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1.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 240: 113917, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large multicentre European study reported later onset of menopause among women residing in greener areas. This influence on the timing of a reproductive event like menopause, raises the question whether similar associations can be observed with timing of menarche. We investigated whether exposure to residential green space was related to the age at menarche in German and Australian adolescent girls. METHODS: The analytic samples comprised of 1706 German and 1474 Australian adolescent girls. Percentage of green space was calculated in 1000 m buffers around a residential address or its surrogate at the previous follow-up. Mixed effects Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the associations. The survival object was the occurrence of menarche at the time of follow-up (15-year follow-up of the German cohorts and the study wave at 14-15 years in the Australian cohort) and number of years since baseline (10-year follow-up in the German cohort and the study wave at 10-11 years in the Australian cohort). Participants who did not reach menarche were included as censored observations. RESULTS: A greener residence was not associated with the age at menarche. Null findings were consistent in the general population and in analyses stratified by socioeconomic status or urbanicity in both countries. Urban residents were more likely to have earlier menarche, and this association was consistent across Germany and Australia. CONCLUSION: The results of our analysis do not support the hypothesis that residing in places with more green space can influence timing of menarche. However, given the limitations of our study, researchers should not be discouraged to further explore environmental risk factors of early menarche.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 127645, 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potential hazards of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) constituents on preterm birth (PTB) have rarely been explored in China. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the associations of PM2.5 constituents with PTB. METHODS: This study was based on a nationwide cohort of 3,723,169 live singleton births delivered between January 2010 and December 2015 in China. We applied satellite-based estimates of 5 PM2.5 constituents (organic carbon; black carbon; sulfate; ammonium; and nitrate). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for individual covariates, temperature, humidity, and seasonality to evaluate the associations. RESULTS: During the entire pregnancy, each interquartile range (29 µg/m3) increase in PM2.5 concentrations was associated with a 7% increase in PTB risk [hazard ratio (HR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.08). We observed the largest effect estimates on carbonaceous components (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.08-1.10 for organic carbon and black carbon). Early pregnancy appeared to be the critical exposure window for most constituents. Women who were older, exposed to second-hand smoke, overweight or obese before pregnancy, conceived during winter, and living in northern China or rural areas were more susceptible. CONCLUSIONS: Carbonaceous components of PM2.5 were associated with higher PTB risk. Findings on characteristics of vulnerability underlined targeted protections on susceptible subgroups.

3.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 359-366, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159483

