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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 506, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder represents (MDD) a major cause of disability and disease burden. Beside antidepressant medication, psychotherapy is a key approach of treatment. Schema therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially personality disorders, in a variety of settings and patient groups. Nevertheless, there is no evidence on its effectiveness for MDD in an inpatient nor day clinic setting and little is known about the factors that drive treatment response in such a target group. METHODS: In the current protocol, we outline OPTIMA (OPtimized Treatment Identification at the MAx Planck Institute): a single-center randomized controlled trial of schema therapy as a treatment approach for MDD in an inpatient and day clinic setting. Over the course of 7 weeks, we compare schema therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy and individual supportive therapy, conducted in individual and group sessions and with no restrictions regarding concurrent antidepressant medication, thus approximating real-life treatment conditions. N = 300 depressed patients are included. All study therapists undergo a specific training and supervision and therapy adherence is assessed. Primary outcome is depressive symptom severity as self-assessment (Beck Depression Inventory-II) and secondary outcomes are clinical ratings of MDD (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), recovery rates after 7 weeks according to the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, general psychopathology (Brief Symptom Inventory), global functioning (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule), and clinical parameters such as dropout rates. Further parameters on a behavioral, cognitive, psychophysiological, and biological level are measured before, during and after treatment and in 2 follow-up assessments after 6 and 24 months after end of treatment. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, the OPTIMA-Trial is the first to investigate the effectiveness of schema therapy as a treatment approach of MDD, to investigate mechanisms of change, and explore predictors of treatment response in an inpatient and day clinic setting by using such a wide range of parameters. Insights from OPTIMA will allow more integrative approaches of psychotherapy of MDD. Especially, the identification of intervention-specific markers of treatment response can improve evidence-based clinical decision for individualizing treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier on clinicaltrials.gov : NCT03287362 ; September, 12, 2017.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104781

RESUMO

Autistic traits are known to be associated with social interaction difficulties. Yet, somewhat paradoxically, relevant research has been typically restricted to studying individuals. In line with the 'dialectical misattunement hypothesis' and clinical insights of intact social interactions amongst autistic individuals, we hypothesized that friendship quality varies as a function of interpersonal similarity and more concretely the difference value of autistic traits in a dyad, above and beyond autistic traits per se. Therefore, in this study, we used self-report questionnaires to investigate these measures in a sample of 67 neurotypical dyads across a broad range of autistic traits. Our results demonstrate that the more similar two persons are in autistic traits, the higher is the perceived quality of their friendship, irrespective of friendship duration, age, sex and importantly, the (average of) autistic traits in a given dyad. More specifically, higher interpersonal similarity of autistic traits was associated with higher measures of closeness, acceptance and help. These results, therefore, lend support to the idea of an interactive turn in the study of social abilities across the autism spectrum and pave the way for future studies on the multiscale dynamics of social interactions.

3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008162, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997653

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders are ubiquitously characterized by debilitating social impairments. These difficulties are thought to emerge from aberrant social inference. In order to elucidate the underlying computational mechanisms, patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (N = 29), schizophrenia (N = 31), and borderline personality disorder (N = 31) as well as healthy controls (N = 34) performed a probabilistic reward learning task in which participants could learn from social and non-social information. Patients with schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder performed more poorly on the task than healthy controls and patients with major depressive disorder. Broken down by domain, borderline personality disorder patients performed better in the social compared to the non-social domain. In contrast, controls and major depressive disorder patients showed the opposite pattern and schizophrenia patients showed no difference between domains. In effect, borderline personality disorder patients gave up a possible overall performance advantage by concentrating their learning in the social at the expense of the non-social domain. We used computational modeling to assess learning and decision-making parameters estimated for each participant from their behavior. This enabled additional insights into the underlying learning and decision-making mechanisms. Patients with borderline personality disorder showed slower learning from social and non-social information and an exaggerated sensitivity to changes in environmental volatility, both in the non-social and the social domain, but more so in the latter. Regarding decision-making the modeling revealed that compared to controls and major depression patients, patients with borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia showed a stronger reliance on social relative to non-social information when making choices. Depressed patients did not differ significantly from controls in this respect. Overall, our results are consistent with the notion of a general interpersonal hypersensitivity in borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia based on a shared computational mechanism characterized by an over-reliance on beliefs about others in making decisions and by an exaggerated need to make sense of others during learning specifically in borderline personality disorder.

