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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804469

RESUMO

Uterine cervical cancer is a leading cause of women's mortality worldwide. Cervical tissue ablation is an effective surgical excision of high grade lesions that are determined to be precancerous. Our prior work on the Automated Visual Examination (AVE) method demonstrated a highly effective technique to analyze digital images of the cervix for identifying precancer. Next step would be to determine if she is treatable using ablation. However, not all women are eligible for the therapy due to cervical characteristics. We present a machine learning algorithm that uses a deep learning object detection architecture to determine if a cervix is eligible for ablative treatment based on visual characteristics presented in the image. The algorithm builds on the well-known RetinaNet architecture to derive a simpler and novel architecture in which the last convolutional layer is constructed by upsampling and concatenating specific RetinaNet pretrained layers, followed by an output module consisting of a Global Average Pooling (GAP) layer and a fully connected layer. To explain the recommendation of the deep learning algorithm and determine if it is consistent with lesion presentation on the cervical anatomy, we visualize classification results using two techniques: our (i) Class-selective Relevance Map (CRM), which has been reported earlier, and (ii) Class Activation Map (CAM). The class prediction heatmaps are evaluated by a gynecologic oncologist with more than 20 years of experience. Based on our observation and the expert's opinion, the customized architecture not only outperforms the baseline RetinaNet network in treatability classification, but also provides insights about the features and regions considered significant by the network toward explaining reasons for treatment recommendation. Furthermore, by investigating the heatmaps on Gaussian-blurred images that serve as surrogates for out-of-focus cervical pictures we demonstrate the effect of image quality degradation on cervical treatability classification and underscoring the need for using images with good visual quality.

2.
Prev Med ; 144: 106438, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678235

RESUMO

Health decision models are the only available tools designed to consider the lifetime natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and the estimated long-term impact of preventive interventions. Yet health decision modeling results are often considered a lesser form of scientific evidence due to the inherent needs to rely on imperfect data and make numerous assumptions and extrapolations regarding complex processes. We propose a new health decision modeling framework that de-emphasizes cytologic-colposcopic-histologic diagnoses due to their subjectivity and lack of reproducibility, relying instead on HPV type and duration of infection as the major determinants of subsequent transition probabilities. We posit that the new model health states (normal, carcinogenic HPV infection, precancer, cancer) and corollary transitions are universal, but that the probabilities of transitioning between states may vary by population. Evidence for this variability in host response to HPV infections can be inferred from HPV prevalence patterns in different regions across the lifespan, and might be linked to different average population levels of immunologic control of HPV infections. By prioritizing direct estimation of model transition probabilities from longitudinal data (and limiting reliance on model-fitting techniques that may propagate error when applied to multiple transitions), we aim to reduce the number of assumptions for greater transparency and reliability. We propose this new microsimulation model for critique and discussion, hoping to contribute to models that maximally inform efficient strategies towards global cervical cancer elimination.

3.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(1): 5-13, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464997

RESUMO

Cervical cancer can be prevented through routine screening and follow-up of abnormal results. Several guidelines have been published in the last 4 years from various medical societies and organizations. These guidelines aim to personalize screening and management, reducing unnecessary testing in low-risk patients and managing high-risk patients with more intensive follow-up. However, the resulting complexity can lead to confusion among providers. The CDC, NCI, and obstetrician-gynecologists involved in guideline development summarized current screening and management guidelines. For screening, guidelines for average-risk and high-risk populations are summarized and presented. For management, differences between the 2012 and 2019 consensus guidelines for managing abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors are summarized. Current screening guidelines for average-risk individuals have minor differences, but are evolving toward an HPV-based strategy. For management, HPV testing is preferred to cytology because it is a more sensitive test for cancer precursor detection and also allows for precise risk stratification. Current risk-based screening and management strategies can improve care by reducing unnecessary tests and procedures in low-risk patients and focusing resources on high-risk patients. Knowledge of screening and management guidelines is important to improve adherence and avoid both over- and under-use of screening and colposcopy.

