Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 41
Filtrar
1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 739987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765617

RESUMO

Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are potential game changers in modern medical care with an anticipated major impact for patients and society. They are a new drug class often referred to as "living drugs," and are based on complex components such as vectors, cells and even tissues. The production of such ATMPs involves innovative biotechnological methods. In this survey, we have assessed the perception of European citizens regarding ATMPs and health care in Europe, in relation to other important topics, such as safety and security, data protection, climate friendly energy supply, migration, and others. A crucial question was to determine to what extent European citizens wish to support public funding of innovations in healthcare and reimbursement strategies for ATMPs. To answer this, we conducted an online survey in 13 European countries (representative of 85.3% of the entire EU population including the UK in 2020), surveying a total of 7,062 European citizens. The survey was representative with respect to adult age groups and gender in each country. Healthcare had the highest ranking among important societal topics. We found that 83% of the surveyed EU citizens were in support of more public funding of technologies in the field of ATMPs. Interestingly, 74% of respondents are in support of cross-border healthcare for patients with rare diseases to receive ATMP treatments and 61% support the reimbursement of very expensive ATMPs within the European health care system despite the current lack of long-term efficacy data. In conclusion, healthcare is a top ranking issue for European Citizens, who additionally support funding of new technologies to enable the wider application of ATMPs in Europe.

2.
Neurotherapeutics ; 18(3): 1783-1797, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244929

RESUMO

Fingolimod is an approved oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) that modulates agonistically the sphingosin-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR), inhibiting thereby the egress of lymphocytes from the lymph nodes. In this interventional prospective clinical phase IV trial, we longitudinally investigated the impact of fingolimod on frequencies of NK cell subpopulations by flow cytometry in 17 RRMS patients at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment initiation. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and annualized relapse rates (ARR). Over the study period, median EDSS remained stable from month 3 to month 12, and ARR decreased compared to ARR in the 24 months prior treatment. Treatment was paralleled by an increased frequency of circulating NK cells, due primarily to an increase in CD56dimCD94low mature NK cells, while the CD56bright fraction and CD127+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) decreased over time. An unsupervised clustering algorithm further revealed that a particular fraction of NK cells defined by the expression of CD56dimCD16++KIR+/-NKG2A-CD94-CCR7+/-CX3CR1+/-NKG2C-NKG2D+NKp46-DNAM1++CD127+ increased during treatment. This specific phenotype might reflect a status of aged, fully differentiated, and less functional NK cells. Our study confirms that fingolimod treatment affects both NK cells and ILC. In addition, our study suggests that treatment leads to the enrichment of a specific NK cell subset characterized by an aged phenotype. This might limit the anti-microbial and anti-tumour NK cell activity in fingolimod-treated patients.

