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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680380

RESUMO

Pathogenic GFM1 variants have been linked to neurological phenotypes with or without liver involvement, but only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report clinical, biochemical and neuroimaging findings from nine unrelated children carrying GFM1 variants, 10 of which were not previously reported. All patients presented with neurological involvement-mainly axial hypotonia and dystonia during the neonatal period-with five diagnosed with West syndrome; two children had liver involvement with cytolysis episodes or hepatic failure. While two patients died in infancy, six exhibited a stable clinical course. Brain MRI showed involvement of basal ganglia, brainstem and periventricular white matter. Mutant EFG1 and OXPHOS proteins were decreased in patient fibroblasts consistent with impaired mitochondrial translation. Thus, we expand the genetic spectrum of GFM1-linked disease and provide detailed clinical profiles of the patients that will improve the diagnostic success for other patients carrying GFM1 mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697708

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibitors (SDHIs) are used worldwide to limit the proliferation of molds on plants and plant products. However, as SDH, also known as respiratory chain (RC) complex II, is a universal component of mitochondria from living organisms, highly conserved through evolution, the specificity of these inhibitors toward fungi warrants investigation. We first establish that the human, honeybee, earthworm and fungal SDHs are all sensitive to the eight SDHIs tested, albeit with varying IC50 values, generally in the micromolar range. In addition to SDH, we observed that five of the SDHIs, mostly from the latest generation, inhibit the activity of RC complex III. Finally, we show that the provision of glucose ad libitum in the cell culture medium, while simultaneously providing sufficient ATP and reducing power for antioxidant enzymes through glycolysis, allows the growth of RC-deficient cells, fully masking the deleterious effect of SDHIs. As a result, when glutamine is the major carbon source, the presence of SDHIs leads to time-dependent cell death. This process is significantly accelerated in fibroblasts derived from patients with neurological or neurodegenerative diseases due to RC impairment (encephalopathy originating from a partial SDH defect) and/or hypersensitivity to oxidative insults (Friedreich ataxia, familial Alzheimer's disease).

3.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 236, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex I (CI or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) deficiency is the most frequent cause of mitochondrial respiratory chain defect. Successful attempts to rescue CI function by introducing an exogenous NADH dehydrogenase, such as the NDI1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScNDI1), have been reported although with drawbacks related to competition with CI. In contrast to ScNDI1, which is permanently active in yeast naturally devoid of CI, plant alternative NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2) support the oxidation of NADH only when the CI is metabolically inactive and conceivably when the concentration of matrix NADH exceeds a certain threshold. We therefore explored the feasibility of CI rescue by NDH-2 from Arabidopsis thaliana (At) in human CI defective fibroblasts. RESULTS: We showed that, other than ScNDI1, two different NDH-2 (AtNDA2 and AtNDB4) targeted to the mitochondria were able to rescue CI deficiency and decrease oxidative stress as indicated by a normalization of SOD activity in human CI-defective fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that when expressed in human control fibroblasts, AtNDA2 shows an affinity for NADH oxidation similar to that of CI, thus competing with CI for the oxidation of NADH as opposed to our initial hypothesis. This competition reduced the amount of ATP produced per oxygen atom reduced to water by half in control cells. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, despite their promising potential to rescue CI defects, due to a possible competition with remaining CI activity, plant NDH-2 should be regarded with caution as potential therapeutic tools for human mitochondrial diseases.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14098, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575911