4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 161(1): 297-303, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether routine cervical screening using human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology co-testing effectively identifies women with endometrial (EC) or ovarian (OvC) cancer. METHODS: In 2003, Kaiser Permanente Northern California implemented triennial co-testing in women aged ≥30 years. Index screening results (n = 2,385,729) were linked to subsequent EC (n = 3434) and OvC (n = 1113) diagnoses from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2017. EC were categorized as type 1 or 2, and, selectively, EC and OvC diagnoses were stratified on whether symptoms were present at the time of the co-test. Fractions and absolute risks of EC or OvC of each co-testing result were calculated. RESULTS: Most EC (82.18%) and OvC (88.68%) were preceded by a negative HPV and negative cytology co-test. More EC were preceded by atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or more severe (ASC-US+) cytology and negative HPV test (n = 290) (8.44% of EC) compared to a negative cytology and a positive HPV test (n = 31) (0.89% of EC) (p < 0.001). The absolute risk of any EC diagnosis following ASC-US+ and negative HPV test was 0.48%. Atypical glandular cells (AGC) cytology and a negative HPV result preceded 6.92% of any EC diagnosis, with an absolute risk of 4.02%, but preceded only 1.13% of type 2 EC cases, with an absolute risk of 0.24%, in asymptomatic women. AGC cytology and a negative HPV result preceded 1.44% of OvC, with an absolute risk of 0.28%. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal cervical screening tests, even AGC cytology, rarely precedes and poorly predict women with EC or OvC.

