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1.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449323

RESUMO

Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) deficiency. The progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide results in life-threatening complications, including renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular diseases. The pharmacological chaperone migalastat was recently approved as an alternative to enzyme replacement therapy in patients with amenable mutations. In this paper we investigate the proportion of amenable mutations, related to phenotype, in a population of adult patients with FD in Switzerland. This study included 170 adult patients (n = 64 males) from 46 independent pedigrees with 39 different identified mutations over the last 59 years. Overall, 68% had the classic phenotype and 48% fulfilled the current amenability criteria. Migalastat was stopped in 2/11 (18%) patients: the only male classic patient, because of lack of efficacy based on lyso-Gb3 levels, and 1 patient with a benign variant. In males, the achieved enzyme activities in peripheral leucocytes under migalastat treatment differed from the activities in HEK-cells after incubation with migalastat (eg, 33% in PL vs 41% HEK-cells for p.F113 L; 43% in leucocytes vs 36% in HEK-cells for p.N215S, 24-30% in leucocytes vs 96% in HEK-cells for S238 N). In this national cohort, we found a relatively high proportion of patients with amenable GLA mutations, which, however, had heterogeneous extent of amenability: the higher the residual α-Gal A activity, the higher the chaperone effect. Further studies are required to investigate the long-term benefits of migalastat therapy depending on the achieved enzyme activities in different amenable mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Adv Ther ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of α-galactosidase A. Symptoms include neuropathic pain and gastrointestinal problems, such as diarrhoea. To inform and support the design of a Phase III clinical trial for a new oral treatment for Fabry disease, this study evaluated patients' experiences of Fabry disease symptoms, the impact of symptoms on their quality of life, and their views on participating in clinical trials. METHODS: An online survey questionnaire was distributed to patients with Fabry disease, through relevant patient organisations. The questionnaire consisted mainly of quantitative, closed questions with pre-defined response options. Fabry-specific pain intensity and its impact on quality of life were rated on a scale from 0 to 10. RESULTS: In total, 367 patients completed the survey, of whom half reported frequent pain, moderate to severe pain, and pain in their hands and feet. Pain frequency, intensity and location were similar for males and females. There was no clear association between Fabry-specific pain and the use of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), with moderate to severe pain reported by 80.4% of participants receiving ERT and by 75.0% of participants not receiving ERT. Of participants who were receiving ERT, 35.7% said they were willing to discontinue it to take part in a clinical trial testing a new oral drug for treating Fabry disease. Gastrointestinal symptoms were more heterogeneous in nature and frequency than Fabry-specific pain, but still affected a significant proportion of participants. CONCLUSIONS: Both male and female patients with Fabry disease experience significant Fabry-specific pain, which affects their quality of life. Furthermore, frequent diarrhoea affects many patients. The symptoms occur independently of the use of ERT. This suggests the healthcare needs of patients with Fabry disease are not being fully met, and additional treatments are required to improve symptoms and quality of life. FUNDING: This study was sponsored by Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Study sponsorship was transferred to Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd in July 2018.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307818

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies comprise a large group of rare genetic disorders primarily affecting CNS white matter. Historically, the diagnostic process was slow and patient prognosis regarded as poor because curative treatment was only available for very few leukodystrophies in early stages of the disease. Whole-exome sequencing has both greatly increased the number of known leukodystrophies and improved diagnosis. Whether MRI keeps its central place in diagnosis and what the role is of whole-exome sequencing are relevant questions for neurologists. Improved diagnosis has revealed the phenotypic variability of leukodystrophies, requiring adaptation of prognostication. Technological advance in molecular techniques and improved insight into the pathophysiology of individual leukodystrophies have led to therapeutic developments, including drug design and gene therapy. Despite this progress, therapies are only beneficial early in the disease course, emphasising the need for a speedy diagnosis and for research on regenerative approaches to repair the damage already present.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1785, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040271