3.
Biofabrication ; 13(4)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111862

RESUMO

The therapeutic efficacy of clinically applied mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is limited due to their injection into harshin vivoenvironments, resulting in the significant loss of their secretory function upon transplantation. A potential strategy for preserving their full therapeutic potential is encapsulation of MSCs in a specialized protective microenvironment, for example hydrogels. However, commonly used injectable hydrogels for cell delivery fail to provide the bio-instructive cues needed to sustain and stimulate cellular therapeutic functions. Here we introduce a customizable collagen I-hyaluronic acid (COL-HA)-based hydrogel platform for the encapsulation of MSCs. Cells encapsulated within COL-HA showed a significant expansion of their secretory profile compared to MSCs cultured in standard (2D) cell culture dishes or encapsulated in other hydrogels. Functionalization of the COL-HA backbone with thiol-modified glycoproteins such as laminin led to further changes in the paracrine profile of MSCs. In depth profiling of more than 250 proteins revealed an expanded secretion profile of proangiogenic, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory paracrine factors in COL-HA-encapsulated MSCs with a predicted augmented pro-angiogenic potential. This was confirmed by increased capillary network formation of endothelial cells stimulated by conditioned media from COL-HA-encapsulated MSCs. Our findings suggest that encapsulation of therapeutic cells in a protective COL-HA hydrogel layer provides the necessary bio-instructive cues to maintain and direct their therapeutic potential. Our customizable hydrogel combines bioactivity and clinically applicable properties such as injectability, on-demand polymerization and tissue-specific elasticity, all features that will support and improve the ability to successfully deliver functional MSCs into patients.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Colágeno Tipo I , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico , Hidrogéis
5.
Immun Ageing ; 18(1): 20, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune ageing is a result of repetitive microbial challenges along with cell intrinsic or systemic changes occurring during ageing. Mice under 'specific-pathogen-free' (SPF) conditions are frequently used to assess immune ageing in long-term experiments. However, physiological pathogenic challenges are reduced in SPF mice. The question arises to what extent murine experiments performed under SPF conditions are suited to analyze immune ageing in mice and serve as models for human immune ageing. Our previous comparisons of same aged mice with different microbial exposures, unambiguously identified distinct clusters of immune cells characteristic for numerous previous pathogen encounters in particular in pet shop mice. RESULTS: We here performed single cell mass cytometry assessing splenic as secondary and bone marrow as primary lymphoid organ-derived leukocytes isolated from young versus aged SPF mice in order to delineate alterations of the murine hematopoietic system induced during ageing. We then compared immune clusters from young and aged SPF mice to pet shop mice in order to delineate alterations of the murine hematopoietic system induced by physiological pathogenic challenges and those caused by cell intrinsic or systemic changes during ageing. Notably, distinct immune signatures were similarly altered in both pet shop and aged SPF mice in comparison to young SPF mice, including increased frequencies of memory T lymphocytes, effector-cytokine producing T cells, plasma cells and mature NK cells. However, elevated frequencies of CD4+ T cells, total NK cells, granulocytes, pDCs, cDCs and decreased frequencies of naïve B cells were specifically identified only in pet shop mice. In aged SPF mice specifically the frequencies of splenic IgM+ plasma cells, CD8+ T cells and CD4+ CD25+ Treg were increased as compared to pet shop mice and young mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study dissects firstly how ageing impacts both innate and adaptive immune cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Secondly, it partly distinguishes murine intrinsic immune ageing alterations from those induced by physiological pathogen challenges highlighting the importance of designing mouse models for their use in preclinical research including vaccines and immunotherapies.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(576)2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441425

RESUMO

Chemotherapy has direct toxic effects on cancer cells; however, long-term cancer control and complete remission are likely to involve CD8+ T cell immune responses. To study the role of CD8+ T cell infiltration in the success of chemotherapy, we examined patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) who were categorized on the basis of the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We identified the intratumoral CXCR3 chemokine system (ligands and receptor splice variants) as a critical component for tumor eradication upon NAC in MIBC. Through characterization of CD8+ T cells, we found that stem-like T cell subpopulations with abundant CXCR3alt, a variant form of the CXCL11 receptor, responded to CXCL11 in culture as demonstrated by migration and enhanced effector function. In tumor biopsies of patients with MIBC accessed before treatment, CXCL11 abundance correlated with high numbers of tumor-infiltrating T cells and response to NAC. The presence of CXCR3alt and CXCL11 was associated with improved overall survival in MIBC. Evaluation of both CXCR3alt and CXCL11 enabled discrimination between responder and nonresponder patients with MIBC before treatment. We validated the prognostic role of the CXCR3-CXCL11 chemokine system in an independent cohort of chemotherapy-treated and chemotherapy-naïve patients with MIBC from data in TCGA. In summary, our data revealed stimulatory activity of the CXCR3alt-CXCL11 chemokine system on CD8+ T cells that is predictive of chemotherapy responsiveness in MIBC. This may offer immunotherapeutic options for targeted activation of intratumoral stem-like T cells in solid tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimiocina CXCL10/uso terapêutico , Quimiocina CXCL11/uso terapêutico , Quimiocinas , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptores CXCR3 , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Am J Transplant ; 21(4): 1603-1611, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171020