4.
R Soc Open Sci ; 7(8): 191815, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968493

RESUMO

Interpersonal coordination of behaviour is essential for smooth social interactions. Measures of interpersonal behaviour, however, often rely on subjective evaluations, invasive measurement techniques or gross measures of motion. Here, we constructed an unobtrusive motion tracking system that enables detailed analysis of behaviour at the individual and interpersonal levels, which we validated using wearable sensors. We evaluate dyadic measures of joint orienting and distancing, synchrony and gaze behaviours to summarize data collected during natural conversation and joint action tasks. Our results demonstrate that patterns of proxemic behaviours, rather than more widely used measures of interpersonal synchrony, best predicted the subjective quality of the interactions. Increased distance between participants predicted lower enjoyment, while increased joint orienting towards each other during cooperation correlated with increased effort reported by the participants. Importantly, the interpersonal distance was most informative of the quality of interaction when task demands and experimental control were minimal. These results suggest that interpersonal measures of behaviour gathered during minimally constrained social interactions are particularly sensitive for the subjective quality of social interactions and may be useful for interaction-based phenotyping for further studies.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 257, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732967

RESUMO

We simultaneously revisited the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) with a comprehensive data-analytics strategy. Here, the combination of pattern-analysis algorithms and extensive data resources (n = 266 patients aged 7-49 years) allowed identifying coherent clinical constellations in and across ADI-R and ADOS assessments widespread in clinical practice. Our clustering approach revealed low- and high-severity patient groups, as well as a group scoring high only in the ADI-R domains, providing quantitative contours for the widely assumed autism subtypes. Sparse regression approaches uncovered the most clinically predictive questionnaire domains. The social and communication domains of the ADI-R showed convincing performance to predict the patients' symptom severity. Finally, we explored the relative importance of each of the ADI-R and ADOS domains conditioning on age, sex, and fluid IQ in our sample. The collective results suggest that (i) identifying autism subtypes and severity for a given individual may be most manifested in the ADI-R social and communication domains, (ii) the ADI-R might be a more appropriate tool to accurately capture symptom severity, and (iii) the ADOS domains were more relevant than the ADI-R domains to capture sex differences.

6.
Autism ; 24(8): 2046-2056, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662285

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Adults with autism often develop mental health problems such as depression and social phobia. The reasons for this are still unclear. Many studies found that alexithymia plays an important role in mental health problems like depression. People with alexithymia have difficulties identifying and describing their emotions. Almost every second person with autism has alexithymia. Therefore, we explored in this study whether alexithymia is linked to worse mental health in autistic people. We looked at two common diagnoses, depression and social phobia. We found that alexithymia increased symptoms of depression, while autistic traits increased symptoms of social phobia. Our results suggest that alexithymia and autistic traits can increase the risk of mental health problems. An early assessment could help prevent mental health problems and improve quality of life.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12181, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699231

RESUMO

Adapting one's attitudes and behaviors to group norms is essential for successful social interaction and, thus, participation in society. Yet, despite its importance for societal and individual functioning, the underlying neuropharmacology is poorly understood. We therefore investigated its neurochemical and neural correlates in a pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has been shown to alter social processing and therefore provides the unique opportunity to investigate the role of the 5-HT2A receptor in social influence processing. Twenty-four healthy human volunteers received either (1) placebo + placebo, (2) placebo + LSD (100 µg), or (3) the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg) + LSD (100 µg) at three different occasions in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design. LSD increases social adaptation but only if the opinions of others are similar to the individual's own. These increases were associated with increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex while participants received social feedback. Furthermore, pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin fully blocked LSD-induced changes during feedback processing, indicating a key role of the 5-HT2A system in social feedback processing. Our results highlight the crucial role of the 5-HT-system in social influence and, thus, provide important insight into the neuropharmacological basis of social cognition and behavior.