5.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(4): 616-620, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399187
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(12): 1643-1652, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause most cases of cervical cancer. Here, we report long-term follow-up results for the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (publicly funded and initiated before licensure of the HPV vaccines), with the aim of assessing the efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine for preventing HPV 16/18-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). METHODS: Women aged 18-25 years were enrolled in a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial in Costa Rica, between June 28, 2004, and Dec 21, 2005, designed to assess the efficacy of a bivalent vaccine for the prevention of infection with HPV 16/18 and associated precancerous lesions at the cervix. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive an HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or control hepatitis A vaccine. Vaccines were administered intramuscularly in three 0·5 mL doses at 0, 1, and 6 months and participants were followed up annually for 4 years. After the blinded phase, women in the HPV vaccine group were invited to enrol in the long-term follow-up study, which extended follow-up for 7 additional years. The control group received HPV vaccine and was replaced with a new unvaccinated control group. Women were followed up every 2 years until year 11. Investigators and patients were aware of treatment allocation for the follow-up phase. At each visit, clinicians collected cervical cells from sexually active women for cytology and HPV testing. Women with abnormal cytology were referred to colposcopy, biopsy, and treatment as needed. Women with negative results at the last screening visit (year 11) exited the long-term follow-up study. The analytical cohort for vaccine efficacy included women who were HPV 16/18 DNA-negative at vaccination. The primary outcome of this analysis was defined as histopathologically confirmed CIN2+ or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse associated with HPV 16/18 cervical infection detected at colposcopy referral. We calculated vaccine efficacy by year and cumulatively. This long-term follow-up study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00867464. FINDINGS: 7466 women were enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial; 3727 received the HPV vaccine and 3739 received the control vaccine. Between March 30, 2009, and July 5, 2012, 2635 women in the HPV vaccine group and 2836 women in the new unvaccinated control group were enrolled in the long-term follow-up study. 2635 women in the HPV vaccine group and 2677 women in the control group were included in the analysis cohort for years 0-4, and 2073 women from the HPV vaccine group and 2530 women from the new unvaccinated control group were included in the analysis cohort for years 7-11. Median follow-up time for the HPV group was 11·1 years (IQR 9·1-11·7), 4·6 years (4·3-5·3) for the original control group, and 6·2 years (5·5-6·9) for the new unvaccinated control group. At year 11, vaccine efficacy against incident HPV 16/18-associated CIN2+ was 100% (95% CI 89·2-100·0); 34 (1·5%) of 2233 unvaccinated women had a CIN2+ outcome compared with none of 1913 women in the HPV group. Cumulative vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-associated CIN2+ over the 11-year period was 97·4% (95% CI 88·0-99·6). Similar protection was observed against HPV 16/18-associated CIN3-specifically at year 11, vaccine efficacy was 100% (95% CI 78·8-100·0) and cumulative vaccine efficacy was 94·9% (73·7-99·4). During the long-term follow-up, no serious adverse events occurred that were deemed related to the HPV vaccine. The most common grade 3 or worse serious adverse events were pregnancy, puerperium, and perinatal conditions (in 255 [10%] of 2530 women in the unvaccinated control group and 201 [10%] of 2073 women in the HPV vaccine group). Four women in the unvaccinated control group and three in the HPV vaccine group died; no deaths were deemed to be related to the HPV vaccine. INTERPRETATION: The bivalent HPV vaccine has high efficacy against HPV 16/18-associated precancer for more than a decade after initial vaccination, supporting the notion that invasive cervical cancer is preventable. FUNDING: US National Cancer Institute.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factors that lead human papillomavirus (HPV) infections to persist and progress to cancer are not fully understood, especially among vaccinated women. We evaluated co-factors for acquisition, persistence and progression of non-HPV16/18 infections in a cohort of HPV-vaccinated women. METHODS: We analyzed 2,153 18-25-year-old women randomized to the HPV-vaccine arm of CVT. Women were HPV-DNA-negative for all types at baseline and followed for ~11 years. Acquisition was a type-specific cervical infection not present/detected at the previously scheduled visit. Persistence was a type-specific incident infection that persisted for ≥1-year with no intervening negatives. Progression of persistent incident infections to CIN2+ was based on histological findings by expert pathologists. GEE methods were used to account for correlated observations. Time-dependent factors evaluated were age, sexual behavior, marital status, hormonal-related factors, number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), smoking behavior, and baseline-BMI. RESULTS: 1,777 incident oncogenic non-HPV16/18 infections were detected in 12,292 visits (average 0.14 infections per visit). Age and sexual behavior-related variables were associated with oncogenic non-HPV16/18 acquisition. 26% of incident infections persisted for ≥1-year. None of the factors evaluated were statistically associated with persistence of oncogenic non-HPV16/18 infections. Risk of progression to CIN2+ increased with increasing age (p-trend=0.001), injectable contraceptives use [relative risk 2.61 (95%CI 1.19-5.73) ever vs. never] and increasing FTP (p-trend=0.034). CONCLUSION: In a cohort of HPV16/18-vaccinated women, age and sexual behavior variables are associated with acquisition of oncogenic non-HPV16/18 infections, no notable factors are associated with persistence of acquired oncogenic non-HPV16/18 infections, and age, parity and hormonally-related exposures are associated with progression to CIN2+.

8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New guidelines for managing cervical precancer among women in the United States use risk directly to guide clinical actions for individuals who are being screened. These risk-based management guidelines have previously only been based on risks from a large integrated healthcare system. We present here data representative of women of low income without continuous insurance coverage to inform the 2019 guidelines and ensure applicability. OBJECTIVE: We examined the risks of high-grade precancer after human papillomavirus and cytology tests in underserved women and assessed the applicability of the 2019 guidelines to this population. STUDY DESIGN: We examined cervical cancer screening and follow-up data among 363,546 women enrolled in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program from 2009 to 2017. We estimated the immediate (prevalent) risks of cervical intraepithelial lesion grade 3 or cancer by using prevalence-incidence mixture models. Risks were estimated for each combination of human papillomavirus and cytology result and were stratified by screening history. We compared these risks with published estimates used in new risk-based management guidelines. RESULTS: Women who were up-to-date with their screening, defined as being screened with cytology within the past 5 years, had immediate risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or higher similar to that of women at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, whose data were used to develop the management guidelines. However, women in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program had greater immediate risks if they were never screened or not up-to-date with their screening. CONCLUSION: New cervical risk-based management guidelines are applicable for underinsured and uninsured women with a low income in the United States who are up-to-date with their screening. The increased risk observed here among women who received human papillomavirus-positive, high-grade cytology results, who were never screened, or who were not up-to-date with their cervical cancer screening, led to a recommendation in the management guidelines for immediate treatment among these women.