RESUMO

Inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) in neonates are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the neonatologist, with the priority being to rapidly flag the treatable diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of targeted metabolic testing for diagnosing suspected IMDs on the basis of suggestive clinical setting or family history in neonates. We conducted an observational study over five years, from January 1st, 2010 to December 31, 2014 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Robert Debré University Hospital, Paris, France. We assessed the number of neonates for whom a metabolic testing was performed, the indication for each metabolic test and the diagnostic yield of this selected metabolic workup for diagnosing an IMD. Metabolic testing comprised at least one of the following testings: plasma, urine or cerebrospinal fluid amino acids, urine organic acids, plasma acylcarnitine profile, and urine mucopolysaccharides and oligosaccharides. 11,301 neonates were admitted at the neonatal ICU during the study period. One hundred and ninety six neonates underwent metabolic testing. Eleven cases of IMDs were diagnosed. This diagnostic approach allowed the diagnosis, treatment and survival of 4 neonates (maple syrup urine disease, propionic acidemia, carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency and type 1 tyrosinemia). In total, metabolic testing was performed for 1.7% of the total number of neonates admitted in the NICU over the study period. These included 23% finally unaffected neonates with transient abnormalities, 5.6% neonates suffering from an identified IMD, 45.4% neonates suffering from a non-metabolic identified disease and 26% neonates with chronic abnormalities but for whom no final causal diagnosis could be made. In conclusion, as expected, such a metabolic targeted workup allowed the diagnosis of classical neonatal onset IMDs in symptomatic newborns. However, this workup remained normal or unspecific for 94.4% of the tested patients. It allowed excluding an IMD in 68.4% of the tested neonates. In spite of the high rate of normal results, such a strategy seems acceptable due to the severity of the symptoms and the need for immediate treatment when available in neonatal IMDs. However, its cost-effectiveness remains low especially in a clinically targeted population in a country where newborn screening is still unavailable for IMDs except for phenylketonuria in 2019.

5.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525265

RESUMO

Organ transplantation is discussed in methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) for renal failure, and poor quality of life and neurological outcome. We retrospectively evaluated 23 French MMA patients after kidney (KT), liver-kidney (LKT) and liver transplantation (LT). Two patients died, one after LKT, one of hepatoblastoma after KT. One graft was lost early after KT. Of 18 evaluable patients, 12 previously on dialysis, 8 underwent KT (mean 12.5 years), 8 LKT (mean 7 years), and 2 LT (7 and 2.5 years). At a median follow-up of 7.3 (KT), 2.3 (LKT) and 1.0 years (LT), no metabolic decompensation occurred except in 1 KT. Plasma and urine MMA levels dramatically decreased, more after LKT. Protein intake was increased more significantly after LKT than KT. Enteral nutrition was stopped in 7/8 LKT, 1/8 KT. Early complications were frequent after LKT. Neurological disorders occurred in 4 LKT, reversible in one. Five years after KT, 4 patients had renal failure. The metabolic outcomes were much better after LKT than KT. LKT in MMA is difficult but improves the quality of life. KT will be rarely indicated. We need more long term data to indicate early LT, in the hope to delay renal failure and prevent neurodevelopmental complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 66, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Registry of Adult and Paediatric Patients Treated with Cystadane® - Homocystinuria (RoCH) is a non-interventional, observational, multi-centre, post-authorization safety study that aimed to identify safety of betaine anhydrous (Cystadane®) in the treatment of patients with inborn errors of homocysteine metabolism (homocystinuria) in order to minimise the treatment associated risks and establish better knowledge on its clinical use. The registry included patients of all ages with homocystinuria who were treated with betaine anhydrous in conjunction with other therapies. Clinical data were collected retrospectively from 2007 to 2013, then prospectively up to February 2014. All adverse events (AEs) reported during the study were recorded. The clinical and biological status of patients was monitored at least once a year. RESULTS: A total of 125 patients with homocystinuria (adults [> 18 years]: 50; paediatric [≤18 years]: 75) were enrolled at 29 centres in France and Spain. Patients were treated with betaine anhydrous for a mean duration of 7.4 ± 4.3 years. The median total daily dose of betaine anhydrous at the first and last study visits was 6 g/day for cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS)-deficient vitamin B6 responders and 9 g/day for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase-deficient patients, while the median daily dose increased in CBS-deficient B6 non-responders (from 6 to 9 g/day) and cobalamin metabolism-defective patients (from 3 to 6 g/day) between the first and last visits. Treatment caused a mean overall reduction of 29% in plasma homocysteine levels in the study population. A total of 277 AEs were reported during the study, of which two non-serious AEs (bad taste and headache) and one serious AE (interstitial lung disease) were considered to be drug related. Overall, betaine anhydrous was well tolerated with no major safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the RoCH registry provided real-world evidence on the clinical safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous in the management of homocystinuria in paediatric and adult patients.