RESUMO

Short-term outcomes in kidney transplantation are marred by progressive transplant failure and mortality secondary to immunosuppression toxicity. Immune modulation with autologous polyclonal regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy may facilitate immunosuppression reduction promoting better long-term clinical outcomes. In a Phase I clinical trial, 12 kidney transplant recipients received 1-10 × 106 Treg per kg at Day +5 posttransplantation in lieu of induction immunosuppression (Treg Therapy cohort). Nineteen patients received standard immunosuppression (Reference cohort). Primary outcomes were rejection-free and patient survival. Patient and transplant survival was 100%; acute rejection-free survival was 100% in the Treg Therapy versus 78.9% in the reference cohort at 48 months posttransplant. Treg therapy revealed no excess safety concerns. Four patients in the Treg Therapy cohort had mycophenolate mofetil withdrawn successfully and remain on tacrolimus monotherapy. Treg infusion resulted in a long-lasting dose-dependent increase in peripheral blood Tregs together with an increase in marginal zone B cell numbers. We identified a pretransplantation immune phenotype suggesting a high risk of unsuccessful ex-vivo Treg expansion. Autologous Treg therapy is feasible, safe, and is potentially associated with a lower rejection rate than standard immunosuppression. Treg therapy may provide an exciting opportunity to minimize immunosuppression therapy and improve long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Estudos de Viabilidade , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doadores Vivos , Monitorização Imunológica , Linfócitos T Reguladores
8.
BMJ ; 371: m3734, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether reshaping of the immune balance by infusion of autologous natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) in patients after kidney transplantation is safe, feasible, and enables the tapering of lifelong high dose immunosuppression, with its limited efficacy, adverse effects, and high direct and indirect costs, along with addressing several key challenges of nTreg treatment, such as easy and robust manufacturing, danger of over immunosuppression, interaction with standard care drugs, and functional stability in an inflammatory environment in a useful proof-of-concept disease model. DESIGN: Investigator initiated, monocentre, nTreg dose escalation, phase I/IIa clinical trial (ONEnTreg13). SETTING: Charité-University Hospital, Berlin, Germany, within the ONE study consortium (funded by the European Union). PARTICIPANTS: Recipients of living donor kidney transplant (ONEnTreg13, n=11) and corresponding reference group trial (ONErgt11-CHA, n=9). INTERVENTIONS: CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ nTreg products were given seven days after kidney transplantation as one intravenous dose of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.5-3.0×106 cells/kg body weight, with subsequent stepwise tapering of triple immunosuppression to low dose tacrolimus monotherapy until week 48. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary clinical and safety endpoints were assessed by a composite endpoint at week 60 with further three year follow-up. The assessment included incidence of biopsy confirmed acute rejection, assessment of nTreg infusion related adverse effects, and signs of over immunosuppression. Secondary endpoints addressed allograft functions. Accompanying research included a comprehensive exploratory biomarker portfolio. RESULTS: For all patients, nTreg products with sufficient yield, purity, and functionality could be generated from 40-50 mL of peripheral blood taken two weeks before kidney transplantation. None of the three nTreg dose escalation groups had dose limiting toxicity. The nTreg and reference groups had 100% three year allograft survival and similar clinical and safety profiles. Stable monotherapy immunosuppression was achieved in eight of 11 (73%) patients receiving nTregs, while the reference group remained on standard dual or triple drug immunosuppression (P=0.002). Mechanistically, the activation of conventional T cells was reduced and nTregs shifted in vivo from a polyclonal to an oligoclonal T cell receptor repertoire. CONCLUSIONS: The application of autologous nTregs was safe and feasible even in patients who had a kidney transplant and were immunosuppressed. These results warrant further evaluation of Treg efficacy and serve as the basis for the development of next generation nTreg approaches in transplantation and any immunopathologies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02371434 (ONEnTreg13) and EudraCT:2011-004301-24 (ONErgt11).


Assuntos
Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/transplante , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Alemanha , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Rim/imunologia , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 310, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917850

RESUMO

Stress-induced disturbances of brain homeostasis and neuroinflammation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. In major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines can be found in peripheral blood, but very little is known about the changes that occur directly in the brain. Microglia are the primary immune effector cells of the central nervous system and exquisitely sensitive to changes in the brain microenvironment. Here, we performed the first single-cell analysis of microglia from four different post-mortem brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus, and subventricular zone) of medicated individuals with MDD compared to controls. We found no evidence for the induction of inflammation-associated molecules, such as CD11b, CD45, CCL2, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF, MIP-1ß (CCL4), IL-10, and even decreased expression of HLA-DR and CD68 in microglia from MDD cases. In contrast, we detected increased levels of the homeostatic proteins P2Y12 receptor, TMEM119 and CCR5 (CD195) in microglia from all brain regions of individuals with MDD. We also identified enrichment of non-inflammatory CD206hi macrophages in the brains of MDD cases. In sum, our results suggest enhanced homeostatic functions of microglia in MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Microglia , Quimiocinas , Citocinas/genética , Homeostase , Humanos , Fenótipo
10.
Cell ; 182(6): 1419-1440.e23, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810438

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Mielopoese , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD11/genética , Antígenos CD11/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Mieloides/citologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Análise de Célula Única
11.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 136, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811567

