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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105271, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481343

RESUMO

Overimitation is hypothesized to foster the spread of conventional information within populations. The current study tested this claim by assigning 5-year-old children (N = 64) to one of two study populations based on their overimitation (overimitators [OIs] vs. non-overimitators [non-OIs]). Children were presented with conventional information in the form of novel games lacking instrumental outcomes, and we observed children's adoption, transmission, and modification of this information across two study phases. Results reveal little variation across study populations in the number of game elements that were adopted and transmitted. However, OIs were more likely to use normative language than non-OIs when transmitting game information to their peers. Furthermore, non-OIs modified the games more frequently in the initial study phase, suggesting an inverse relationship between children's overimitation and their tendency to modify conventional information. These findings indicate subtle yet coherent links between children's overimitation and their tendency to transmit and modify conventional information.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo , Idioma , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Grupo Associado
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529702

RESUMO

Children imitate actions that are perceivably unnecessary to achieve the instrumental goal of an action sequence, a behavior termed over-imitation. It is debated whether this behavior is based on the motivation to follow behavioral norms and affiliate with the model or whether it can be interpreted in terms of a behavioral heuristic to copy observed intentional actions without questioning the purpose of each action step. To resolve this question, we tested whether preschool-aged children (N = 89) over-imitate a prosocial model, a helper in a prior third-party moral transgression, but refuse to over-imitate an antisocial model, the perpetrator of the moral transgression. After first observing an inefficient way to extract a reward from a puzzle box from either a perpetrator or a helper, children over-imitated the perpetrator to the same degree as they over-imitated the helper. In a second phase, children were then presented the efficient solution by the respective other model, i.e. the helper or the perpetrator. Over-imitation rates then dropped in both conditions, but remained significantly higher than in a baseline condition only when children had observed the prosocial model demonstrate the inefficient action sequence and the perpetrator performed the efficient solution. In contrast, over-imitation dropped to baseline level when the perpetrator had modelled the inefficient actions and the prosocial model subsequently showed children the efficient solution. In line with a dual-process account of over-imitation, results speak to a strong initial tendency to imitate perceivably irrelevant actions regardless of the model. Imitation behavior is then adjusted according to social motivations after deliberate consideration of different options to attain the goal.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa
3.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(7): 201373, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295509

RESUMO

Children 'overimitate' causally irrelevant actions in experiments where both irrelevant and relevant actions involve a single common tool. This study design may make it harder for children to recognize the irrelevant actions, as the perceived functionality of the tool during the demonstration of the relevant action may be carried over to the irrelevant action, potentially increasing overimitation. Moreover, little is known how overimitation is affected by the demonstrator's expressed emotions and the child's prior success with the task. Here, 131 nine- to ten-year-old French and German children first engaged in a tool-based task, being successful or unsuccessful, and then watched an adult demonstrating the solution involving one irrelevant and one relevant action before smiling or remaining neutral. These actions were performed with the same tool or with two separate tools, testing potential carry-over effects of the functionality of the relevant action on the irrelevant action. We show that overimitation was higher when the same tool was used for both actions and when children were previously unsuccessful, but was not affected by the demonstrator's displayed emotion. Our results suggest that future overimitation research should account for the number of tools used in a demonstration and participants' previous task experience.

4.
Child Dev ; 92(4): e565-e580, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426676

RESUMO

Interpersonal neural synchrony (INS) has been previously evidenced in mother-child interactions, yet findings concerning father-child interaction are wanting. The current experiment examined whether fathers and their 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 66) synchronize their brain activity during a naturalistic interaction, and addressed paternal and child factors related to INS. Compared to individual problem solving and rest, father-child dyads showed increased INS in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left temporo-parietal junction during cooperative problem solving. Furthermore, the father's attitude toward his role as a parent was positively related to INS during the cooperation condition. These results highlight the implication of the father's attitude to parenting in INS processes for the first time.


Assuntos
Pai , Relações Mãe-Filho , Criança , Relações Pai-Filho , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Resolução de Problemas
5.
Child Dev ; 92(1): 222-238, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856290

RESUMO

From preschool age, humans tend to imitate causally irrelevant actions-they over-imitate. This study investigated whether children over-imitate even when they know a more efficient task solution and whether they imitate irrelevant actions equally from a human compared to a robot model. Five-to-six-year-olds (N = 107) watched either a robot or human retrieve a reward from a puzzle box. First a model demonstrated an inefficient (Trial 1), then an efficient (Trial 2), then again the inefficient strategy (Trial 3). Subsequent to each demonstration, children copied whichever strategy had been demonstrated regardless of whether the model was a human or a robot. Results indicate that over-imitation can be socially motivated, and that humanoid robots and humans are equally likely to elicit this behavior.