RESUMO

Air pollution is worldwide a major public health problem and affects large part of the population. Air pollution does not only harm the respiratory tract system but also the other organs of the body. The damage may result directly from the pollutants toxicity, because the pollutant enters into the organs through a direct route or indirectly through systemic inflammation. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution not only affects the human lung and the cardiovascular system, but also has negative effects on allergic diseases. In this regard, it has been shown that exposure increases the risk of allergies and eczema in children and adults. However, the mechanism how ambient air pollution affects the skin is not well investigated up to now and needs further research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hipersensibilidade , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Pulmão , Fatores de Risco
4.
Environ Res ; 203: 111859, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the metabolic impact of long-term exposure to air pollution on diabetes is lacking. We investigated the association of particulate matter <10 µm (PM10) and <2.5 µm (PM2.5) with yearly averages of HbA1c, daily insulin dose (IU/kg) and rates of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: We studied data of 44,383 individuals with T1D < 21 years which were documented in 377 German centres within the diabetes prospective follow-up registry (DPV) between 2009 and 2018. Outcomes were aggregated by year and by patient. PM10-and PM2.5-yearly averages prior to the respective treatment year were linked to individuals via the five-digit postcode areas of residency. Repeated measures linear and negative binomial regression were used to study the association between PM-quartiles (Q1 lowest, Q4 highest concentration) and yearly averages of HbA1c, daily insulin dose and rates of severe hypoglycaemia (confounders: sex, time-dependent age, age at diabetes onset, time-dependent type of treatment, migratory background, degree of urbanisation and socioeconomic index of deprivation). RESULTS: Adjusted mean HbA1c increased with PM10 (Q1: 7.96% [95%-CI: 7.95-7.98], Q4: 8.03% [8.02-8.05], p-value<0.001) and with PM2.5 (Q1: 7.97% [7.95-7.99], Q4: 8.02% [8.01-8.04], p < 0.001). Changes in daily insulin dose were inversely related to PM (PM10 and PM2.5: Q1 0.85 IU/kg [0.84-0.85], Q4: 0.83 IU/kg [0.82-0.83], p < 0.001). Adjusted rates of severe hypoglycaemia increased with PM-quartile groups (PM10 Q1:11.2 events/100 PY [10.9-11.5], PM10 Q4: 15.3 [14.9-15.7], p < 0.001; PM2.5 Q1: 9.9 events/100 PY [9.6-10.2], PM2.5 Q4: 14.2 [13.9-14.6], p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Air pollution was associated with higher HbA1c levels and increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia in people with T1D, consequently indicating a higher risk of diabetes complications. Further studies are needed to explore causal pathways of the observed associations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 811: 152336, 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, and are exacerbated by air pollution and temperature. AIM: To assess published literature on the effect of air pollution modified by temperature on respiratory mortality and hospital admissions. METHODS: We identified 26,656 papers in PubMed and Web of Science, up to March 2021, and selected for analysis; inclusion criteria included observational studies, short-term air pollution, and temperature exposure. Air pollutants considered were particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µg/m3, and 10 µg/m3 (PM2.5, and PM10), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A random-effects model was used for our meta-analysis. RESULTS: For respiratory mortality we found that when the effect PM10 is modified by high temperatures there is an increased pooled Odds Ratio [OR, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)] of 1.021 (1.008 to 1.034) and for the effect of O3 the pooled OR is 1.006 (1.001-1.012) during the warm season. For hospital admissions, the effects of PM10 and O3 respectively, during the warm season found an increased pooled OR of 1.011 (0.999-1.024), and 1.015 (0.995-1.036). In our analysis for low temperatures, results were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to air pollution when modified by high temperature is likely to increase the odds of respiratory mortality and hospital admissions. Analysis on the interaction effect of air pollution and temperature on health outcomes is a relatively new research field and results are largely inconsistent; therefore, further research is encouraged to establish a more conclusive conclusion on the strength and direction of this effect.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Temperatura
6.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117474, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087635

RESUMO

Non-optimum ambient temperature has been associated with a variety of health outcomes in the elderly population. However, few studies have examined its adverse effects on neurocognitive function. In this study, we explored the temperature-cognition association in elderly women. We investigated 777 elderly women from the German SALIA cohort during the 2007-2010 follow-up. Cognitive function was evaluated using the CERAD-Plus test battery. Modelled data on daily weather conditions were assigned to the residential addresses. The temperature-cognition association over lag 0-10 days was estimated using multivariable regression with distributed lag non-linear model. The daily mean temperature ranged between -6.7 and 26.0 °C during the study period for the 777 participants. We observed an inverse U-shaped association in elderly women, with the optimum temperature (15.3 °C) located at the 68th percentile of the temperature range. The average z-score of global cognitive function declined by -0.31 (95%CI: 0.73, 0.11) for extreme cold (the 2.5th percentile of temperature range) and -0.92 (95%CI: 1.50, -0.33) for extreme heat (the 97.5th percentile of temperature range), in comparison to the optimum temperature. Episodic memory was more sensitive to heat exposure, while semantic memory and executive function were the two cognitive domains sensitive to cold exposure. Individuals living in an urban area and those with a low educational level were particularly sensitive to extreme heat. In summary, non-optimum temperature was inversely associated with cognitive function in elderly women, with the effect size for heat exposure particularly substantial. The strength of association varied by cognitive domains and individual characteristics.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Cognição , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Humanos , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
J Dermatol Sci ; 102(3): 142-157, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116898