RESUMO

Myeloid cells contribute to inflammation and demyelination in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is still unclear to what extent these cells are involved in active lesion formation in progressive MS (PMS). Here, we have harnessed the power of single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) to compare myeloid cell phenotypes in active lesions of PMS donors with those in normal-appearing white matter from the same donors and control white matter from non-MS donors. CyTOF measurements of a total of 74 targeted proteins revealed a decreased abundance of homeostatic and TNFhi microglia, and an increase in highly phagocytic and activated microglia states in active lesions of PMS donors. Interestingly, in contrast to results obtained from studies of the inflammatory early disease stages of MS, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages were scarce in active lesions of PMS, suggesting fundamental differences of myeloid cell composition in advanced stages of PMS.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Microglia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/patologia , Células Mieloides , Separação Celular/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
12.
Stem Cells Dev ; 29(18): 1179-1189, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723003

RESUMO

Pluripotent stem cells are promising candidates for cell-based regenerative therapies. To avoid rejection of transplanted cells, several approaches are being pursued to reduce immunogenicity of the cells or modulate the recipient's immune response. These include gene editing to reduce the antigenicity of cell products, immunosuppression of the host, or using major histocompatibility complex-matched cells from cell banks. In this context, we have investigated the antigenicity of H-Y antigens, a class of minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome, to assess whether the gender of the donor affects the cell's antigenicity. In a murine transplant model, we show that the H-Y antigen in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as ESC-derived endothelial cells, provokes T- and B cell responses in female recipients.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Antígeno H-Y/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Feminino , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia
13.
Lancet ; 395(10237): 1627-1639, 2020 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) represents a state-of-the-art approach for reducing general immunosuppression in organ transplantation. We tested multiple regulatory CBMPs in kidney transplant trials to establish the safety of regulatory CBMPs when combined with reduced immunosuppressive treatment. METHODS: The ONE Study consisted of seven investigator-led, single-arm trials done internationally at eight hospitals in France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the USA (60 week follow-up). Included patients were living-donor kidney transplant recipients aged 18 years and older. The reference group trial (RGT) was a standard-of-care group given basiliximab, tapered steroids, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. Six non-randomised phase 1/2A cell therapy group (CTG) trials were pooled and analysed, in which patients received one of six CBMPs containing regulatory T cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages; patient selection and immunosuppression mirrored the RGT, except basiliximab induction was substituted with CBMPs and mycophenolate mofetil tapering was allowed. None of the trials were randomised and none of the individuals involved were masked. The primary endpoint was biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR) within 60 weeks after transplantation; adverse event coding was centralised. The RTG and CTG trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01656135, NCT02252055, NCT02085629, NCT02244801, NCT02371434, NCT02129881, and NCT02091232. FINDINGS: The seven trials took place between Dec 11, 2012, and Nov 14, 2018. Of 782 patients assessed for eligibility, 130 (17%) patients were enrolled and 104 were treated and included in the analysis. The 66 patients who were treated in the RGT were 73% male and had a median age of 47 years. The 38 patients who were treated across six CTG trials were 71% male and had a median age of 45 years. Standard-of-care immunosuppression in the recipients in the RGT resulted in a 12% BCAR rate (expected range 3·2-18·0). The overall BCAR rate for the six parallel CTG trials was 16%. 15 (40%) patients given CBMPs were successfully weaned from mycophenolate mofetil and maintained on tacrolimus monotherapy. Combined adverse event data and BCAR episodes from all six CTG trials revealed no safety concerns when compared with the RGT. Fewer episodes of infections were registered in CTG trials versus the RGT. INTERPRETATION: Regulatory cell therapy is achievable and safe in living-donor kidney transplant recipients, and is associated with fewer infectious complications, but similar rejection rates in the first year. Therefore, immune cell therapy is a potentially useful therapeutic approach in recipients of kidney transplant to minimise the burden of general immunosuppression. FUNDING: The 7th EU Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressão/métodos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/efeitos adversos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092116

