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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.

3.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

5.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline ATM mutations are suggested to contribute to predisposition to prostate cancer (PrCa). Previous studies have had inadequate power to estimate variant effect sizes. OBJECTIVE: To precisely estimate the contribution of germline ATM mutations to PrCa risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed next-generation sequencing data from 13 PRACTICAL study groups comprising 5560 cases and 3353 controls of European ancestry. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Variant Call Format files were harmonised, annotated for rare ATM variants, and classified as tier 1 (likely pathogenic) or tier 2 (potentially deleterious). Associations with overall PrCa risk and clinical subtypes were estimated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: PrCa risk was higher in carriers of a tier 1 germline ATM variant, with an overall odds ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-9.5). There was also evidence that PrCa cases with younger age at diagnosis (<65 yr) had elevated tier 1 variant frequencies (pdifference = 0.04). Tier 2 variants were also associated with PrCa risk, with an OR of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of pathogenic ATM variants have an elevated risk of developing PrCa and are at an increased risk for earlier-onset disease presentation. These results provide information for counselling of men and their families. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we estimated that men who inherit a likely pathogenic mutation in the ATM gene had an approximately a fourfold risk of developing prostate cancer. In addition, they are likely to develop the disease earlier.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268848

RESUMO

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is the most important cause of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Most CSVD cases are sporadic but familial monogenic forms of the disorder have also been described. Despite the variants identified, many CSVD cases remain unexplained genetically. We used whole-exome sequencing in an attempt to identify novel gene variants underlying CSVD. A cohort of 35 Finnish patients with suspected CSVD was analyzed. Patients were screened negative for the most common variants affecting function in NOTCH3 in Finland (p.Arg133Cys and p.Arg182Cys). Whole-exome sequencing was performed to search for a genetic cause of CSVD. Our study resulted in the detection of possibly pathogenic variants or variants of unknown significance in genes known to associate with CSVD in six patients, accounting for 17% of cases. Those genes included NOTCH3, HTRA1, COL4A1, and COL4A2. We also identified variants with predicted pathogenic effect in genes associated with other neurological or stroke-related conditions in seven patients, accounting for 20% of cases. This study supports pathogenic roles of variants in COL4A1, COL4A2, and HTRA1 in CSVD and VCI. Our results also suggest that vascular pathogenic mechanisms are linked to neurodegenerative conditions and provide novel insights into the molecular basis of VCI.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158149

RESUMO

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the CHEK2 recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The CHEK2 missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with CHEK2 c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17075, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051487

RESUMO

Hereditary factors have a strong influence on prostate cancer (PC) risk and poorer outcomes, thus stratification by genetic factors addresses a critical need for targeted PC screening and risk-adapted follow-up. In this Finnish population-based retrospective study 2283 clinically diagnosed and 455 screen-detected patients from the Finnish Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC), 2400 healthy individuals have been involved. Individual genetic risk through establishment of a polygenic risk score based on 55 PC risk SNPs identified through the Finnish subset of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study was assessed. Men with PC had significantly higher median polygenic risk score compared to the controls (6.59 vs. 3.83, P < 0.0001). The polygenic risk score above the control median was a significant predictor of PC (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.90-2.39). The polygenic risk score predicted the risk of PC with an AUC of 0.618 (95% CI 0.60-0.63). Men in the highest polygenic risk score quartile were 2.8-fold (95% CI 2.4-3.30) more likely to develop PC compared with men in the lowest quartile. In the FinRSPC cohort, a significantly higher percentage of men had a PSA level of ≥ 4 ng/mL in polygenic risk score quartile four compared to quartile one (18.7% vs 8.3%, P < 0.00001). Adding the PRS to a PSA-only model contributed additional information in predicting PC in the FinRSPC model. Results strongly suggest that use of the polygenic risk score would facilitate the identification of men at increased risk for PC.

9.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history of prostate cancer (PCa) is a well-known risk factor, and both common and rare genetic variants are associated with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To detect new genetic variants associated with PCa, capitalizing on the role of family history and more aggressive PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A two-stage design was used. In stage one, whole-exome sequencing was used to identify potential risk alleles among affected men with a strong family history of disease or with more aggressive disease (491 cases and 429 controls). Aggressive disease was based on a sum of scores for Gleason score, node status, metastasis, tumor stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, systemic recurrence, and time to PCa death. Genes identified in stage one were screened in stage two using a custom-capture design in an independent set of 2917 cases and 1899 controls. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Frequencies of genetic variants (singly or jointly in a gene) were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Eleven genes previously reported to be associated with PCa were detected (ATM, BRCA2, HOXB13, FAM111A, EMSY, HNF1B, KLK3, MSMB, PCAT1, PRSS3, and TERT), as well as an additional 10 novel genes (PABPC1, QK1, FAM114A1, MUC6, MYCBP2, RAPGEF4, RNASEH2B, ULK4, XPO7, and THAP3). Of these 10 novel genes, all but PABPC1 and ULK4 were primarily associated with the risk of aggressive PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach demonstrates the advantage of gene sequencing in the search for genetic variants associated with PCa and the benefits of sampling patients with a strong family history of disease or an aggressive form of disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Multiple genes are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) among men with a strong family history of this disease or among men with an aggressive form of PCa.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235669, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634151