RESUMO

Lysosomal replacement enzymes are essential therapeutic options for rare congenital lysosomal enzyme deficiencies, but enzymes in clinical use are only partially effective due to short circulatory half-life and inefficient biodistribution. Replacement enzymes are primarily taken up by cell surface glycan receptors, and glycan structures influence uptake, biodistribution, and circulation time. It has not been possible to design and systematically study effects of different glycan features. Here we present a comprehensive gene engineering screen in Chinese hamster ovary cells that enables production of lysosomal enzymes with N-glycans custom designed to affect key glycan features guiding cellular uptake and circulation. We demonstrate distinct circulation time and organ distribution of selected glycoforms of α-galactosidase A in a Fabry disease mouse model, and find that an α2-3 sialylated glycoform designed to eliminate uptake by the mannose 6-phosphate and mannose receptors exhibits improved circulation time and targeting to hard-to-reach organs such as heart. The developed design matrix and engineered CHO cell lines enables systematic studies towards improving enzyme replacement therapeutics.


Assuntos
Lisossomos/enzimologia , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença de Fabry/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Fabry/enzimologia , Doença de Fabry/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , alfa-Galactosidase/uso terapêutico
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 294(18): 7445-7459, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898877

RESUMO

RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is an essential enzyme responsible for the synthesis of several small noncoding RNAs, a number of which are involved in mRNA translation. Recessive mutations in POLR3A, encoding the largest subunit of Pol III, cause POLR3-related hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (POLR3-HLD), characterized by deficient central nervous system myelination. Identification of the downstream effectors of pathogenic POLR3A mutations has so far been elusive. Here, we used CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce the POLR3A mutation c.2554A→G (p.M852V) into human cell lines and assessed its impact on Pol III biogenesis, nuclear import, DNA occupancy, transcription, and protein levels. Transcriptomic profiling uncovered a subset of transcripts vulnerable to Pol III hypofunction, including a global reduction in tRNA levels. The brain cytoplasmic BC200 RNA (BCYRN1), involved in translation regulation, was consistently affected in all our cellular models, including patient-derived fibroblasts. Genomic BC200 deletion in an oligodendroglial cell line led to major transcriptomic and proteomic changes, having a larger impact than those of POLR3A mutations. Upon differentiation, mRNA levels of the MBP gene, encoding myelin basic protein, were significantly decreased in POLR3A-mutant cells. Our findings provide the first evidence for impaired Pol III transcription in cellular models of POLR3-HLD and identify several candidate effectors, including BC200 RNA, having a potential role in oligodendrocyte biology and involvement in the disease.

9.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(3): 534-544, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834538

RESUMO

Pegunigalsidase alfa, a novel PEGylated, covalently crosslinked form of α-galactosidase A developed as enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease (FD), was designed to increase plasma half-life and reduce immunogenicity, thereby enhancing efficacy compared with available products. Symptomatic adults with FD participated in this open-label, 3-month dose-ranging study, followed by a 9-month extension. Three cohorts were enrolled in a stepwise manner, each receiving increased doses of pegunigalsidase alfa: 0.2, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg, via intravenous infusion every other week. Pharmacokinetic analysis occurred on Day 1 and Months 3, 6, and 12. Kidney biopsies at baseline and Month 6 assessed peritubular capillary globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) content. Renal function, cardiac parameters, and other clinical endpoints were assessed throughout. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antidrug antibodies (ADAs) were assessed. Sixteen patients completed 1 year's treatment. Mean terminal plasma half-life (each cohort) ranged from 53 to 121 hours. All 11 male and 1 of 7 female patients presented with classic FD phenotype, in whom renal peritubular capillary Gb3 inclusions were reduced by 84%. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 111 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline, remaining stable throughout treatment. Three patients developed treatment-induced IgG ADAs; following 1 year's treatment, all became ADA-negative. Nearly all treatment-emergent AEs were mild or moderate. One patient withdrew from the study following a serious related AE. Pegunigalsidase alfa may represent an advance in ERT for FD, based on its unique pharmacokinetics and apparent low immunogenicity.

