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1.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835129

RESUMO

Once low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) of the H5 and H7 subtypes from wild birds enter into poultry species, there is the possibility of them mutating into highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), resulting in severe epizootics with up to 100% mortality. This mutation from a LPAIV to HPAIV strain is the main cause of an AIV's major economic impact on poultry production. Although AIVs are inextricably linked to their hosts in their evolutionary history, the contribution of host-related factors in the emergence of HPAI viruses has only been marginally explored so far. In this study, transcriptomic sequencing of tracheal tissue from chickens infected with four distinct LP H7 viruses, characterized by a different history of pathogenicity evolution in the field, was implemented. Despite the inoculation of a normalized infectious dose of viruses belonging to the same subtype (H7) and pathotype (LPAI), the use of animals of the same age, sex and species as well as the identification of a comparable viral load in the target samples, the analyses revealed a heterogeneity in the gene expression profile in response to infection with each of the H7 viruses administered.

2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696516

RESUMO

The first detection of a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus in Bulgaria dates back to December 2016. Since then, many outbreaks caused by HPAI H5 viruses from clade 2.3.4.4B have been reported in both domestic and wild birds in different regions of the country. In this study, we characterized the complete genome of sixteen H5 viruses collected in Bulgaria between 2019 and 2021. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a persistent circulation of the H5N8 strain for four consecutive years (December 2016-June 2020) and the emergence in 2020 of a novel reassortant H5N2 subtype, likely in a duck farm. Estimation of the time to the most recent common ancestor indicates that this reassortment event may have occurred between May 2019 and January 2020. At the beginning of 2021, Bulgaria experienced a new virus introduction in the poultry sector, namely a HPAI H5N8 that had been circulating in Europe since October 2020. The periodical identification in domestic birds of H5 viruses related to the 2016 epidemic as well as a reassortant strain might indicate undetected circulation of the virus in resident wild birds or in the poultry sector. To avoid the concealed circulation and evolution of viruses, and the risk of emergence of strains with pandemic potential, the implementation of control measures is of utmost importance, particularly in duck farms where birds display no clinical signs.

3.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452311

RESUMO

Since 2006, multiple outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) have been reported in Nigeria involving different subtypes. Surveillance and molecular epidemiology have revealed the vital role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the dissemination of AI virus to commercial poultry farms. To better understand the ecology and epidemiology of AI in Nigeria, we performed whole-genome sequencing of nineteen H9N2 viruses recovered, from apparently healthy poultry species, during active surveillance conducted in nine LBMs across Nigeria in 2019. Analyses of the HA gene segment of these viruses showed that the H9N2 strains belong to the G1 lineage, which has zoonotic potential, and are clustered with contemporary H9N2 identified in Africa between 2016 and 2020. We observed two distinct clusters of H9N2 viruses in Nigeria, suggesting different introductions into the country. In view of the zoonotic potential of H9N2 and the co-circulation of multiple subtypes of AI virus in Nigeria, continuous monitoring of the LBMs across the country and molecular characterization of AIVs identified is advocated to mitigate economic losses and public health threats.

4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480188

RESUMO

Among recurrent sanitary emergencies able to spread rapidly worldwide, avian influenza is one of the main constraints for animal health and food security. In West Africa, Nigeria has been experiencing repeated outbreaks of different strains of avian influenza virus (AIV) since 2006 and is also recognized as a hot spot in the region for the introduction of emerging strains by migratory wild birds. Here, we generated complete genomes of 20 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses collected during active surveillance in Nigerian live bird markets (LBM) and from outbreaks reported in the country between 2016 and 2019. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Nigerian viruses cluster into four separate genetic groups within HPAI H5 clade 2.3.4.4b. The first group includes 2016-2017 Nigerian viruses with high genetic similarity to H5N8 viruses detected in Central African countries, while the second includes Nigerian viruses collected both in LBM and poultry farms (2018-2019), as well as in Cameroon, Egypt and Siberia. A natural reassortant strain identified in 2019 represents the third group: H5N8 viruses with the same gene constellation were identified in 2018 in South Africa. Finally, the fourth introduction represents the first detection in the African continent of the H5N6 subtype, which is related to European viruses. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses confirmed that the four introductions originated from different sources and provide evidence of the virus spread within Nigeria, as well as diffusion beyond its borders. The multiple epidemiological links between Nigeria, Central and Southern African countries highlight the need for harmonized and coordinated surveillance system to control AIV impact. Improved surveillance at the Wetlands, LBMs and early warning of outbreaks are crucial for prevention and control of AIV, which can be potentially zoonotic and be a threat to human health.