8.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(6): 635-647, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507896

RESUMO

The social brain hypothesis proposes that the complexity of human brains has coevolved with increasing complexity of social interactions in primate societies. The present study explored the possible relationships between brain morphology and the richness of more intimate 'inner' and wider 'outer' social circles by integrating Bayesian hierarchical modeling with a large cohort sample from the UK Biobank resource (n = 10 000). In this way, we examined population volume effects in 36 regions of the 'social brain', ranging from lower sensory to higher associative cortices. We observed strong volume effects in the visual sensory network for the group of individuals with satisfying friendships. Further, the limbic network displayed several brain regions with substantial volume variations in individuals with a lack of social support. Our population neuroscience approach thus showed that distinct networks of the social brain show different patterns of volume variations linked to the examined social indices.

9.
Cortex ; 131: 221-236, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571519

RESUMO

Computational models of social learning and decision-making provide mechanistic tools to investigate the neural mechanisms that are involved in understanding other people. While most studies employ explicit instructions to learn from social cues, everyday life is characterized by the spontaneous use of such signals (e.g., the gaze of others) to infer on internal states such as intentions. To investigate the neural mechanisms of the impact of gaze cues on learning and decision-making, we acquired behavioural and fMRI data from 50 participants performing a probabilistic task, in which cards with varying winning probabilities had to be chosen. In addition, the task included a computer-generated face that gazed towards one of these cards providing implicit advice. Participants' individual belief trajectories were inferred using a hierarchical Gaussian filter (HGF) and used as predictors in a linear model of neuronal activation. During learning, social prediction errors were correlated with activity in inferior frontal gyrus and insula. During decision-making, the belief about the accuracy of the social cue was correlated with activity in inferior temporal gyrus, putamen and pallidum while the putamen and insula showed activity as a function of individual differences in weighting the social cue during decision-making. Our findings demonstrate that model-based fMRI can give insight into the behavioural and neural aspects of spontaneous social cue integration in learning and decision-making. They provide evidence for a mechanistic involvement of specific components of the basal ganglia in subserving these processes.

10.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e93, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460940

RESUMO

Thinking through other minds creatively situates the free-energy principle within real-life cultural processes, thereby enriching both sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of cognition. Here, shifting the attention from thinking-through to becoming-with, we suggest complementing such an account by focusing on the empirical, computational, and conceptual investigation of the multiscale dynamics of social interaction.


Assuntos
Atenção , Cognição , Teorema de Bayes
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 213, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major research finding in the field of Biological Psychiatry is that symptom-based categories of mental disorders map poorly onto dysfunctions in brain circuits or neurobiological pathways. Many of the identified (neuro) biological dysfunctions are "transdiagnostic", meaning that they do not reflect diagnostic boundaries but are shared by different ICD/DSM diagnoses. The compromised biological validity of the current classification system for mental disorders impedes rather than supports the development of treatments that not only target symptoms but also the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The Biological Classification of Mental Disorders (BeCOME) study aims to identify biology-based classes of mental disorders that improve the translation of novel biomedical findings into tailored clinical applications. METHODS: BeCOME intends to include at least 1000 individuals with a broad spectrum of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders as well as 500 individuals unaffected by mental disorders. After a screening visit, all participants undergo in-depth phenotyping procedures and omics assessments on two consecutive days. Several validated paradigms (e.g., fear conditioning, reward anticipation, imaging stress test, social reward learning task) are applied to stimulate a response in a basic system of human functioning (e.g., acute threat response, reward processing, stress response or social reward learning) that plays a key role in the development of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders. The response to this stimulation is then read out across multiple levels. Assessments comprise genetic, molecular, cellular, physiological, neuroimaging, neurocognitive, psychophysiological and psychometric measurements. The multilevel information collected in BeCOME will be used to identify data-driven biologically-informed categories of mental disorders using cluster analytical techniques. DISCUSSION: The novelty of BeCOME lies in the dynamic in-depth phenotyping and omics characterization of individuals with mental disorders from the depression and anxiety spectrum of varying severity. We believe that such biology-based subclasses of mental disorders will serve as better treatment targets than purely symptom-based disease entities, and help in tailoring the right treatment to the individual patient suffering from a mental disorder. BeCOME has the potential to contribute to a novel taxonomy of mental disorders that integrates the underlying pathomechanisms into diagnoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on June 12, 2019 on ClinicalTrials.gov (TRN: NCT03984084).

