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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(7): 4940-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829619


Multilayer solution-processed devices in organic electronics show the tendency of intermixing of subsequently deposited layers. Here, we synthesize naphthalene tetracarboxydiimide (NDI)-based n-type semiconducting polymers with thermally cleavable side chains which upon removal render the polymer insoluble. Infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to investigate the pyrolysis process. Characterization of organic field-effect transistors provides insight into charge transport. After the pyrolysis homogeneous films could be produced which are insoluble in the primary solvent. By varying curing temperature and time we show that these process parameters govern the amount of side chains in the film and influence the device performance.

Langmuir ; 31(37): 10303-9, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315142


In this work we examine small conjugated molecules bearing a thiol headgroup as self assembled monolayers (SAM). Functional groups in the SAM-active molecule shift the work function of gold to n-channel semiconductor regimes and improve the wettability of the surface. We examine the effect of the presence of methylene linkers on the orientation of the molecule within the SAM. 3,4,5-Trimethoxythiophenol (TMP-SH) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylthiol (TMP-CH2-SH) were first subjected to computational analysis, predicting work function shifts of -430 and -310 meV. Contact angle measurements show an increase in the wetting envelope compared to that of pristine gold. Infrared (IR) measurements show tilt angles of 22 and 63°, with the methylene-linked molecule (TMP-CH2-SH) attaining a flatter orientation. The actual work function shift as measured with photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) is even larger, -600 and -430 meV, respectively. The contact resistance between gold electrodes and poly[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene) (Polyera Aktive Ink, N2200) in n-type OFETs is demonstrated to decrease by 3 orders of magnitude due to the use of TMP-SH and TMP-CH2-SH. The effective mobility was enhanced by two orders of magnitude, significantly decreasing the contact resistance to match the mobilities reported for N2200 with optimized electrodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(22): 20234-41, 2014 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25323064


Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organic molecules can be used to tune interface energetics and thereby improve charge carrier injection at metal-semiconductor contacts. We investigate the compatibility of SAM formation with high-throughput processing techniques. Therefore, we examine the quality of SAMs, in terms of work function shift and chemical composition as measured with photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy and in dependency on molecular exposure during SAM formation. The functionality of the SAMs is determined by the performance increase of organic field-effect transistors upon SAM treatment of the source/drain contacts. This combined analytical and device-based approach enables us to minimize the necessary formation times via an optimization of the deposition conditions. Our findings demonstrate that SAMs composed of partially fluorinated alkanethiols can be prepared in ambient atmosphere from ethanol solution using immersion times as short as 5 s and still exhibit almost full charge injection functionality if process parameters are chosen carefully. This renders solution-processed SAMs compatible with high-throughput solution-based deposition techniques.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(9): 6616-22, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24703464


We study two types of water/alcohol-soluble aliphatic amines, polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyethylenimine-ethoxylated (PEIE), for their suitability as electron injection layers in solution-processed blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to determine the nominal thickness of the polymer layers while ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to determine the induced work-function change of the silver cathode. The determined work-function shifts are as high as 1.5 eV for PEI and 1.3 eV for PEIE. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy images reveal that homogeneous PEI and PEIE layers are present at nominal thicknesses of about 11 nm. Finally, we solution prepare blue emitting polymer-based OLEDs using PEI/PEIE in combination with Ag as cathode layers. Luminous efficiency reaches 3 and 2.2 cd A(-1), whereas maximum luminance values are as high as 8000 and 3000 cd m(-2) for PEI and PEIE injection layers, respectively. The prepared devices show a comparable performance to Ca/Ag OLEDs and an improved shelf lifetime.