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disorder characterized by eczematous and pruritic skin lesions. In recent decades, the prevalence of AD has increased worldwide, most notably in developing countries. The enormous progress in our understanding of the complex composition and functions of the epidermal barrier allows for a deeper appreciation of the active role that the skin barrier plays in the initiation and maintenance of skin inflammation. The epidermis forms a physical, chemical, immunological, neuro-sensory, and microbial barrier between the internal and external environment. Not only lesional, but also non-lesional areas of AD skin display many morphological, biochemical and functional differences compared with healthy skin. Supporting this notion, genetic defects affecting structural proteins of the skin barrier, including filaggrin, contribute to an increased risk of AD. There is evidence to suggest that natural environmental allergens and man-made pollutants are associated with an increased likelihood of developing AD. A compromised epidermal barrier predisposes the skin to increased permeability of these compounds. Numerous topical and systemic therapies for AD are currently available or in development; while anti-inflammatory therapy is central to the treatment of AD, some existing and novel therapies also appear to exert beneficial effects on skin barrier function. Further research on the skin barrier, particularly addressing epidermal differentiation and inflammation, lipid metabolism, and the role of bacterial communities for skin barrier function, will likely expand our understanding of the complex etiology of AD and lead to identification of novel targets and the development of new therapies.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacocinética , Epiderme/patologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/imunologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/imunologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda Insensível de Água/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda Insensível de Água/imunologia
8.
Environ Int ; 152: 106476, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is hypothesized to affect pubertal development. However, the few studies on this topic yielded overall mixed results. These studies did not consider important pollutants like ozone, and none of them involved pubertal development assessed by estradiol and testosterone measurements. We aimed to analyze associations between long-term exposure to four pollutants and pubertal development based on sex hormone concentrations among 10-year-old children. METHODS: These cross-sectional analyses were based on the 10-year follow-up medical examinations of 1945 children from the Munich and Wesel centers of the GINIplus and LISA German birth cohorts. Female and male pubertal development was assessed by dichotomizing the concentration of hormones in serum at 18.4 pmol/L and 0.087 nmol/L using the lower limits of quantification for estradiol and testosterone, respectively. Land-use regression models derived annual average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10), as well as spatial models assessed yearly average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone, were calculated at the 10-year residential addresses. To evaluate associations, we utilized logistic regressions adjusted for potential covariates. The analyses were stratified by area and sex. RESULTS: Around 73% of the 943 females and 25% of the 1002 males had a high level of hormones and had already started puberty at the age of 10. Overall, we found no statistically significant associations between exposure to particles (PM2.5 or PM10) and pubertal development. Results on NO2 and ozone were not significant as well; for instance, per 10 µg/m3 increase in ozone concentration, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 0.900 (0.605, 1.339) and 0.830 (0.573, 1.203) for females and males, respectively. Stratified by area, the aforementioned results did not reveal any associations either. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not observe the associations between ambient air pollutants and pubertal development determined by estradiol and testosterone levels in children. However, due to the current limited number of studies on this topic, our results should be cautiously interpreted. Future longitudinal studies are needed to assess the association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
10.
Chest ; 160(1): 249-258, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal weights, eg, obesity, has shown a strong modifying effect on the association between air pollution exposure and lung function impairment in adults. RESEARCH QUESTION: How might weight status modify the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on adolescents' lung function, particularly in areas with pollution levels much lower than the current European Union (EU) air quality standards? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, we investigated 2,224 adolescents from the German Infant Study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention Plus Environmental and Genetic Influences on Allergy Development and the Influence of Life Style Factors on the Development of the Immune System and Allergies in East and West Germany birth cohorts. Lung function was measured at age 15 years. Underweight, normal weight, and overweight or obese were defined using percentiles of BMI. Average concentrations of air pollution were modelled at residential addresses at four exposure windows between 0 and 15 years. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted by weight group on lung function with exposure at each window or cumulative exposure since birth. RESULTS: The median air pollution concentrations were half to two-thirds of the EU standards. Significant associations were observed only for individuals who were underweight and overweight or obese. For example, per interquartile range increase in nitrogen dioxide at the 15-year exposure window, FEV1 declined by -2.9% (95% CI, -5.2% to -0.5%) for the underweight group and -3.4% (95% CI, -5.4% to -1.2%) for the overweight or obese group. Similarly, longer exposure to moderate-level air pollution since birth was associated significantly with lung function impairment for groups with abnormal weight. INTERPRETATION: Exposure to low to moderate levels of air pollution was associated with lung function impairment for adolescents with abnormal weight. Longer exposure aggravated the adverse effect. Whether a critical exposure window since birth exists warrants further exploration.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adolescente , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Invest Dermatol ; 141(4S): 1096-1103, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541724