RESUMO

In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, we compared the clinical characteristics, analyzed the glaucoma development, and the glaucoma surgery requirement mediators in patients with different virus-associated anterior uveitis (VAU). In total, 270 patients (= eyes) with VAU confirmed by positive Goldmann-Witmer coefficients (GWC) for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubella virus (RV), and multiple virus (MV) were included. Clinical records of these patients were analyzed. Demographic constitution, clinical findings, glaucoma development, and surgeries were recorded. The concentrations of 27 immune mediators were measured in 150 samples of aqueous humor. The GWC analysis demonstrated positive results for CMV in 57 (21%), HSV in 77 (29%), VZV in 45 (17%), RV in 77 (29%), and MV in 14 (5%) patients. CMV and RV AU occurred predominantly in younger and male patients, while VZV and HSV AU appeared mainly with the elderly and females (P<0.0001). The clinical features of all viruses revealed many similarities. In total, 52 patients (19%) showed glaucomatous damage and of these, 27 patients (10%) needed a glaucoma surgery. Minimal-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) showed a reliable IOP reduction in the short-term period. In 10 patients (37%), the first surgical intervention failed and a follow-up surgery was required. We conclude that different virus entities in anterior uveitis present specific risks for the development of glaucoma as well as necessary surgery. MIGS can be suggested as first-line-treatment in individual cases, however, the device needs to be carefully chosen by experienced specialists based on the individual needs of the patient. Filtrating glaucoma surgery can be recommended in VAU as an effective therapy to reduce the IOP over a longer period of time.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/cirurgia , Uveíte Anterior/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Humor Aquoso/imunologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Feminino , Glaucoma/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Uveíte Anterior/diagnóstico
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 628971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584731

RESUMO

Clinical trials on the use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma remain inconclusive. While data on safety is increasingly available, evidence for efficacy is still sparse. Subgroup analyses hint to a dose-response relationship between convalescent plasma neutralizing antibody levels and mortality. In particular, patients with primary and secondary antibody deficiency might benefit from this approach. However, testing of neutralizing antibodies is limited to specialized biosafety level 3 laboratories and is a time- and labor-intense procedure. In this single center study of 206 COVID-19 convalescent patients, clinical data, results of commercially available ELISA testing of SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG and -IgA, and levels of neutralizing antibodies, determined by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT), were analyzed. At a medium time point of 58 days after symptom onset, only 12.6% of potential plasma donors showed high levels of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT50 ≥ 1:320). Multivariable proportional odds logistic regression analysis revealed need for hospitalization due to COVID-19 (odds ratio 6.87; p-value 0.0004) and fever (odds ratio 3.00; p-value 0.0001) as leading factors affecting levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers in convalescent plasma donors. Using penalized estimation, a predictive proportional odds logistic regression model including the most important variables hospitalization, fever, age, sex, and anosmia or dysgeusia was developed. The predictive discrimination for PRNT50 ≥ 1:320 was reasonably good with AUC: 0.86 (with 95% CI: 0.79-0.92). Combining clinical and ELISA-based pre-screening, assessment of neutralizing antibodies could be spared in 75% of potential donors with a maximal loss of 10% of true positives (PRNT50 ≥ 1:320).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Convalescença , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19471, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857644

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Studies in rodent models demonstrated an association of CNS-infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages with disease severity. However, little is known about humans. Here, we performed an exploratory analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy controls and drug-naïve patients with early MS using multiplexed single-cell mass cytometry and algorithm-based data analysis. Two antibody panels comprising a total of 64 antibodies were designed to comprehensively analyse diverse immune cell populations, with particular emphasis on monocytes. PBMC composition and marker expression were overall similar between the groups. However, an increased abundance of CCR7+ and IL-6+ T cells was detected in early MS-PBMCs, whereas NFAT1hiT-bethiCD4+ T cells were decreased. Similarly, we detected changes in the subset composition of the CCR7+ and MIPßhi HLA-DR+ lymphocyte compartment. Only mild alterations were detected in monocytes/myeloid cells of patients with early MS, namely a decreased abundance of CD141hiIRF8hiCXCR3+CD68- dendritic cells. Unlike in Crohn's disease, no significant differences were found in the monocyte fraction of patients with early MS compared to healthy controls. This study provides a valuable resource for future studies designed to characterise and target diverse PBMC subsets in MS.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781089

RESUMO

Heterogeneous populations of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC) are among the most frequently tested cellular therapeutics for treating degenerative and immune disorders, which occur predominantly in the aging population. Currently, it is unclear whether advanced donor age and commonly associated comorbidities affect the properties of ex vivo-expanded BMSCs. Thus, we stratified cells from adult and elderly donors from our biobank (n = 10 and n = 13, mean age 38 and 72 years, respectively) and compared their phenotypic and functional performance, using multiple assays typically employed as minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We found that BMSCs from both cohorts meet the standard criteria for MSC, exhibiting similar morphology, growth kinetics, gene expression profiles, and pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive potential and the capacity to differentiate toward adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. We found no substantial differences between cells from the adult and elderly cohorts. As positive controls, we studied the impact of in vitro aging and inflammatory cytokine stimulation. Both conditions clearly affected the cellular properties, independent of donor age. We conclude that in vitro aging rather than in vivo donor aging influences BMSC characteristics.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Adipogenia , Adulto , Células-Tronco Adultas/imunologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Condrogênese , Comorbidade , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Osteogênese , Fenótipo , Doadores de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 866, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134051