Assuntos
Betaína/administração & dosagem , Homocistinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Betaína/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 5-28, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740725

RESUMO

Phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2-CDG) is the most common congenital disorder of N-glycosylation and is caused by a deficient PMM2 activity. The clinical presentation and the onset of PMM2-CDG vary among affected individuals ranging from a severe antenatal presentation with multisystem involvement to mild adulthood presentation limited to minor neurological involvement. Management of affected patients requires a multidisciplinary approach. In this article, a systematic review of the literature on PMM2-CDG was conducted by a group of international experts in different aspects of CDG. Our managment guidelines were initiated based on the available evidence-based data and experts' opinions. This guideline mainly addresses the clinical evaluation of each system/organ involved in PMM2-CDG, and the recommended management approach. It is the first systematic review of current practices in PMM2-CDG and the first guidelines aiming at establishing a practical approach to the recognition, diagnosis and management of PMM2-CDG patients.

9.
J Med Genet ; 56(3): 123-130, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683676

RESUMO

Primary genetic mitochondrial diseases are often difficult to diagnose, and the term 'possible' mitochondrial disease is used frequently by clinicians when such a diagnosis is suspected. There are now many known phenocopies of mitochondrial disease. Advances in genomic testing have shown that some patients with a clinical phenotype and biochemical abnormalities suggesting mitochondrial disease may have other genetic disorders. In instances when a genetic diagnosis cannot be confirmed, a diagnosis of 'possible' mitochondrial disease may result in harm to patients and their families, creating anxiety, delaying appropriate diagnosis and leading to inappropriate management or care. A categorisation of 'diagnosis uncertain', together with a specific description of the metabolic or genetic abnormalities identified, is preferred when a mitochondrial disease cannot be genetically confirmed.

10.
Ann Neurol ; 85(3): 385-395, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SLC13A3 encodes the plasma membrane Na+ /dicarboxylate cotransporter 3, which imports inside the cell 4 to 6 carbon dicarboxylates as well as N-acetylaspartate (NAA). SLC13A3 is mainly expressed in kidney, in astrocytes, and in the choroid plexus. We describe two unrelated patients presenting with acute, reversible (and recurrent in one) neurological deterioration during a febrile illness. Both patients exhibited a reversible leukoencephalopathy and a urinary excretion of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) that was markedly increased and persisted over time. In one patient, increased concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid NAA and dicarboxylates (including αKG) were observed. Extensive workup was unsuccessful, and a genetic cause was suspected. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed. Our teams were connected through GeneMatcher. RESULTS: WES analysis revealed variants in SLC13A3. A homozygous missense mutation (p.Ala254Asp) was found in the first patient. The second patient was heterozygous for another missense mutation (p.Gly548Ser) and an intronic mutation affecting splicing as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction performed in muscle tissue (c.1016 + 3A > G). Mutations and segregation were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Functional studies performed on HEK293T cells transiently transfected with wild-type and mutant SLC13A3 indicated that the missense mutations caused a marked reduction in the capacity to transport αKG, succinate, and NAA. INTERPRETATION: SLC13A3 deficiency causes acute and reversible leukoencephalopathy with marked accumulation of αKG. Urine organic acids (especially αKG and NAA) and SLC13A3 mutations should be screened in patients presenting with unexplained reversible leukoencephalopathy, for which SLC13A3 deficiency is a novel differential diagnosis. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:385-395.

11.
Pediatr Res ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) includes ALG8 deficiency, a protein N-glycosylation defect with a broad clinical spectrum. If most of the 15 previously reported patients present an early-onset multisystem severe disease and early death, three patients including the cas princeps, present long-term survival and less severe symptoms. METHODS: In order to further characterize ALG8-CDG, two new ALG8 patients are described and mRNA analyses of the ALG8-CDG cas princeps were effected. RESULTS: One new patient exhibited a hepato-intestinal and neurological phenotype with two novel variants (c.91A > C p.Thr31Pro; c.139dup p.Thr47Asnfs*12). The other new patient, homozygous for a known variant (c.845C > T p.Ala282Val), presented a neurological phenotype with epilepsy, intellectual disability and retinis pigmentosa. The cas princeps ALG8-CDG patient was reported to have two heterozygous frameshift variants predicted to be without activity. We now described a novel ALG8 transcript variant in this patient and the 3D model of the putative encoded protein reveals no major difference with that of the normal ALG8 protein. CONCLUSION: The description of the two new ALG8 patients affirms that ALG8-CDG is a severe disease. In the cas princeps, as the originally described frameshift variants are degraded, the novel variant is promoted and could explain a milder phenotype.