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Annotation of large amounts of generated sequencing data is a demanding task. Most of the currently available robust annotation tools, like ANNOVAR, are command-line based tools which require a certain degree of programming skills. User-friendly tools for variant annotation of sequencing data with graphical interface are under-represented. RESULTS: We have developed an interactive application, which harnesses the easy usability of R Shiny and combines it with the versatile annotation features of ANNOVAR. This application is easy to use and gives comprehensive annotations for user supplied vcf files using multiples databases. The output table contains the list of variants and their corresponding annotation presented within the graphical interface. In addition, the annotation results are downloadable as text file.


Assuntos
Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Software , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular
11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1467-1475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514134

RESUMO

We determined the effect of sample size on performance of polygenic hazard score (PHS) models in prostate cancer. Age and genotypes were obtained for 40,861 men from the PRACTICAL consortium. The dataset included 201,590 SNPs per subject, and was split into training and testing sets. Established-SNP models considered 65 SNPs that had been previously associated with prostate cancer. Discovery-SNP models used stepwise selection to identify new SNPs. The performance of each PHS model was calculated for random sizes of the training set. The performance of a representative Established-SNP model was estimated for random sizes of the testing set. Mean HR98/50 (hazard ratio of top 2% to average in test set) of the Established-SNP model increased from 1.73 [95% CI: 1.69-1.77] to 2.41 [2.40-2.43] when the number of training samples was increased from 1 thousand to 30 thousand. Corresponding HR98/50 of the Discovery-SNP model increased from 1.05 [0.93-1.18] to 2.19 [2.16-2.23]. HR98/50 of a representative Established-SNP model using testing set sample sizes of 0.6 thousand and 6 thousand observations were 1.78 [1.70-1.85] and 1.73 [1.71-1.76], respectively. We estimate that a study population of 20 thousand men is required to develop Discovery-SNP PHS models while 10 thousand men should be sufficient for Established-SNP models.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1731-1738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polygenic hazard score (PHS), the weighted sum of 54 SNP genotypes, was previously validated for association with clinically significant prostate cancer and for improved prostate cancer screening accuracy. Here, we assess the potential impact of PHS-informed screening. METHODS: United Kingdom population incidence data (Cancer Research United Kingdom) and data from the Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer were combined to estimate age-specific clinically significant prostate cancer incidence (Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥10, or nodal/distant metastases). Using HRs estimated from the ProtecT prostate cancer trial, age-specific incidence rates were calculated for various PHS risk percentiles. Risk-equivalent age, when someone with a given PHS percentile has prostate cancer risk equivalent to an average 50-year-old man (50-year-standard risk), was derived from PHS and incidence data. Positive predictive value (PPV) of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer was calculated using PHS-adjusted age groups. RESULTS: The expected age at diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer differs by 19 years between the 1st and 99th PHS percentiles: men with PHS in the 1st and 99th percentiles reach the 50-year-standard risk level at ages 60 and 41, respectively. PPV of PSA was higher for men with higher PHS-adjusted age. CONCLUSIONS: PHS provides individualized estimates of risk-equivalent age for clinically significant prostate cancer. Screening initiation could be adjusted by a man's PHS. IMPACT: Personalized genetic risk assessments could inform prostate cancer screening decisions.

13.
Cancer Biomark ; 28(1): 91-100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated Anoctamin 7 (ANO7) expression is associated with poor survival in prostate cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to discover proteins that interact with ANO7 to understand its functions and regulatory mechanisms. METHODS: The proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) method was utilized. ANO7 fused to biotin ligase was transiently transfected into LNCaP cells, and the biotinylated proteins were collected and analysed by mass spectrometry. Four identified proteins were stained with dual fluorescent immunostaining and visualized using Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED). RESULTS: After bioinformatic filtering steps, 64 potentially ANO7-interacting proteins were identified and analysed with the GO enrichment analysis tool. One of the most prominently enriched cellular components was cellular vesicle. Co-localization was showed for staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 (SND1), heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1A (HSPA1A), adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1 (AP2B1) and coatomer protein complex subunit gamma 2 (COPG2). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in which ANO7 interacting proteins have been identified. Although further studies are needed, the findings reported here expand our understanding of the role and regulation of ANO7 in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, these results are likely to introduce new targets for the novel cancer therapies.