9.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15: 60, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072178

RESUMO

Background: Accelerated global control of cervical cancer would require primary prevention with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in addition to novel screening program strategies that are simple, inexpensive, and effective. We present the feasibility and outcome of a community-based HPV self-sampled screening program. Methods: In Ile Ife, Nigeria, 9406 women aged 30-49 years collected vaginal self-samples, which were tested for HPV in the local study laboratory using Hybrid Capture-2 (HC2) (Qiagen). HPV-positive women were referred to the colposcopy clinic. Gynecologist colposcopic impression dictated immediate management; biopsies were taken when definite acetowhitening was present to produce a histopathologic reference standard of precancer (and to determine final clinical management). Retrospective linkage to the medical records identified 442 of 9406 women living with HIV (WLWH). Results: With self-sampling, it was possible to screen more than 100 women per day per clinic. Following an audio-visual presentation and in-person instructions, overall acceptability of self-sampling was very high (81.2% women preferring self-sampling over clinician collection). HPV positivity was found in 17.3% of women. Intensive follow-up contributed to 85.9% attendance at the colposcopy clinic. Of those referred, 8.2% were initially treated with thermal ablation and 5.6% with large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ). Full visibility of the squamocolumnar junction, necessary for optimal visual triage and ablation, declined from 68.5% at age 30 to 35.4% at age 49. CIN2+ and CIN3+ (CIN- Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia), including five cancers, were identified by histology in 5.9 and 3.2% of the HPV-positive women, respectively (0.9 and 0.5% of the total screening population), leading to additional treatment as indicated. The prevalences of HPV infection and CIN2+ were substantially higher (40.5 and 2.5%, respectively) among WLWH. Colposcopic impression led to over- and under-treatment compared to the histopathology reference standard. Conclusion: A cervical cancer screening program using self-sampled HPV testing, with colposcopic immediate management of women positive for HPV, proved feasible in Nigeria. Based on the collected specimens and images, we are now evaluating the use of a combination of partial HPV typing and automated visual evaluation (AVE) of cervical images to improve the accuracy of the screening program.

10.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15: 61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072179

RESUMO

Background: We propose an economical cervical screening research and implementation strategy designed to take into account the typically slow natural history of cervical cancer and the severe but hopefully temporary impact of COVID-19. The commentary introduces the practical validation of some critical components of the strategy, described in three manuscripts detailing recent project results in Asia and Africa.The main phases of a cervical screening program are 1) primary screening of women in the general population, 2) triage testing of the small minority of women that screen positive to determine need for treatment, and 3) treatment of triage-positive women thought to be at highest risk of precancer or even cancer. In each phase, attention must now be paid to safety in relation to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The new imperatives of the COVID-19 pandemic support self-sampled HPV testing as the primary cervical screening method. Most women can be reassured for several years by a negative test performed on a self-sample collected at home, without need of clinic visit and speculum examination. The advent of relatively inexpensive, rapid and accurate HPV DNA testing makes it possible to return screening results from self-sampling very soon after specimen collection, minimizing loss to follow-up. Partial HPV typing provides important risk stratification useful for triage of HPV-positive women. A second "triage" test is often useful to guide management. In lower-resource settings, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is still proposed but it is inaccurate and poorly reproducible, misclassifying the risk stratification gained by primary HPV testing. A deep-learning based approach to recognizing cervical precancer, adaptable to a smartphone camera, is being validated to improve VIA performance. The advent and approval of thermal ablation permits quick, affordable and safe, immediate treatment at the triage clinic of the majority of HPV-positive, triage-positive women. Conclusions: Overall, only a small percentage of women in cervical screening programs need to attend the hospital clinic for a surgical procedure, particularly when screening is targeted to the optimal age range for detection of precancer rather than older ages with decreased visual screening performance and higher risks of hard-to-treat outcomes including invasive cancer.