RESUMO

The intestine mediates a delicate balance between tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses. The continuous pathogen encounter might also augment immune cell responses contributing to complications observed upon intestinal transplantation (ITx). We thus hypothesized that ITx patients show persistent signs of immune cell activation affecting both the adaptive and innate immune cell compartment. Information on the impact of intestinal grafts on immune cell composition, however, especially in the long-term is sparse. We here assessed activated and differentiated adaptive and innate immune subsets according to time, previous experience of cellular or antibody-mediated rejections or type of transplant after ITx applying multi-parametric flow cytometry, gene expression, serum cytokine and chemokine profiling. ITx patients showed an increase in CD16 expressing monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) compared to healthy controls. This was even detectable in patients who were transplanted more than 10 years ago. Also, conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed persistent signs of activation counterbalanced by increased activated CCR4+ regulatory T cells. Patients with previous cellular rejections had even higher proportions of CD16+ monocytes and DCs, whereas transplanting higher donor mass with multi-visceral grafts was associated with increased T cell activation. The persistent inflammation and innate immune cell activation might contribute to unsatisfactory results after ITx.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Intestinos/transplante , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2263, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118448

RESUMO

All memory T cells mount an accelerated response on antigen reencounter, but significant functional heterogeneity is present within the respective memory T-cell subsets as defined by CCR7 and CD45RA expression, thereby warranting further stratification. Here we show that several surface markers, including KLRB1, KLRG1, GPR56, and KLRF1, help define low, high, or exhausted cytokine producers within human peripheral and intrahepatic CD4+ memory T-cell populations. Highest simultaneous production of TNF and IFN-γ is observed in KLRB1+KLRG1+GPR56+ CD4 T cells. By contrast, KLRF1 expression is associated with T-cell exhaustion and reduced TNF/IFN-γ production. Lastly, TCRß repertoire analysis and in vitro differentiation support a regulated, progressive expression for these markers during CD4+ memory T-cell differentiation. Our results thus help refine the classification of human memory T cells to provide insights on inflammatory disease progression and immunotherapy development.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/imunologia , Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia
20.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 9356728, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906227

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the intraocular cytokine and chemokine profiles in patients with acute primary acquired ocular toxoplasmosis (pOT) or recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis (rOT) and to correlate them with their clinical characteristics. Methods: Aqueous humor samples were collected from 62 consecutive patients (21 pOT, 30 rOT, and 11 noninfected controls) and analyzed by multiplex assay. Correlations were assessed between cytokine/chemokine levels, type of inflammatory response (Th1, Th2, and Th17), and clinical characteristics. In all OT patients, the clinical diagnosis of either pOT or rOT was confirmed by positive intraocular Goldmann/Witmer-Desmonts coefficient. Correlations were assessed between a preselected panel of immune mediators and the clinical characteristics of OT. Results: In pOT patients, increased levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-15, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-17, IL-1Rα, IL-6, IL-1ß, and chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, IP-10, Eotaxin, IL-8, RANTES, PDGF-bb, GM-CSF, G-CSF, and MCP-1 were found in comparison to those in controls (p < 0.05). Patients with rOT showed elevated levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-15, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-17, IL-1Rα, IL-6, IL-1ß, and chemokines MIP-1α, IP-10, Eotaxin, IL-8, RANTES, PDGF-bb, G-CSF, and MCP-1 compared to controls (p < 0.05). In addition, IL-7 (p = 0.028) differed between pOT and rOT; IL-9 (p = 0.054) and IL-13 (p = 0.051) showed a tendency of higher concentration in pOT than in rOT. A negative correlation was found between IL-7 (p = 0.017) as well as IL-9 (p = 0.008) and the number of recurrences. Cytokine ratios showed no difference between pOT and rOT, indicating a dominant Th1-type response in both infectious groups. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between IL-7, VEGF, IL-13 and age at aqueous humor sampling (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study for the first time shows subtle differences between the intraocular cytokine profiles in patients with either acute pOT or rOT.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Toxoplasmose Ocular/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Humor Aquoso/imunologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Toxoplasmose Ocular/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...