RESUMO

As a barrier organ, the skin is an ideal model to study environmentally-induced (extrinsic) aging. In this review, we explain the development of extrinsic skin aging as a consequence of skin exposure to specific exposomal factors, their interaction with each other, and the modification of their effects on the skin by genetic factors. We also review the evidence that exposure to these exposomal factors causes extrinsic skin aging by mechanisms that critically involve the accumulation of macromolecular damage and the subsequent development of functionally altered and/or senescent fibroblasts in the dermal compartment of the skin.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Senescência Celular , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento da Pele , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Derme/citologia , Derme/efeitos dos fármacos , Derme/patologia , Derme/efeitos da radiação , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 233: 113705, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure is associated with reduced lung function and increased cardio-pulmonary mortality (CPM). OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the potential mediating effect of reduced lung function on the association between air pollution exposure and CPM. METHODS: We used data from the German SALIA cohort including 2527 elderly women (aged 51-56 years at baseline 1985-1994) with 22-year follow-up to CPM. Exposures to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, NO2 and NOx were assessed by land-use regression modelling and back-extrapolated to estimate exposures at baseline. Lung function (FVC, FEV1) was measured by spirometry and transformed to GLI z-scores. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards and causal proportional hazards mediation analysis models were fitted. RESULTS: The survival analysis showed that reduced lung function (z-scores of FVC or FEV1 below 5% predicted) reflected significantly lower survival probability from CPM (p < 0.0001). Longterm exposures to NOx and NO2 were associated with increased risks of CPM (eg. HR = 1.215; 95%CI: 1.017-1.452 for IQR increase in NOx and HR = 1.209; 95%CI: 1.011-1.445 for IQR increase in NO2) after adjusting for reduced lung function and additional covariates. The associations of PM2.5 absorbance and CPM remained significant in models adjusted for FEV1/FVC, but the associations with PM10 and PM2.5 were not significant. The mediation analysis showed significant indirect effects of NO2 and NOx on CPM mediated through reduced FEV1 and FVC. The largest indirect effects were found for exposures to NO2 (HR = 1.037; 95%CI: 1.005-1.070) and NOx (HR = 1.028; 95%CI: 1.004-1.052) mediated through reduced FVC. The mediated proportion effect ranged from 13.9% to 19.6% in fully adjusted models. DISCUSSION: This study provides insights into the mechanism of reduced lung function in association between long-term air pollution exposure and CPM. The mediated effect was substantial for exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx and NO2), but less pronounced for PM10 and PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pulmão , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 143006, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pollen exposure has both acute and chronic detrimental effects on allergic asthma, but little is known about its wider effects on respiratory health. This is increasingly important knowledge as ambient pollen levels are changing with the changing global climate. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of pollen exposure with lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at age 15 in two prospective German birth cohorts, GINIplus and LISA. METHODS: Background city-specific pollen exposure was measured in infancy (during the first three months of life), and contemporary (on the day of and 7 days prior to lung function measurement). Greenness levels within circular buffers (100-3000 m) around the birth and 15-year home addresses were calculated using the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Regression models were used to assess the associations of grass and birch pollen with lung function and FeNO, and the modifying effects of residential greenness were explored. RESULTS: Cumulative early life exposure to grass pollen was associated with reduced lung function in adolescence (FEV1: -4.9 mL 95%CI: -9.2, -0.6 and FVC: -5.2 mL 95%CI: -9.8, -0.5 per doubling of pollen count). Acute grass pollen exposure was associated with increased airway inflammation in all children, with higher FeNO increases in children living in green areas. In contrast acute birch pollen exposure was associated with reduced lung function only in children sensitised to birch allergens. CONCLUSION: This study provides suggestive evidence that early pollen exposure has a negative effect on later lung function, which is in turn influenced by acute pollen exposures.