11.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15: 64, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106753

RESUMO

Objective: Rapid, high-volume screening programs are needed as part of cervical cancer prevention in China. Methods: In a 5-day screening project in Inner Mongolia, 3345 women volunteered following a community awareness campaign, and self-swabbed to permit rapid HPV testing. Two AmpFire™ HPV detection systems (Atila Biosystems) were sufficient to provide pooled 15-HPV type data within an hour. HPV+ patients had same-day digital colposcopy (DC) performed by 1 of 6 physicians, using the EVA™ system (MobileODT). Digital images were obtained and, after biopsy of suspected lesions for later confirmatory diagnosis, women were treated immediately based on colposcopic impression. Suspected low- grade lesions were offered treatment with thermal ablation (Wisap), and suspected high-grade lesions were treated with LLETZ. Results: Of 3345 women screened, 624 (18.7%) were HPV+. Of these, 88.5% HPV+ women underwent same-day colposcopy and 78 were treated. Later consensus histology results obtained on 197 women indicated 20 CIN2+, of whom 15 were detected and treated/referred at screening (10 by thermal ablation, 4 by LLETZ, 1 by referral). Conclusions: Global control of cervical cancer will require both vaccination and screening of a huge number of women. This study illustrates a cervical screening strategy that can be used to screen-and-treat large numbers of women. HPV self-sampling facilitates high-volume screening. Specimens can be tested rapidly, promoting minimal loss-to-follow-up. Specifically, the AmpFire™ system used in this study is highly portable, simple, rapid (92 specimens per 65 min per unit), and economical. Visual triage can be performed on HPV+ women with a portable digital colposcope that provides magnification, lighting, and a recorded image. Diagnosis and appropriate treatment remain the most subjective elements. The digital image is under study for deep-learning based automated evaluation that could assist the management decision, either by itself or combined with HPV typing.

12.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887990

RESUMO

Clinical trial data and real-world evidence suggest the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine provides nearly 90% protection against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or greater (CIN3+) irrespective of type, among females vaccinated prior to sexual debut. This high efficacy is not fully explained by cross-protection. Although AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccination does not impact clearance of prevalent infections, it may accelerate clearance of newly acquired infections. We pooled data from two large-scale randomized controlled trials to evaluate efficacy of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine against clearance of non-targeted incident infections. Results of our analysis do not suggest an effect in expediting clearance of incident infections.

15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(7)2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635269

RESUMO

Automated Visual Examination (AVE) is a deep learning algorithm that aims to improve the effectiveness of cervical precancer screening, particularly in low- and medium-resource regions. It was trained on data from a large longitudinal study conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and has been shown to accurately identify cervices with early stages of cervical neoplasia for clinical evaluation and treatment. The algorithm processes images of the uterine cervix taken with a digital camera and alerts the user if the woman is a candidate for further evaluation. This requires that the algorithm be presented with images of the cervix, which is the object of interest, of acceptable quality, i.e., in sharp focus, with good illumination, without shadows or other occlusions, and showing the entire squamo-columnar transformation zone. Our prior work has addressed some of these constraints to help discard images that do not meet these criteria. In this work, we present a novel algorithm that determines that the image contains the cervix to a sufficient extent. Non-cervix or other inadequate images could lead to suboptimal or wrong results. Manual removal of such images is labor intensive and time-consuming, particularly in working with large retrospective collections acquired with inadequate quality control. In this work, we present a novel ensemble deep learning method to identify cervix images and non-cervix images in a smartphone-acquired cervical image dataset. The ensemble method combined the assessment of three deep learning architectures, RetinaNet, Deep SVDD, and a customized CNN (Convolutional Neural Network), each using a different strategy to arrive at its decision, i.e., object detection, one-class classification, and binary classification. We examined the performance of each individual architecture and an ensemble of all three architectures. An average accuracy and F-1 score of 91.6% and 0.890, respectively, were achieved on a separate test dataset consisting of more than 30,000 smartphone-captured images.

