 (78%) patients. No significant difference in median overall survival (9.0 vs 9.4 months; P=.84) and time to progression (5.0 vs 7.6 months; P=.24) was observed between hypofractionation vs conventional radiation therapy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with newly diagnosed DIPG, a hypofractionation regimen, given over 3 to 4 weeks, offers equal overall survival with less treatment burden compared with a conventional regimen of 6 weeks.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/radioterapia , Glioma/radioterapia , Ponte , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Glioma/mortalidade , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Ponte/patologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Arch Neurol ; 69(1): 125-8, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22232354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe 4 children with a novel hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy, defined by a distinct pattern of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities. DESIGN: In our ongoing study on leukoencephalopathies of unknown origin, MRIs of patients are rated in a standardized manner. Patients are grouped according to their MRI abnormalities. The clinical and laboratory data are retrospectively reviewed. SUBJECTS: The MRIs of approximately 3000 patients with a leukoencephalopathy of unknown origin were initially evaluated. Four unrelated patients (all male, aged 1.8-7.4 years) displayed similar MRI alterations. RESULTS: Patients displayed mild T2 hyperintensity of the medulla oblongata, caudal part of the pons, hilus of the dentate nucleus, peridentate white matter, subcortical cerebellar white matter, optic radiation, and frontoparietal periventricular white matter. The posterior limb of the internal capsule showed alternating T2 hyperintense-hypointense-hyperintense stripes in 3 patients. The T1-weighted images showed hyperintensity, isointensity, or mild hypointensity of T2 hyperintense structures. The thalamus had a neonatal appearance with a mildly hyperintense signal except for a darker lateral part. Clinically, patients presented with nystagmus between ages 6 and 20 months. Over time, cerebellar ataxia and mild spasticity developed. All achieved unsupported walking. Cognition and language were normal. Known causes of hypomyelination were excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The patients share a striking pattern of MRI abnormalities and have a similar clinical picture, suggesting that they have the same disorder. The hypomyelination in this disorder specifically occurs in structures that normally myelinate early. We hypothesize that the disease is caused by a defect in a gene involved in early myelination.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Masculino
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