11.
Pediatr Neurol ; 84: 21-26, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We attempted to characterize the health-related quality of life in patients with genetically determined leukoencephalopathies as it relates to the severity of clinical features and the presence or absence of a precise molecular diagnosis. METHODS: Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory model (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Self- and Proxy-reports) on 59 patients diagnosed with genetically determined leukoencephalopathies. In total, 38 male and 21 female patients ranging from one to 32 years of age (mean nine years), as well as their parents, completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory health-related quality of life measures. In addition, participants completed detailed standardized clinical assessments or questionnaires. The correlation between health-related quality of life results and the severity of the clinical features, as well as the presence or absence of a molecular diagnosis, were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with more severe clinical features showed statistically significant lower total Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores. More specifically, lower health-related quality of life was noted in children with sialorrhea, gastrostomy, and dystonia and in children who use a wheelchair. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with more severe clinical features experience a lower quality of life. Our study further highlights the importance of addressing both physical and psychosocial issues and discussing perception of quality of life with both parents and children. A larger multicenter prospective study will be needed to further define the burden of these diseases and to identify modifiable factors.

12.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 68, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is frequently characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea. Migalastat is an orally-administered small molecule approved to treat the symptoms of Fabry disease in patients with amenable mutations. METHODS: We evaluated minimal clinically important differences (MCID) in diarrhea based on the corresponding domain of the patient-reported Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) in patients with Fabry disease and amenable mutations (N = 50) treated with migalastat 150 mg every other day or placebo during the phase 3 FACETS trial (NCT00925301). RESULTS: After 6 months, significantly more patients receiving migalastat versus placebo experienced improvement in diarrhea based on a MCID of 0.33 (43% vs 11%; p = .02), including the subset with baseline diarrhea (71% vs 20%; p = .02). A decline in kidney peritubular capillary globotriaosylceramide inclusions correlated with diarrhea improvement; patients with a reduction > 0.1 were 5.6 times more likely to have an improvement in diarrhea than those without (p = .031). CONCLUSIONS: Migalastat was associated with a clinically meaningful improvement in diarrhea in patients with Fabry disease and amenable mutations. Reductions in kidney globotriaosylceramide may be a useful surrogate endpoint to predict clinical benefit with migalastat in patients with Fabry disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00925301 ; June 19, 2009.

13.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 41(2): 231-238, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110178

RESUMO

Fabry disease is a glycosphingolipidosis caused by deficient activity of α-galactosidase A; it is one of a few diseases that are associated with priapism, an abnormal prolonged erection of the penis. The goal of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of Fabry disease-associated priapism in a mouse model of the disease. We found that Fabry mice develop late-onset priapism. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which was predominantly present as the 120-kDa N-terminus-truncated form, was significantly upregulated in the penis of 18-month-old Fabry mice compared to wild type controls (~fivefold). Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was also upregulated (~twofold). NO level in penile tissues of Fabry mice was significantly higher than wild type controls at 18 months. Gene transfer-mediated enzyme replacement therapy reversed abnormal nNOS expression in the Fabry mouse penis. The penile nNOS level was restored by antiandrogen treatment, suggesting that hyperactive androgen receptor signaling in Fabry mice may contribute to nNOS upregulation. However, the phosphodiesterase-5A expression level and the adenosine content in the penis, which are known to play roles in the development of priapism in other etiologies, were unchanged in Fabry mice. In conclusion, these data suggested that increased nNOS (and probably eNOS) content and the consequential elevated NO production and high arterial blood flow in the penis may be the underlying mechanism of priapism in Fabry mice. Furthermore, in combination with previous findings, this study suggested that regulation of NOS expression is susceptible to α-galactosidase A deficiency, and this may represent a general pathogenic mechanism of Fabry vasculopathy.