16.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 3803-3809, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631904

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 displays substantial sequence variation; four HPV16 lineages (A, B, C, and D) have been described as well as multiple sublineages. To identify molecular events associated with HPV16 carcinogenesis, we evaluated viral variation, the integration of HPV16, and somatic mutation in 96 cervical cancer samples from Guatemala. A total of 65% (62/96) of the samples had integrated HPV16 sequences and integration was associated with an earlier age of diagnosis and premenopausal disease. HPV16 integration sites were broadly distributed in the genome, but in one tumor, HPV16 integrated into the promoter of the IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) gene, which plays an important role in the regulation of the IFN response to viral infection. The HPV16 D2 and D3 sublineages were found in 23% and 30% of the tumors, respectively, and were significantly associated with adenocarcinoma. D2-positive tumors had a higher rate of integration, earlier age of diagnosis, and a lower rate of somatic mutation, whereas D3-positive tumors were less likely to integrate, had later age of diagnosis, and exhibited a higher rate of somatic mutation. In conclusion, Guatemalan cervical tumors have a high frequency of very high-risk HPV16 D2 and D3 sublineages harboring distinct histology, which may help guide future therapeutic strategies to target the tumor and reduce recurrence. SIGNIFICANCE: This study details the biological and molecular properties of the most pathogenic forms of HPV16, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers.

17.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 829-840, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655005

RESUMO

Given that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of virtually all cervical cancer, the clinical meaning of HPV-negative cervical precancer is unknown. We, therefore, conducted a literature search in Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed Central, and Google Scholar to identify English-language studies in which (i) HPV-negative and -positive, histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe diagnoses (CIN2+) were detected and (ii) summarized statistics or deidentified individual data were available to summarize proportions of biomarkers indicating risk of cancer. Nineteen studies including 3,089 (91.0%) HPV-positive and 307 (9.0%) HPV-negative CIN2+ were analyzed. HPV-positive CIN2+ (vs. HPV-negative CIN2+) was more likely to test positive for biomarkers linked to cancer risk: a study diagnosis of CIN3+ (vs. CIN2; 18 studies; 0.56 vs. 0.24; P < 0.001) preceding high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology (15 studies; 0.54 vs. 0.10; P < 0.001); and high-grade colposcopic impression (13 studies; 0.30 vs. 0.18; P = 0.03). HPV-negative CIN2+ was more likely to test positive for low-risk HPV genotypes than HPV-positive CIN2+ (P < 0.001). HPV-negative CIN2+ appears to have lower cancer risk than HPV-positive CIN2+. Clinical studies of human high-risk HPV testing for screening to prevent cervical cancer may refer samples of HPV test-negative women for disease ascertainment to correct verification bias in the estimates of clinical performance. However, verification bias adjustment of the clinical performance of HPV testing may overcorrect/underestimate its clinical performance to detect truly precancerous abnormalities.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the advent of primary human papillomavirus testing followed by cytology for cervical cancer screening, visual interpretation of cytology slides remains the last subjective analysis step and suffers from low sensitivity and reproducibility. METHODS: We developed a cloud-based whole-slide imaging platform with a deep-learning classifier for p16/Ki-67 dual-stained (DS) slides trained on biopsy-based gold standards. We compared it with conventional Pap and manual DS in 3 epidemiological studies of cervical and anal precancers from Kaiser Permanente Northern California and the University of Oklahoma comprising 4253 patients. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: In independent validation at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, artificial intelligence (AI)-based DS had lower positivity than cytology (P < .001) and manual DS (P < .001) with equal sensitivity and substantially higher specificity compared with both Pap (P < .001) and manual DS (P < .001), respectively. Compared with Pap, AI-based DS reduced referral to colposcopy by one-third (41.9% vs 60.1%, P < .001). At a higher cutoff, AI-based DS had similar performance to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions cytology, indicating a risk high enough to allow for immediate treatment. The classifier was robust, showing comparable performance in 2 cytology systems and in anal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Automated DS evaluation removes the remaining subjective component from cervical cancer screening and delivers consistent quality for providers and patients. Moving from Pap to automated DS substantially reduces the number of colposcopies and also achieves excellent performance in a simulated fully vaccinated population. Through cloud-based implementation, this approach is globally accessible. Our results demonstrate that AI not only provides automation and objectivity but also delivers a substantial benefit for women by reduction of unnecessary colposcopies.