5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104359, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407794

RESUMO

Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important threat for both wild and domestic carnivores. Since 2006, the North-Eastern regions in Italy have been experiencing severe and widespread recurring outbreaks of CDV affecting the wild carnivore population. In this study we performed an extensive phylogeographic analysis of CDV strains belonging to the Wildlife-Europe genetic group identified between 2006 and 2018 in Veneto, Trentino Alto Adige and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions. Our analysis revealed that viruses from the first (2006-2009) and the second (2011-2018) epidemic wave cluster separately, suggesting the introduction of two distinct genetic variants. These two events were characterized by different diffusion rates and spatial distribution, thus suggesting the existence of a connection between infection spread and host population dynamics. We also report the first spillover event of this strain to a non-vaccinated dog in a rural area of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The increasing prevalence of the infection in wildlife population, the broad host range of CDV circulating in the Alpine wildlife and the first reported transmission of a wild-adapted strain to a domestic dog in this region raise concerns over the vulnerability of wildlife species and the exposure of our pets to new threatening strains. Understanding the dynamic of CDV epidemics will also improve preparedness for re-emerging diseases affecting carnivore species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Animais , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
6.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(41)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601657

RESUMO

Rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) was discovered in the genome of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In our study, we present three complete genome sequences of RELIK viruses generated using a target amplification approach performed on the RNA of commercial rabbits from Italy.

7.
Virus Evol ; 4(2): vey019, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046454

RESUMO

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a naked double-stranded RNA virus with a bi-segmented genome that is classified within the family Birnaviridae, genus Aquabirnavirus. IPNV was first detected in Italian trout farms in the late 1970s and ultimately became endemic. To characterize the evolution of IPNV circulating in Italy, particularly whether there is a link between evolutionary rate and virulence, we obtained and analyzed the VP1 (polymerase) and the pVP2 (major capsid protein precursor) sequences from 75 IPNV strains sampled between 1978 and 2017. These data revealed that the Italian IPNV exhibit relatively little genetic variation over the sampling period, falling into four genetic clusters within a single genogroup (group 2 for VP1 and genogroup V for pVP2) and contained one example of inter-segment reassortment. The mean evolutionary rates for VP1 and pVP2 were estimated to be 1.70 and 1.45 × 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively, and hence significantly lower than those seen in other Birnaviruses. Similarly, the relatively low ratios of non-synonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) nucleotide substitutions per site in both genes indicated that IPNV was subject to strong selective constraints, again in contrast to other RNA viruses infecting salmonids that co-circulate in the same area during the same time period. Notably, all the Italian IPNV harbored a proline at position 217 (P217) and a threonine at position 221 (T221) in pVP2, both of which are associated with a low virulence phenotype. We therefore suggest the lower virulence of IPNV may have resulted in reduced rates of virus replication and hence lower rates of evolutionary change. The data generated here will be of importance in understanding the factors that shape the evolution of Aquabirnaviruses in nature.

8.
J Gen Virol ; 99(5): 693-703, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580370

RESUMO

The surveillance activities for abnormal bivalve mortality events in Italy include the diagnosis of ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) in symptomatic oysters. OsHV-1-positive oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were used as a source for in vivo virus propagation and a virus-rich sample was selected to perform shotgun sequencing based on Illumina technology. Starting from this unpurified supernatant sample from gills and mantle, we generated 3.5 million reads (2×300 bp) and de novo assembled the whole genome of an Italian OsHV-1 microvariant (OsHV-1-PT). The OsHV-1-PT genome encodes 125 putative ORFs, 7 of which had not previously been predicted in other sequenced Malacoherpesviridae. Overall, OsHV-1-PT displays typical microvariant OsHV-1 genome features, while few polymorphisms (0.08 %) determine its uniqueness. As little is known about the genetic determinants of OsHV-1 virulence, comparing complete OsHV-1 genomes supports a better understanding of the virus pathogenicity and provides new insights into virus-host interactions.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Genoma Viral , Animais , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de DNA/patogenicidade , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Itália , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 34: 457-66, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26003682