14.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183364

RESUMO

Germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The aim of this study was to characterize germline variants in DNA repair genes associated with lethal PrCa in Finnish and Swedish populations. Whole-exome sequencing was performed for 122 lethal and 60 unselected PrCa cases. Among the lethal cases, a total of 16 potentially damaging protein-truncating variants in DNA repair genes were identified in 15 men (12.3%). Mutations were found in six genes with CHEK2 (4.1%) and ATM (3.3%) being most frequently mutated. Overall, the carrier rate of truncating variants in DNA repair genes among men with lethal PrCa significantly exceeded the carrier rate of 0% in 60 unselected PrCa cases (p = 0.030), and the prevalence of 1.6% (p < 0.001) and 5.4% (p = 0.040) in Swedish and Finnish population controls from the Exome Aggregation Consortium. No significant difference in carrier rate of potentially damaging nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants between lethal and unselected PrCa cases was observed (p = 0.123). We confirm that DNA repair genes are strongly associated with lethal PrCa in Sweden and Finland and highlight the importance of population-specific assessment of variants contributing to PrCa aggressiveness.

15.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5353-5359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of genetic prognostic biomarkers, such as germline variants, are urgently needed to choose optimal treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The prognostic value of anoctamin 7 (ANO7) rs77559646 on docetaxel response was tested in a prospective PROSTY randomized trial and a retrospective Auria Biobank set. The variant rs77559646 was genotyped and its association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was tested. RESULTS: In comparison with the non-carriers, the variant carriers had longer PFS (p=0.005) and OS (p=0.003) in the PROSTY cohort. In the retrospective cohort, there was a borderline association with PFS (p=0.09), but not in OS (p=0.9). In both cohorts, Cox regression multivariate models revealed that rs77559646 was an independent prognostic factor for favourable PFS. CONCLUSION: The rs77559646 was shown to be a prognostic germline biomarker for better response to docetaxel treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a non-coding germline variant has been associated with chemotherapy of mCRPC.


Assuntos
Anoctaminas/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Variação Genética/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Neurol Genet ; 5(3): e335, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086828

RESUMO

Objective: To characterize the clinical and neuropathologic features of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) p.Ala90Val mutation, as well as the mutation frequency and the role of oligogenic mechanisms in disease penetrance. Methods: An index patient with autopsy-proven ALS was discovered to have the SOD1 p.Ala90Val mutation, which was screened in 2 Finnish ALS cohorts (n = 453). Additional contributing variants were analyzed from whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing data. Results: Seven screened patients (1.5%) were found to carry the SOD1 heterozygous mutation. Allele-sharing analysis suggested a common founder haplotype. Common clinical features included limb-onset, long disease course, and sensory symptoms. No TDP43 pathology was observed. All cases were apparently sporadic, and pedigree analysis demonstrated that the mutation has reduced penetrance. Analysis of other contributing genes revealed a unique set of additional variants in each patient. These included previously described rare ANG and SPG11 mutations. One patient was compound heterozygous for SOD1 p.Ala90Val and p.Asp91Ala. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the penetrance of SOD1 p.Ala90Val is modulated by other genes and indicates highly individual oligogenic basis of apparently sporadic ALS. Additional genetic variants likely contributing to disease penetrance were very heterogeneous, even among Finnish patients carrying the SOD1 founder mutation.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2692-2700, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927251

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose to breast and ovarian cancer (BC/OC) with a high lifetime risk, whereas mutations in PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, FANCM, RAD51C and RAD51D genes cause a moderately elevated risk. In the Finnish population, recurrent mutations have been identified in all of these genes, the latest being CHEK2 c.319+2T>A and c.444+1G>A. By genotyping 3,156 cases and 2,089 controls, we estimated the frequencies of CHEK2 c.319+2T>A and c.444+1G>A in Finnish BC patients. CHEK2 c.319+2T>A was detected in 0.7% of the patients, and it was associated with a high risk of BC in the unselected patient group (OR = 5.40 [95% CI 1.58-18.45], p = 0.007) and similarly in the familial patient group. CHEK2 c.444+1G>A was identified in 0.1% of all patients. Additionally, we evaluated the combined prevalence of recurrent moderate-risk gene mutations in 2,487 BC patients, 556 OC patients and 261 BRCA1/2 carriers from 109 families. The overall frequency of the mutations was 13.3% in 1,141 BRCA1/2-negative familial BC patients, 7.5% in 1,727 unselected BC patients and 7.2% in 556 unselected OC patients. At least one moderate-risk gene mutation was found in 12.5% of BRCA1 families and 7.1% of BRCA1 index patients, as well as in 17.0% of BRCA2 families and 11.3% of BRCA2 index patients, and the mutations were associated with an additional risk in the BRCA1/2 index patients (OR = 2.63 [1.15-5.48], p = 0.011). These results support gene panel testing of even multiple members of BC families where several mutations may segregate in different individuals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 208-216, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centers with men ages 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (P < 0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: (i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); (ii) fatty acids and ratios; (iii) amino acids; (iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Metaboloma , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Reino Unido
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