12.
Nature ; 560(7717): 238-242, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046113

RESUMO

Mitochondria are descendants of endosymbiotic bacteria and retain essential prokaryotic features such as a compact circular genome. Consequently, in mammals, mitochondrial DNA is subjected to bidirectional transcription that generates overlapping transcripts, which are capable of forming long double-stranded RNA structures1,2. However, to our knowledge, mitochondrial double-stranded RNA has not been previously characterized in vivo. Here we describe the presence of a highly unstable native mitochondrial double-stranded RNA species at single-cell level and identify key roles for the degradosome components mitochondrial RNA helicase SUV3 and polynucleotide phosphorylase PNPase in restricting the levels of mitochondrial double-stranded RNA. Loss of either enzyme results in massive accumulation of mitochondrial double-stranded RNA that escapes into the cytoplasm in a PNPase-dependent manner. This process engages an MDA5-driven antiviral signalling pathway that triggers a type I interferon response. Consistent with these data, patients carrying hypomorphic mutations in the gene PNPT1, which encodes PNPase, display mitochondrial double-stranded RNA accumulation coupled with upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes and other markers of immune activation. The localization of PNPase to the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and matrix suggests that it has a dual role in preventing the formation and release of mitochondrial double-stranded RNA into the cytoplasm. This in turn prevents the activation of potent innate immune defence mechanisms that have evolved to protect vertebrates against microbial and viral attack.

13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 120, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member 9 (ACAD9) is essential for the assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Disease causing biallelic variants in ACAD9 have been reported in individuals presenting with lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: We describe the genetic, clinical and biochemical findings in a cohort of 70 patients, of whom 29 previously unpublished. We found 34 known and 18 previously unreported variants in ACAD9. No patients harbored biallelic loss of function mutations, indicating that this combination is unlikely to be compatible with life. Causal pathogenic variants were distributed throughout the entire gene, and there was no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. Most of the patients presented in the first year of life. For this subgroup the survival was poor (50% not surviving the first 2 years) comparing to patients with a later presentation (more than 90% surviving 10 years). The most common clinical findings were cardiomyopathy (85%), muscular weakness (75%) and exercise intolerance (72%). Interestingly, severe intellectual deficits were only reported in one patient and severe developmental delays in four patients. More than 70% of the patients were able to perform the same activities of daily living when compared to peers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that riboflavin treatment improves complex I activity in the majority of patient-derived fibroblasts tested. This effect was also reported for most of the treated patients and is mirrored in the survival data. In the patient group with disease-onset below 1 year of age, we observed a statistically-significant better survival for patients treated with riboflavin.

14.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(4): 441-448, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478820