14.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 41(5): 877-883, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is a progressive neurometabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme. We tested the efficacy of triheptanoin as a therapy for patients with APBD based on the hypothesis that decreased glycogen degradation leads to brain energy deficit. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a two-site, randomized crossover trial of 23 patients (age 35-73 years; 63% men) who received triheptanoin or vegetable oil as placebo. The trial took place over 1 year and was followed by a 4-year open-label phase. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze this study. At baseline, using the 6-min walk test, patients could walk a mean of 389 ± 164 m (range 95-672; n = 19), highlighting the great clinical heterogeneity of our cohort. The overall mean difference between patients on triheptanoin versus placebo was 6 m; 95% confidence interval (CI) -11 to 22; p = 0.50. Motion capture gait analysis, gait quality, and stair climbing showed no consistent direction of change. All secondary endpoints were statistically nonsignificant after false discovery rate adjustment. Triheptanoin was safe and generally well tolerated. During the open-label phase of the study, the most affected patients at baseline kept deteriorating while mildly disabled patients remained notably stable up to 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot conclude that triheptanoin was effective in the treatment of APBD over a 6-month period, but we found it had a good safety profile. This study also emphasizes the difficulty of conducting trials in very rare diseases presenting with a wide clinical heterogeneity. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00947960.

15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 92(4): 653-658, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193683

RESUMO

AIM: There is a variable cardiovascular risk reduction attributable to aspirin because of individual differences in the suppression of thromboxane A2 and its downstream metabolite 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11dhTxB2 ). The aim of this study is to evaluate the optimal cut point of urinary 11dhTxB2 for the risk of mortality in aspirin-treated coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective cohort study including stable CAD patients who visited the Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital in Dallas or the Texas Heart Hospital Baylor Plano, TX between 2010 and 2013. The outcome of all-cause mortality was ascertained from chart review and automated sources. The 449 patients included in this analysis had a mean age of 66.1 ± 10.1 years. 67 (14.9%) patients died within 5 years; 56 (87.5%) of the 64 patients with known cause of death suffered a cardiovascular related mortality. Baseline ln(urinary 11dhTxB2 /creatinine) ranged between 5.8 and 11.1 (median = 7.2) with the higher concentrations among those who died (median: 7.6) than those who survived (median = 7.2, P < 0.001). Using baseline ln(11dhTxB2 ) to predict all-cause mortality, the area under the curve was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.64-0.76). The optimal cut point was found to be ln(7.38) = 1597.8 pg/mg, which had the following decision statistics: sensitivity = 0.67, specificity = 0.62, positive predictive value = 0.24, negative predictive value = 0.92, and accuracy = 0.63. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate the optimal cut point for urine 11dhTxB2 is 1597.8 (pg/mg) for the risk prediction of mortality over five years in stable patients with CAD patients treated with aspirin.

16.
Genet Med ; 20(7): 754-759, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227985

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that undiagnosed patients with Fabry disease exist among patients affected by common heart disease. METHODS: Globotriaosylceramide in random whole urine using tandem mass spectroscopy, α-galactosidase A activity in dried blood spots, and next-generation sequencing of pooled or individual genomic DNA samples supplemented by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: We tested 2,256 consecutive patients: 852 women (median age 65 years (19-95)) and 1,404 men (median age 65 years (21-92)). The primary diagnoses were coronary artery disease (n = 994), arrhythmia (n = 607), cardiomyopathy (n = 138), and valvular disease (n = 568). Urinary globotriaosylceramide was elevated in 15% of patients and 15 males had low α-galactosidase A activity. GLA variants found included R118C (n = 2), D83N, and D313Y (n = 7); IVS6-22 C>T, IVS4-16 A>G, IVS2+990C>A, 5'UTR-10 C>T (n = 4), IVS1-581 C>T, IVS1-1238 G>A, 5'UTR-30 G>A, IVS2+590C>T, IVS0-12 G>A, IVS4+68A>G, IVS0-10 C>T, IVS2-81-77delCAGCC, IVS2-77delC. Although the pathogenicity of several of these missense mutations and complex intronic haplotypes has been controversial, none of the patients screened in this study were diagnosed definitively with Fabry disease. CONCLUSION: This population of patients with common heart disease did not contain a substantial number of patients with undiagnosed Fabry disease. GLA gene sequencing is superior to urinary globotriaosylceramide or α-galactosidase A activity in the screening for Fabry disease.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(22): 4506-4518, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973395