19.
EClinicalMedicine ; 22: 100293, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510043

RESUMO

Background: HPV testing is replacing cytology for cervical cancer screening because of greater sensitivity and superior reassurance following negative tests for the dozen HPV genotypes that cause cervical cancer. Management of women testing positive is unresolved. The need for identification of individual HPV genotypes for clinical use is debated. Also, it is unclear how long to observe persistent infections when precancer is not initially found. Methods: In the longitudinal NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California Persistence and Progression (PaP) Study, we observed the clinical outcomes (clearance, progression to CIN3+, or persistence without progression) of 11,573 HPV-positive women aged 30-65 yielding 14,158 type-specific infections. Findings: Risks of CIN3+ progression differed substantially by type, with HPV16 conveying uniquely elevated risk (26% of infections with seven-year CIN3+ risk of 22%). The other carcinogenic HPV types fell into 3 distinct seven-year CIN3+ risk groups: HPV18, 45 (13% of infections, risks >5%, with known elevated cancer risk); HPV31, 33, 35, 52, 58 (39%, risks >5%); and HPV39, 51, 56, 59, 68 (23%, risks <5%). In the absence of progression, HPV clearance rates were similar by type, with 80% of infections no longer detected within three years; persistence to seven years without progression was uncommon. The predictive value of abnormal cytology was most evident for prevalent CIN3+, but less evident in follow-up. A woman's age did not modify risk; rather it was the duration of persistence that was important. Interpretation: HPV type and persistence are the major predictors of progression to CIN3+; at a minimum, distinguishing HPV16 is clinically important. Dividing the other HPV types into three risk-groups is worth considering.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 147(9): 2416-2423, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356305

RESUMO

We examined whether automated visual evaluation (AVE), a deep learning computer application for cervical cancer screening, can be used on cervix images taken by a contemporary smartphone camera. A large number of cervix images acquired by the commercial MobileODT EVA system were filtered for acceptable visual quality and then 7587 filtered images from 3221 women were annotated by a group of gynecologic oncologists (so the gold standard is an expert impression, not histopathology). We tested and analyzed on multiple random splits of the images using two deep learning, object detection networks. For all the receiver operating characteristics curves, the area under the curve values for the discrimination of the most likely precancer cases from least likely cases (most likely controls) were above 0.90. These results showed that AVE can classify cervix images with confidence scores that are strongly associated with expert evaluations of severity for the same images. The results on a small subset of images that have histopathologic diagnoses further supported the capability of AVE for predicting cervical precancer. We examined the associations of AVE severity score with gynecologic oncologist impression at all regions where we had a sufficient number of cases and controls, and the influence of a woman's age. The method was found generally resilient to regional variation in the appearance of the cervix. This work suggests that using AVE on smartphones could be a useful adjunct to health-worker visual assessment with acetic acid, a cervical cancer screening method commonly used in low- and middle-resource settings.

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