Assuntos
Expiração , Óxido Nítrico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Pulmão , Pólen , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(2): 713-722, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether long-term exposure air to pollution has effects on allergic sensitization is controversial. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations of air pollution exposure at birth and at the time of later biosampling with IgE sensitization against common food and inhalant allergens, or specific allergen molecules, in children aged up to 16 years. METHODS: A total of 6163 children from 4 European birth cohorts participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy [MeDALL] consortium were included in this meta-analysis of the following studies: Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) (Sweden), Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Human Immune System and Development of Allergies in Childhood (LISA)/German Infant Study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention PLUS Environmental and Genetic Influences on Allergy Development (GINIplus) (Germany), and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) (The Netherlands). The following indicators were modeled by land use regression: individual residential outdoor levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm, less than 10 µm, and between 2.5 and 10 µm; PM2.5 absorbance (a measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters); and nitrogen oxides levels. Blood samples drawn at ages 4 to 6 (n = 5989), 8 to 10 (n = 6603), and 15 to 16 (n = 5825) years were analyzed for IgE sensitization to allergen extracts by ImmunoCAP. Additionally, IgE against 132 allergen molecules was measured by using the MedALL microarray chip (n = 1021). RESULTS: Air pollution was not consistently associated with IgE sensitization to any common allergen extract up to age 16 years. However, allergen-specific analyses suggested increased risks of sensitization to birch (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12 [95% CI = 1.01-1.25] per 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure). In a subpopulation with microarray data, IgE to the major timothy grass allergen Phleum pratense 1 (Phl p 1) and the cat allergen Felis domesticus 1 (Fel d 1) greater than 3.5 Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip standardized units for detection of IgE antibodies were related to PM2.5 exposure at birth (OR = 3.33 [95% CI = 1.40-7.94] and OR = 4.98 [95% CI = 1.59-15.60], respectively, per 5-µg/m3 increase in exposure). CONCLUSION: Air pollution exposure does not seem to increase the overall risk of allergic sensitization; however, sensitization to birch as well as grass pollen Phl p 1 and cat Fel d 1 allergen molecules may be related to specific pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
16.
Environ Int ; 146: 106195, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on how air pollution exposure during infancy, i.e. the first year of life, may affect lung function development into adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between exposure to air pollution during the first-year of life and lung function development up to the age of 15 in Germany. METHODS: We investigated 915 children from the GINIplus and LISA birth cohorts from Munich (n = 181) and Wesel (n = 734), who had at least two spirometric measurements at ages 6, 10 and 15. Z-scores of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were calculated. Annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with diameters <2.5, <10 and 2.5-10 µm (PM2.5/10/coarse), and PM2.5 absorbance at home addresses during the first-year of life, were estimated by land-use regression models. Associations between infancy exposure and lung function changes were fitted using multivariable linear mixed models with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: For per interquartile range increase in air pollutants during the first-year life, FEV1 z-scores declined annually by -0.012 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.014, -0.009) for PM2.5 to -0.023 (95%CI: -0.028, -0.018) for PMcoarse. The declines in FVC were lower than FEV1 [-0.006 (95%CI: -0.008, -0.003) to -0.011 (95%CI: -0.019, -0.003)]. In Munich, the attenuations were only significant for FEV1. Effect estimates of infancy exposure for certain air pollutants were higher for groups with asthma, older maternal age, and breastfeeding <12 weeks than their counterparts. DISCUSSION: Infancy exposure to higher air pollution may reduce lung function development up to adolescence, with airway size more affected than lung volume restriction. The potential modifying effects of maternal age, asthmatic status of children and breastfeeding warrant further exploration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão , Material Particulado/análise
17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 79(3): 949-959, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361591