RESUMO

Influenza A virus can quickly acquire genetic mutations that may be associated with increased virulence, host switching or antigenic changes. To provide new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and the adaptive strategies of distinct avian influenza lineages in response to environmental and host factors, we compared two distinct avian influenza epidemics caused by the H7N1 and H7N3 subtypes that circulated under similar epidemiological conditions, including the same domestic species reared in the same densely populated poultry area for similar periods of time. The two strains appear to have experienced largely divergent evolution: the H7N1 viruses evolved into a highly pathogenic form, while the H7N3 did not. However, a more detailed molecular and evolutionary analysis revealed several common features: (i) the independent acquisition of 32 identical mutations throughout the entire genome; (ii) the evolution and persistence of two sole genetic groups with similar genetic characteristics; (iii) a comparable pattern of amino acid variability of the HA proteins during the low pathogenic epidemics; and (iv) similar rates of nucleotide substitutions. These findings suggest that the evolutionary trajectories of viruses with the same virulence level circulating in analogous epidemiological conditions may be similar. In addition, our deep sequencing analysis of 15 samples revealed that 17 of the 32 parallel mutations were already present at the beginning of the two epidemics, suggesting that fixation of these mutations may occur with different mechanisms, which may depend on the fitness gain provided by each mutation. This highlighted the difficulties in predicting the acquisition of mutations that can be correlated to viral adaptation to specific epidemiological conditions or to changes in virus virulence.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N3/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Seleção Genética
11.
J Virol ; 88(8): 4375-88, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24501401

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Avian influenza (AI) viruses of the H7 subtype have the potential to evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) viruses that represent a major economic problem for the poultry industry and a threat to global health. However, the emergence of HPAI viruses from low-pathogenic (LPAI) progenitor viruses currently is poorly understood. To investigate the origin and evolution of one of the most important avian influenza epidemics described in Europe, we investigated the evolutionary and spatial dynamics of the entire genome of 109 H7N1 (46 LPAI and 63 HPAI) viruses collected during Italian H7N1 outbreaks between March 1999 and February 2001. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the LPAI and HPAI epidemics shared a single ancestor, that the HPAI strains evolved from the LPAI viruses in the absence of reassortment, and that there was a parallel emergence of mutations among HPAI and later LPAI lineages. Notably, an ultradeep-sequencing analysis demonstrated that some of the amino acid changes characterizing the HPAI virus cluster were already present with low frequency within several individual viral populations from the beginning of the LPAI H7N1 epidemic. A Bayesian phylogeographic analysis revealed stronger spatial structure during the LPAI outbreak, reflecting the more rapid spread of the virus following the emergence of HPAI. The data generated in this study provide the most complete evolutionary and phylogeographic analysis of epidemiologically intertwined high- and low-pathogenicity viruses undertaken to date and highlight the importance of implementing prompt eradication measures against LPAI to prevent the appearance of viruses with fitness advantages and unpredictable pathogenic properties. IMPORTANCE: The Italian H7 AI epidemic of 1999 to 2001 was one of the most important AI outbreaks described in Europe. H7 viruses have the ability to evolve into HP forms from LP precursors, although the mechanisms underlying this evolutionary transition are only poorly understood. We combined epidemiological information, whole-genome sequence data, and ultradeep sequencing approaches to provide the most complete characterization of the evolution of HPAI from LPAI viruses undertaken to date. Our analysis revealed that the LPAI viruses were the direct ancestors of the HPAI strains and identified low-frequency minority variants with HPAI mutations that were present in the LPAI samples. Spatial analysis provided key information for the design of effective control strategies for AI at both local and global scales. Overall, this work highlights the importance of implementing rapid eradication measures to prevent the emergence of novel influenza viruses with severe pathogenic properties.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Virulência
13.
J Virol ; 85(16): 8413-21, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21680519

RESUMO

Avian influenza viruses of the H9N2 subtype have seriously affected the poultry industry of the Far and Middle East since the mid-1990s and are considered one of the most likely candidates to cause a new influenza pandemic in humans. To understand the genesis and epidemiology of these viruses, we investigated the spatial and evolutionary dynamics of complete genome sequences of H9N2 viruses circulating in nine Middle Eastern and Central Asian countries from 1998 to 2010. We identified four distinct and cocirculating groups (A, B, C, and D), each of which has undergone widespread inter- and intrasubtype reassortments, leading to the generation of viruses with unknown biological properties. Our analysis also suggested that eastern Asia served as the major source for H9N2 gene segments in the Middle East and Central Asia and that in this geographic region within-country evolution played a more important role in shaping viral genetic diversity than migration between countries. The genetic variability identified among the H9N2 viruses was associated with specific amino acid substitutions that are believed to result in increased transmissibility in mammals, as well as resistance to antiviral drugs. Our study highlights the need to constantly monitor the evolution of H9N2 viruses in poultry to better understand the potential risk to human health posed by these viruses.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ásia Central , Sequência de Bases , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Aves Domésticas , Vírus Reordenados/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Risco , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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