12.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 32(5): e12842, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294805

RESUMO

Oxytocin is a neuropeptide known to affect social behaviour and cognition. Craniopharyngioma patients are considered to have an oxytocin-release-deficit caused by a rare tumour affecting the pituitary and/or the hypothalamus relevant for oxytocin production and release. To assess social behaviour and socio-cognitive abilities in this patient group, we tested 13 patients and 23 healthy controls on self-report questionnaires and an eye-tracking paradigm including fast facial emotion recognition. Additionally, saliva oxytocin levels acquired before and after a physical stress induction were available from a previous study, representing the reactivity of the oxytocin system. The data revealed three major results. First, patients with an oxytocin-release-deficit scored higher on self-reported autistic traits and reduced levels of hedonia for social encounters, although they showed no impairments in attributing mental states. Second, patients showed more difficulties in the fast emotion recognition task. Third, although automatic gaze behaviour during emotion recognition did not differ between groups, gaze behaviour was related to the reactivity of the oxytocin system across all participants. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the importance of investigating the reactivity of the oxytocin system and its relationship with social cognition. Our findings suggest that reduced emotional processing abilities may represent a pathological feature in a group of craniopharyngioma patients, indicating that this patient group might benefit from specific treatments within the social domain.

13.
Sci Adv ; 6(12): eaaz1170, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206722

RESUMO

In human and nonhuman primates, sex differences typically explain much interindividual variability. Male and female behaviors may have played unique roles in the likely coevolution of increasing brain volume and more complex social dynamics. To explore possible divergence in social brain morphology between men and women living in different social environments, we applied probabilistic generative modeling to ~10,000 UK Biobank participants. We observed strong volume effects especially in the limbic system but also in regions of the sensory, intermediate, and higher association networks. Sex-specific brain volume effects in the limbic system were linked to the frequency and intensity of social contact, such as indexed by loneliness, household size, and social support. Across the processing hierarchy of neural networks, different conditions for social interplay may resonate in and be influenced by brain anatomy in sex-dependent ways.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Neuroimage Clin ; 26: 102239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182575

RESUMO

Current theories of psychosis highlight the role of abnormal learning signals, i.e., prediction errors (PEs) and uncertainty, in the formation of delusional beliefs. We employed computational analyses of behaviour and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether such abnormalities are evident in clinical high risk (CHR) individuals. Non-medicated CHR individuals (n = 13) and control participants (n = 13) performed a probabilistic learning paradigm during fMRI data acquisition. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to infer subject-specific computations from behaviour - with a focus on PEs and uncertainty (or its inverse, precision) at different levels, including environmental 'volatility' - and used these computational quantities for analyses of fMRI data. Computational modelling of CHR individuals' behaviour indicated volatility estimates converged to significantly higher levels than in controls. Model-based fMRI demonstrated increased activity in prefrontal and insular regions of CHR individuals in response to precision-weighted low-level outcome PEs, while activations of prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior insula cortex by higher-level PEs (that serve to update volatility estimates) were reduced. Additionally, prefrontal cortical activity in response to outcome PEs in CHR was negatively associated with clinical measures of global functioning. Our results suggest a multi-faceted learning abnormality in CHR individuals under conditions of environmental uncertainty, comprising higher levels of volatility estimates combined with reduced cortical activation, and abnormally high activations in prefrontal and insular areas by precision-weighted outcome PEs. This atypical representation of high- and low-level learning signals might reflect a predisposition to delusion formation.

15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(2): 185-193, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The autistic spectrum is characterized by profound impairments of social interaction. The exact subpersonal processes, however, that underlie the observable lack of social reciprocity are still a matter of substantial controversy. Recently, it has been suggested that the autistic spectrum might be characterized by alterations of the brain's inference about the causes of socially relevant sensory signals. METHODS: We used a novel reward-based learning task that required integration of nonsocial and social cues in conjunction with computational modeling. Thirty-six healthy subjects were selected based on their score on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and AQ scores were assessed for correlations with cue-related model parameters and task scores. RESULTS: Individual differences in AQ scores were significantly correlated with participants' total task scores, with high AQ scorers performing more poorly in the task (r = -.39, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.13). Computational modeling of the behavioral data unmasked a learning deficit in high AQ scorers, namely, the failure to integrate social context to adapt one's belief precision-the precision afforded to prior beliefs about changing states in the world-particularly in relation to the nonsocial cue. CONCLUSIONS: More pronounced autistic traits in a group of healthy control subjects were related to lower scores associated with misintegration of the social cue. Computational modeling further demonstrated that these trait-related performance differences are not explained by an inability to process the social stimuli and their causes, but rather by the extent to which participants consider social information to infer the nonsocial cue.