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are heritable disorders defined by lack of development of brain myelin, but the cellular mechanisms of hypomyelination are often poorly understood. Mutations in TUBB4A, encoding the tubulin isoform tubulin beta class IVA (Tubb4a), result in the symptom complex of hypomyelination with atrophy of basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC). Additionally, TUBB4A mutations are known to result in a broad phenotypic spectrum, ranging from primary dystonia (DYT4), isolated hypomyelination with spastic quadriplegia, and an infantile onset encephalopathy, suggesting multiple cell types may be involved. We present a study of the cellular effects of TUBB4A mutations responsible for H-ABC (p.Asp249Asn), DYT4 (p.Arg2Gly), a severe combined phenotype with hypomyelination and encephalopathy (p.Asn414Lys), as well as milder phenotypes causing isolated hypomyelination (p.Val255Ile and p.Arg282Pro). We used a combination of histopathological, biochemical and cellular approaches to determine how these different mutations may have variable cellular effects in neurons and/or oligodendrocytes. Our results demonstrate that specific mutations lead to either purely neuronal, combined neuronal and oligodendrocytic or purely oligodendrocytic defects that closely match their respective clinical phenotypes. Thus, the DYT4 mutation that leads to phenotypes attributable to neuronal dysfunction results in altered neuronal morphology, but with unchanged tubulin quantity and polymerization, with normal oligodendrocyte morphology and myelin gene expression. Conversely, mutations associated with isolated hypomyelination (p.Val255Ile and p.Arg282Pro) and the severe combined phenotype (p.Asn414Lys) resulted in normal neuronal morphology but were associated with altered oligodendrocyte morphology, myelin gene expression, and microtubule dysfunction. The H-ABC mutation (p.Asp249Asn) that exhibits a combined neuronal and myelin phenotype had overlapping cellular defects involving both neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell types in vitro. Only mutations causing hypomyelination phenotypes showed altered microtubule dynamics and acted through a dominant toxic gain of function mechanism. The DYT4 mutation had no impact on microtubule dynamics suggesting a distinct mechanism of action. In summary, the different clinical phenotypes associated with TUBB4A reflect the selective and specific cellular effects of the causative mutations. Cellular specificity of disease pathogenesis is relevant to developing targeted treatments for this disabling condition.


Assuntos
Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Atrofia/patologia , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Catarata/congênito , Catarata/genética , Catarata/metabolismo , Catarata/patologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HeLa , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/genética , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/metabolismo , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microtúbulos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Bainha de Mielina/genética , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neurol Genet ; 3(4): e162, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic etiology of a patient diagnosed with leukoencephalopathy, brain calcifications, and cysts (LCC). METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on a patient with LCC and his unaffected family members. The variants were subject to in silico and in vitro functional testing to determine pathogenicity. RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing uncovered compound heterozygous mutations in EARS2, c.328G>A (p.G110S), and c.1045G>A (p.E349K). This gene has previously been implicated in the autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy with thalamus and brainstem involvement and high lactate (LTBL). The p.G110S mutation has been found in multiple patients with LTBL. In silico analysis supported pathogenicity in the second variant. In vitro functional testing showed a significant mitochondrial dysfunction demonstrated by an ∼11% decrease in the oxygen consumption rate and ∼43% decrease in the maximum respiratory rate in the patient's skin fibroblasts compared with the control. EARS2 protein levels were reduced to 30% of normal controls in the patient's fibroblasts. These deficiencies were corrected by the expression of the wild-type EARS2 protein. However, a further unrelated genetic investigation of our patient revealed the presence of biallelic variants in a small nucleolar RNA (SNORD118) responsible for LCC. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report seemingly pathogenic EARS2 mutations in a single patient with LCC with no biochemical or neuroimaging presentations of LTBL. This patient illustrates that variants with demonstrated impact on protein function should not necessarily be considered clinically relevant. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00001671.