RESUMO

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase type 2 (CPT2) deficiency, a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder (MFAOD), is a cause of myopathy in its late clinical presentation. As for other MFAODs, its diagnosis may be evocated when blood acylcarnitine profile is abnormal. However, a lack of abnormalities or specificity in this profile is not exclusive of CPT2 deficiency. Our retrospective study reports clinical and biological data in a cohort of 11 patients with circulating acylcarnitine profile unconclusive enough for a specific diagnosis orientation. In these patients, CPT2 gene studies was prompted by prior fluxomic explorations of mitochondrial ß-oxidation on intact whole blood cells incubated with pentadeuterated ([16-2H3, 15-2H2])-palmitate. Clinical indication for fluxomic explorations was at least one acute rhabdomyolysis episode complicated, in 5 of 11 patients, by acute renal failure. Major trigger of rhabdomyolysis was febrile infection. In all patients, fluxomic data indicated deficient CPT2 function showing normal deuterated palmitoylcarnitine (C16-Cn) formation rates associated with increased ratios between generated C16-Cn and downstream deuterated metabolites (Σ deuterated C2-Cn to C14-Cn). Subsequent gene studies showed in all patients pathogenic gene variants in either homozygous or compound heterozygous forms. Consistent with literature data, allelic frequency of the c.338C > T[p.Ser113Leu] mutation amounted to 68.2% in our cohort. Other missense mutations included c.149C > A[p.Pro50His] (9%), c.200C > G[p.Ala200Gly] (4.5%) and previously unreported c.1171A > G[p.ser391Gly] (4.5%) and c.1420G > C[p.Ala474Pro] (4.5%) mutations. Frameshift c.1666-1667delTT[p.Leu556val*16] mutation (9%) was observed in two patients unknown to be related.

16.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(4): 433-440, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients affected with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA) exhibit diverse long-term complications and poor outcome. Liver disease is not a reported complication. The aim of this study was to characterize and extensively evaluate long-term liver involvement in MMA and PA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We first describe four patients who had severe liver involvement during the course of their disease. Histology showed fibrosis and/or cirrhosis in 3 patients. Such liver involvement led us to retrospectively collect liver (clinical, laboratory and ultrasound) data of MMA (N = 12) or PA patients (N = 16) from 2003 to 2016. RESULTS: Alpha-fetoprotein (αFP) levels were increased in 8/16 and 3/12 PA and MMA patients, respectively, and tended to increase with age. Moderate and recurrent increase of GGT was observed in 4/16 PA patients and 4/12 MMA patients. Abnormal liver ultrasound with either hepatomegaly and/or hyperechoic liver was observed in 7/9 PA patients and 3/9 MMA patients. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that approximately half of the patients affected by MMA or PA had signs of liver abnormalities. The increase of αFP with age suggests progressive toxicity, which might be due to the metabolites accumulated in PA and MMA. These metabolites (e.g., methylmalonic acid and propionic acid derivatives) have previously been reported to have mitochondrial toxicity; this toxicity is confirmed by the results of histological and biochemical mitochondrial analyses of the liver in two of our MMA patients. In contrast to the moderate clinical, laboratory or ultrasound expression, severe pathological expression was found for three of the 4 patients who underwent liver biopsy, ranging from fibrosis to cirrhosis. These results emphasize the need for detailed liver function evaluation in organic aciduria patients, including liver biopsy when liver disease is suspected. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: MMA and PA patients exhibit long-term liver abnormalities.

20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1864(3): 668-675, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247835

RESUMO

Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the gene for aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). This enzyme participates in glycoprotein degradation in lysosomes. AGU results in progressive mental retardation, and no curative therapy is currently available. We have here characterized the consequences of AGA gene mutations in a compound heterozygous patient who exhibits a missense mutation producing a Ser72Pro substitution in one allele, and a nonsense mutation Trp168X in the other. Ser72 is not a catalytic residue, but is required for the stabilization of the active site conformation. Thus, Ser72Pro exchange impairs the autocatalytic activation of the AGA precursor, and results in a considerable reduction of the enzyme activity and in altered AGA precursor processing. Betaine, which can partially rescue the AGA activity in AGU patients carrying certain missense mutations, turned out to be ineffective in the case of Ser72Pro substitution. The Trp168X nonsense allele results in complete lack of AGA polypeptide due to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the mRNA. Amlexanox, which inhibits NMD and causes a translational read-through, facilitated the synthesis of a full-length, functional AGA protein from the nonsense allele. This could be demonstrated as presence of the AGA polypeptide and increased enzyme activity upon Amlexanox treatment. Furthermore, in the Ser72Pro/Trp168X expressing cells, Amlexanox induced a synergistic increase in AGA activity and polypeptide processing due to enhanced processing of the Ser72Pro polypeptide. Our data show for the first time that Amlexanox might provide a valid therapy for AGU.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Aspartilglucosaminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Aspartilglucosaminúria/genética , Aspartilglucosilaminase/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Códon sem Sentido/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
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