16.
Behav Res Methods ; 52(3): 1044-1055, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712998

RESUMO

Sense of agency describes the experience of being the cause of one's own actions and the resulting effects. In a social interaction, one's actions may also have a perceivable effect on the actions of others. In this article, we refer to the experience of being responsible for the behavior of others as social agency, which has important implications for the success or failure of social interactions. Gaze-contingent eyetracking paradigms provide a useful tool to analyze social agency in an experimentally controlled manner, but the current methods are lacking in terms of their ecological validity. We applied this technique in a novel task using video stimuli of real gaze behavior to simulate a gaze-based social interaction. This enabled us to create the impression of a live interaction with another person while being able to manipulate the gaze contingency and congruency shown by the simulated interaction partner in a continuous manner. Behavioral data demonstrated that participants believed they were interacting with a real person and that systematic changes in the responsiveness of the simulated partner modulated the experience of social agency. More specifically, gaze contingency (temporal relatedness) and gaze congruency (gaze direction relative to the participant's gaze) influenced the explicit sense of being responsible for the behavior of the other. In general, our study introduces a new naturalistic task to simulate gaze-based social interactions and demonstrates that it is suitable to studying the explicit experience of social agency.

17.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(9): 977-986, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593216

RESUMO

Social signals such as eye contact and motor actions are essential elements of social interactions. However, our knowledge about the interplay of gaze signals and the control of actions remains limited. In a group of 30 healthy participants, we investigated the effect of gaze (direct gaze vs averted) on behavioral and neural measures of action control as assessed by a spatial congruency task (spatially congruent vs incongruent button presses in response to gaze shifts). Behavioral results demonstrate that inter-individual differences in condition-specific incongruency costs were associated with autistic traits. While there was no interaction effect of gaze and action control on brain activation, in a context of incongruent responses to direct gaze shifts, a psychophysiological interaction analysis showed increased functional coupling between the right temporoparietal junction, a key region in gaze processing, and the inferior frontal gyri, which have been related to both social cognition and motor inhibition. Conversely, incongruency costs to averted gaze were reflected in increased connectivity with action control areas implicated in top-down attentional processes. Our findings indicate that direct gaze perception inter-individually modulates motor actions and enforces the functional integration of gaze-related social cognition and action control processes, thereby connecting functional elements of social interactions.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Occipital , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 20(8): 495-505, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138910

RESUMO

Although a large proportion of our lives are spent participating in social interactions, the investigation of the neural mechanisms supporting these interactions has largely been restricted to situations of social observation - that is, situations in which an individual observes a social stimulus without opportunity for interaction. In recent years, efforts have been made to develop a truly social, or 'second-person', neuroscientific approach to these investigations in which neural processes are examined within the context of a real-time reciprocal social interaction. These developments have helped to elucidate the behavioural and neural mechanisms of social interactions; however, further theoretical and methodological innovations are still needed. Findings to date suggest that the neural mechanisms supporting social interaction differ from those involved in social observation and highlight a role of the so-called 'mentalizing network' as important in this distinction. Taking social interaction seriously may also be particularly important for the advancement of the neuroscientific study of different psychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Mentalização/fisiologia , Neurociências/métodos , Humanos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
19.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-3, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014406

RESUMO

SummarySocial interactions are fundamental for human development, and disordered social interactions are pervasive in many psychiatric disorders. Recent advances in 'two-person neuroscience' have provided new tools for characterising social interactions. Accordingly, interaction-based 'sociometrics' hold great promise for developmental psychology and psychiatry, particularly in the early identification of social disorders.Declaration of interestNone.

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