19.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(9): 451-464, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645799

RESUMO

A decade after the designation of MED13L as a gene and its link to intellectual disability (ID) and dextro-looped transposition of great arteries in 2003, we previously described a recognizable syndrome due to MED13L haploinsufficiency. Subsequent reports of 22 further patients diagnosed by genome-wide testing further delineated the syndrome with expansion of the phenotypic spectrum and showed reduced penetrance for congenital heart defects. We now report two novel patients identified by whole exome sequencing, one with a de novo MED13L truncating mutation and the other with a de novo missense mutation. The first patient indicates some facial resemblance to Kleefstra syndrome as a novel differential diagnosis, and the second patient shows, for the first time, recurrence of a MED13L missense mutation (p.(Asp860Gly)). Notably, our in silico modelling predicted this missense mutation to decrease the stability of an alpha-helix and thereby affecting the MED13L secondary structure, while the majority of published missense mutations remain variants of uncertain significance. Review of the reported patients with MED13L haploinsufficiency indicates moderate to severe ID and facial anomalies in all patients, as well as severe speech delay and muscular hypotonia in the majority. Further common signs include abnormal MRI findings of myelination defects and abnormal corpus callosum, ataxia and coordination problems, autistic features, seizures/abnormal EEG, or congenital heart defects, present in about 20-50% of the patients. With reference to facial anomalies, the majority of patients were reported to show broad/prominent forehead, low set ears, bitemporal narrowing, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed/flat nasal bridge, bulbous nose, and abnormal chin, but macroglossia and horizontal eyebrows were also observed in ∼30%. The latter are especially important in the differential diagnosis of 1p36 deletion and Kleefstra syndromes, while the more common facial gestalt shows some resemblance to 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Despite the fact that MED13L was found to be one of the most common ID genes in the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, further detailed patient descriptions are needed to explore the full clinical spectrum, potential genotype-phenotype correlations, as well as the role of missense mutations and potential mutational hotspots along the gene.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Genótipo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 119(7): 972-977, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139223

RESUMO

Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin has been shown to reduce adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase-1 and attenuates thromboxane A2 (TXA2)-mediated platelet aggregation, but there is variable suppression of cyclooxygenase-1. From a cohort of patients with stable CAD, we performed blinded, detailed chart abstraction, and measured urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11dhTxB2), an inactive metabolite of TxA2 from frozen samples. There were 327 men (73%) and 122 women (27%) with a mean age (±SD) of 67 ± 10 and 65 ± 10 years, respectively. A positive linear trend for age was observed among tertiles of 11dhTxB2 (p trend = 0.01). Higher proportions of women (p = 0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p trend = 0.0003), and heart failure (p trend = 0.003) were observed in the upper tertile of 11dhTxB2. Sixty-seven patients (14.9%) died over a median follow-up of 1,149 days and 87.5% of the deaths were due to cardiovascular causes. Twenty-six nonsurvivors (38.8%) were treated with P2Y12 receptor antagonists versus 161 survivors (42.2%; p = 0.61). By stepwise Cox proportional hazards analysis, we identified that patients in the middle (hazard ratio 7.14; 95% CI 2.46 to 20.68) and upper tertiles (hazard ratio 9.91; 95% CI 3.45 to 28.50) had higher risks for mortality after adjusting for age and co-morbidities. In conclusion, urinary concentration of 11dhTxB2 was a strong independent risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients with stable CAD on aspirin therapy and may be a marker for patients with CAD who require more intensive secondary prevention measures.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/urina , Tromboxano B2/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Texas/epidemiologia , Tromboxano B2/urina
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