Assuntos
Jogos Recreativos/psicologia , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Robótica/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos
6.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 93-102, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591781

RESUMO

Conversations are an essential form of communication in daily family life. Specific patterns of caregiver-child conversations have been linked to children's socio-cognitive development and child-relationship quality beyond the immediate family environment. Recently, interpersonal neural synchronization has been proposed as a neural mechanism supporting conversation. Here, we present a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning study looking at the temporal dynamics of neural synchrony during mother-child conversation. Preschoolers (20 boys and 20 girls, M age 5;07 years) and their mothers (M age 36.37 years) were tested simultaneously with fNIRS hyperscanning while engaging in a free verbal conversation lasting for 4 min. Neural synchrony (using wavelet transform coherence analysis) was assessed over time. Furthermore, each conversational turn was coded for conversation patterns comprising turn-taking, relevance, contingency and intrusiveness. Results from linear mixed-effects modeling revealed that turn-taking, but not relevance, contingency or intrusiveness predicted neural synchronization during the conversation over time. Results are discussed to point out possible variables affecting parent-child conversation quality and the potential functional role of interpersonal neural synchronization for parent-child conversation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comunicação , Relações Interpessoais , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
7.
Cortex ; 124: 235-249, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927470

RESUMO

Understanding others is fundamental to interpersonal coordination and successful cooperation. One mechanism posited to underlie both effective communication and behavioral coordination is interpersonal neural synchrony. Although presumably foundational for children's social development, research on neural synchrony in naturalistic caregiver-child interactions is lacking. Using dual-functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we examined the effects of interaction quality on neural synchrony during a problem-solving task in 42 dyads of mothers and their preschool children. In a cooperation condition, mothers and children were instructed to solve a tangram puzzle together. In an individual condition, mothers and children performed the same task alone with an opaque screen between them. Wavelet transform coherence (WTC) was used to assess the cross-correlation between the two fNIRS time series. Results revealed increased neural synchrony in bilateral prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal areas during cooperative as compared to individual problem solving. Higher neural synchrony during cooperation correlated with higher behavioral reciprocity and neural synchrony predicted the dyad's problem-solving success beyond reciprocal behavior between mothers and children. State-like factors, such as maternal stress and child agency during the task, played a bigger role for neural synchronization than trait-like factors, such as child temperament. Our results emphasize neural synchrony as a biomarker for mother-child interaction quality. These findings further highlight the role of state-like factors in interpersonal synchronization processes linked to successful coordination with others and in the long-term might improve the understanding of others.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Relações Mãe-Filho , Resolução de Problemas , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
8.
Child Dev ; 89(3): 1039-1055, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332193

RESUMO

Three experiments (N = 100) examine the influence of causal information on overimitation. In Experiment 1, a transparent reward location reveals that the reward is unaffected by nonfunctional actions. When 5-year-olds observe an inefficient and subsequently an efficient strategy to retrieve a reward, they show overimitation in both phases-even though the reward is visible. In Experiment 2, children observe first the efficient then the inefficient strategy. The latter is always demonstrated communicatively, whereas the efficient strategy is presented communicatively (2a) or noncommunicatively (2b). Regardless of whether the efficient strategy is emphasized through communication or not, most children do not switch from the efficient to the inefficient strategy. Depending on the situation, children base their behavior on social motivations or causal information.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comunicação , Comportamento Imitativo , Recompensa , Percepção Social , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 122: 122-33, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24569041

RESUMO

The tendency to imitate causally irrelevant actions is termed overimitation. Here we investigated (a) whether communication of a model performing irrelevant actions is necessary to elicit overimitation in preschoolers and (b) whether communication of another model performing an efficient action modulates the subsequent reduction of overimitation. In the study, 5-year-olds imitated irrelevant actions both when they were modeled by a communicative and pedagogical experimenter and when they were modeled by a non-communicative and non-pedagogical experimenter. However, children stopped using the previously learned irrelevant actions only when they were subsequently shown the more efficient way to achieve the goal by a pedagogical experimenter. Thus, communication leads preschoolers to adapt their imitative behavior but does not seem to affect overimitation in the first place. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of communication for the transmission of cultural knowledge during development.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo , Relações Interpessoais , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Habilidades Sociais , Ensino
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