RESUMO

Traffic-related air pollution is ubiquitous and almost impossible to avoid. It is important to understand the role that traffic-related air pollution may play in neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, particularly among older populations and at-risk groups. There is a growing interest in this area among the environmental epidemiology literature and the body of evidence identifying this role is emerging and strengthening. This review focuses on the principal components of traffic-related air pollutants (particulate matter and nitrogen oxides) and the epidemiological evidence of their contribution to common neurodegenerative diseases. All studies reported are currently observational in nature and there are mixed findings depending on the study design, assessment of traffic-related air pollutant levels, assessment of the neurodegenerative disease outcome, time period of assessment, and the role of confounding environmental factors and at-risk genetic characteristics. All current studies have been conducted in income-rich countries where traffic-related air pollution levels are relatively low. Additional longer-term studies are needed to confirm the levels of risk, consider other contributing environmental factors and to be conducted in settings where air pollution exposures are higher and at-risk populations reside and work. Better understanding of these relationships will help inform the development of preventive measures and reduce chronic cognitive and physical health burdens (cost, quality of life) at personal and societal levels.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Allergy ; 75(12): 3077-3086, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037680

RESUMO

Although genetic factors play a role in the etiology of atopic disease, the rapid increases in the prevalence of these diseases over the last few decades suggest that environmental, rather than genetic factors are the driving force behind the increasing prevalence. In modern societies, there is increased time spent indoors, use of antibiotics, and consumption of processed foods and decreased contact with farm animals and pets, which limit exposure to environmental allergens, infectious parasitic worms, and microbes. The lack of exposure to these factors is thought to prevent proper education and training of the immune system. Increased industrialization and urbanization have brought about increases in organic and inorganic pollutants. In addition, Caesarian birth, birth order, increased use of soaps and detergents, tobacco smoke exposure and psychosomatic factors are other factors that have been associated with increased rate of allergic diseases. Here, we review current knowledge on the environmental factors that have been shown to affect the development of allergic diseases and the recent developments in the field.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hipersensibilidade , Alérgenos , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
19.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(158)2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115789

RESUMO

AIM: There is growing interest in the health effects following exposure to ambient particles with a diameter <100 nm defined as ultrafine particles (UFPs), although studies so far have reported inconsistent results. We have undertaken a systematic review and meta-analysis for respiratory hospital admissions and emergency room visits following short-term exposure to UFPs. METHODS: We searched PubMed and the Web of Science for studies published up to March 2019 to update previous reviews. We applied fixed- and random-effects models, assessed heterogeneity between cities and explored possible effect modifiers. RESULTS: We identified nine publications, reporting effects from 15 cities, 11 of which were European. There was great variability in exposure assessment, outcome measures and the exposure lags considered. Our meta-analyses did not support UFP effects on respiratory morbidity across all ages. We found consistent statistically significant associations following lag 2 exposure during the warm period and in cities with mean daily UFP concentrations <6000 particles·cm‒3, which was approximately the median of the city-specific mean levels. Among children aged 0-14 years, a 10 000 particle·cm‒3 increase in UFPs 2 or 3 days before was associated with a relative risk of 1.01 (95% CI 1.00-1.02) in respiratory hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates UFP effects on respiratory health among children, and during the warm season across all ages at longer lags. The limited evidence and the large heterogeneity of previous reports call for future exposure assessment harmonisation and expanded research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Hospitalização , Humanos , Morbidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade
20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(7)2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664217

RESUMO

How the environment contributes to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's is not well understood. In recent years, science has found augmenting evidence that nano-sized particles generated by transport (e.g., fuel combustion, tire wear and brake wear) may promote Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals residing close to busy roads are at higher risk of developing AD, and nanomaterials that are specifically generated by traffic-related processes have been detected in human brains. Since AD represents a neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid protein aggregation, this review summarizes our current knowledge on the amyloid-generating propensity of traffic-related nanomaterials. Certain nanoparticles induce the amyloid aggregation of otherwise soluble proteins in in vitro laboratory settings, cultured neuronal cells and vertebrate or invertebrate animal models. We discuss the challenges for future studies, namely, strategies to connect the wet laboratory with the epidemiological data in order to elucidate the molecular bio-interactions of airborne nanomaterials and their effects on human health.

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