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1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 198-203, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence that health interventions work is not enough to ensure implementation into policy and practice. The complexity of public health systems requires more diverse actions. This paper proposes a conceptual model to enhance understanding of interlinking factors that influence the evidence implementation process. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to explore factors that influence the process of evidence implementation in complex public health systems, including research findings and observations from 32 case studies of injury prevention interventions underway in 24 countries and results from evidence research networks. Concepts and themes identified through a critical review were organised, ordered and interlinked to build the model. RESULTS: An Evidence Implementation Model for Public Health Systems and four concepts or themes: Evidence implementation target; Actors involved in implementation; Knowledge transfer; and Barriers and facilitators to evidence implementation were developed to provide a simplified, yet broad framework that highlights multiple factors and back and forth inter-linkages within and between the concepts that influence the uptake of evidence into public health systems policy and practice. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the factors discussed within and amongst the four concepts of this model should ultimately help to positively influence the uptake of evidence into real world public health systems. This model has relevance for decision makers, researchers, knowledge brokers, and implementers.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Tomada de Decisões , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
2.
J Child Health Care ; 23(3): 343-357, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132868

RESUMO

Children's rights to autonomy of choice are differently expressed throughout Europe. We explored differences regarding expressions of respect for children's autonomy throughout Europe, using the procedure of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offer as indicator. We used a mixed methods approach, utilizing an expert survey within the frame of "Models of Child Health Appraised" (MOCHA), among all 30 European Union (EU) and European Economic Area states. A questionnaire was designed using vignettes regarding the vaccine provision. Thirty MOCHA country agents were invited to respond from June 2017 to April 2018. In total, 28 country agents responded. We studied the following themes: (i) provision of informed consent, (ii) parental and medical paternalism, (iii) relevance of the child's chronological age or maturity, and (iv) vaccination programs targeting boys. These are being handled differently across the region. We explored associations of these implemented practices with the national vaccine coverage rate across Europe. We used the processes of HPV vaccination to study child's autonomy, the paradigm change toward libertarian paternalism and issues of sex-equity. Interestingly, greater respect for children's autonomy tends to be associated with medium or high vaccination coverage rates and lower respect with lower rates. Respect and empowerment seem to have practical as well as moral benefits. Identifying and transferring the most suitable ethical approaches is crucial and should be strengthened.

3.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019833869, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845863

RESUMO

To adopt and implement innovative good practices across the European Union requires developing policies for different political and constitutional contexts. Health policies are mostly decided by national political processes at different levels. To attain effective advice for policy making and good practice exchange, one has to take different models of governance for health into account. We aimed to explore which concepts of governance research are relevant for implementing child health policies in a European Union context. We argue that taking into account the insights of good intersectoral and multilevel governance in research and practice is essential and promising for future analyses. These governance concepts help to understand what actors and institutions are potentially of relevance for developing and implementing child-centric health care approaches not only within health care but also outside health care. The framework we developed has the potential to advise on and thus support effectively the spreading and implementation of good practices of child-centric health policy approaches across the European Union. With this heuristic framework, the variety of relevant stakeholders and institutions can better be mapped and taken into account in implementation processes. Also, the normative side-particularly stressing values that make governance "good governance"-is to be taken into account.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Política de Saúde , Heurística , Formulação de Políticas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , União Europeia , Humanos , Política
4.
Implement Sci ; 13(1): 88, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving the public's health in different countries requires the consideration of diverse health care systems and settings. For evidence-based public health, decision-makers need to consider the transferability of effective health interventions from a primary context to their specific target context. The aim of this systematic review was to develop a model for the assessment of transferability of health interventions through identification and systematization of influencing criteria, including facilitators and barriers. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Articles were eligible if they were published in English or German and provided a description of transferability criteria. Included articles were ranked based on their thematic relevance and methodological support of transferability criteria. Using a qualitative approach, a thematic synthesis was conducted. RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles were included in the review. The thematic synthesis revealed 44 criteria, covered by 4 overarching themes, which influence transferability of health interventions: The population (P), the intervention (I), and the environment (E) represent 30 conditional transferability criteria, and the transfer of the intervention (T) represents 14 process criteria for transferring the intervention to the target context. Transferability (-T) depends on the dynamic interaction of conditional criteria in the primary and target context as well as on the process of transfer. The description of facilitators and barriers deepens the understanding of the criteria. The synthesis resulted in two related models: the conceptual PIET-T model explains the underlying mechanism of transferability of health interventions and the PIET-T process model provides practical guidance for a transferability assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Transferability of health interventions is a complex concept, which needs systematic consideration of the primary and target context. It should be anticipated before and evaluated after an intervention is implemented in the target context. Therefore, decision-makers need systematic and practically relevant knowledge on transferability. The synthesized PIET-T conceptual and process models with systematized criteria, facilitators, and barriers are intended as a theoretical basis to determine transferability of health interventions. Further research is needed to develop a practical tool for the PIET-T models and to evaluate the tool's usefulness for decision-making processes and intervention transfer.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Transferência de Tecnologia , Humanos
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