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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 96, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disease with prominent neurologic manifestations such as epilepsy, cognitive impairment and autism spectrum disorder. mTOR inhibitors have successfully been used to treat TSC-related manifestations in older children and adults. However, data on their safety and efficacy in infants and young children are scarce. The objective of this study is to assess the utility and safety of mTOR inhibitor treatment in TSC patients under the age of 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 17 children (median age at study inclusion 2.4 years, range 0-6; 12 males, 5 females) with TSC who received early mTOR inhibitor therapy were studied. mTOR inhibitor treatment was started at a median age of 5 months (range 0-19 months). Reasons for initiation of treatment were cardiac rhabdomyomas (6 cases), subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA, 5 cases), combination of cardiac rhabdomyomas and SEGA (1 case), refractory epilepsy (4 cases) and disabling congenital focal lymphedema (1 case). In all cases everolimus was used. Everolimus therapy was overall well tolerated. Adverse events were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE, Version 5.0). Grade 1-2 adverse events occurred in 12 patients and included mild transient stomatitis (2 cases), worsening of infantile acne (1 case), increases of serum cholesterol and triglycerides (4 cases), changes in serum phosphate levels (2 cases), increase of cholinesterase (2 cases), transient neutropenia (2 cases), transient anemia (1 case), transient lymphopenia (1 case) and recurrent infections (7 cases). No grade 3-4 adverse events were reported. Treatment is currently continued in 13/17 patients. Benefits were reported in 14/17 patients and included decrease of cardiac rhabdomyoma size and improvement of arrhythmia, decrease of SEGA size, reduction of seizure frequency and regression of congenital focal lymphedema. Despite everolimus therapy, two patients treated for intractable epilepsy are still experiencing seizures and another one treated for SEGA showed no volume reduction. CONCLUSION: This retrospective multicenter study demonstrates that mTOR inhibitor treatment with everolimus is safe in TSC patients under the age of 2 years and shows beneficial effects on cardiac manifestations, SEGA size and early epilepsy.


Assuntos
Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Esclerose Tuberosa/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , Colinesterases/sangue , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Fosfatos/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
2.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(3): 342-350, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575854

RESUMO

Importance: The identification and understanding of the monogenic causes of neurodevelopmental disorders are of high importance for personalized treatment and genetic counseling. Objective: To identify and characterize novel genes for a specific neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by refractory seizures, respiratory failure, brain abnormalities, and death in the neonatal period; describe the outcome of glutaminase deficiency in humans; and understand the underlying pathological mechanisms. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed exome sequencing of cases of neurodevelopmental disorders without a clear genetic diagnosis, followed by genetic and bioinformatic evaluation of candidate variants and genes. Establishing pathogenicity of the variants was achieved by measuring metabolites in dried blood spots by a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The participants are 2 families with a total of 4 children who each had lethal, therapy-refractory early neonatal seizures with status epilepticus and suppression bursts, respiratory insufficiency, simplified gyral structures, diffuse volume loss of the brain, and cerebral edema. Data analysis occurred from October 2017 to June 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Early neonatal epileptic encephalopathy with glutaminase deficiency and lethal outcome. Results: A total of 4 infants from 2 unrelated families, each of whom died less than 40 days after birth, were included. We identified a homozygous frameshift variant p.(Asp232Glufs*2) in GLS in the first family, as well as compound heterozygous variants p.(Gln81*) and p.(Arg272Lys) in GLS in the second family. The GLS gene encodes glutaminase (Enzyme Commission 3.5.1.2), which plays a major role in the conversion of glutamine into glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system. All 3 variants probably lead to a loss of function and thus glutaminase deficiency. Indeed, glutamine was increased in affected children (available z scores, 3.2 and 11.7). We theorize that the potential reduction of glutamate and the excess of glutamine were a probable cause of the described physiological and structural abnormalities of the central nervous system. Conclusions and Relevance: We identified a novel autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder of loss of function of glutaminase that leads to lethal early neonatal encephalopathy. This inborn error of metabolism underlines the importance of GLS for appropriate glutamine homeostasis and respiratory regulation, signal transduction, and survival.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 171(11): 1611-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22729243

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is the most common and well-known mandibulofacial dysostosis caused by mutations in at least three genes involved in pre-rRNA transcription, the TCOF1, POLR1D and POLR1C genes. We present a severely affected male individual with TCS with a heterozygous de novo frameshift mutation within the TCOF1 gene (c.790_791delAG,p.Ser264GlnfsX7) and compare the clinical findings with three previously unpublished, milder affected individuals from two families with the same mutation. We elucidate typical clinical features of TCS and its clinical implications for the paediatrician and mandibulofacial surgeon, especially in severely affected individuals and give a short review of the literature. CONCLUSION: The clinical data of these three families illustrate that the phenotype associated with this specific mutation has a wide intra- and interfamilial variability, which confirms that variable expressivity in carriers of TCOF1 mutations is not a simple consequence of the mutation but might be modified by the combination of genetic, environmental and stochastic factors. Being such a highly complex disease treatment of individuals with TCS should be tailored to the specific needs of each individual, preferably by a multidisciplinary team consisting of paediatricians, craniofacial surgeons and geneticists.


Assuntos
Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Criança , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Fenótipo
4.
Eur J Pediatr ; 169(12): 1523-8, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20652311

RESUMO

Gómez-López-Hernández syndrome (GLHS) is a rare and possibly underdiagnosed condition. So far, 21 patients have been reported and all of them were sporadic observations. We report six additional patients. The hallmark triad of GLHS, also named cerebellotrigeminal dermal dysplasia, consists of rhombencephalosynapsis, trigeminal anesthesia (often giving rise to corneal opacities), and bilateral parietal or parieto-occipital alopecia. Our patients had rhombencephalosynapsis and alopecia, but none had trigeminal dysfunction. In this respect, the term cerebellotrigeminal dermal dysplasia is potentially misleading. In conclusion, only rhombencephalosynapsis and alopecia are consistently present in GLHS and are required diagnostic criteria, while trigeminal anesthesia, dysmorphic features, and ataxia are inconsistent findings. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose GLHS, particularly as alopecia tends to be hidden by surrounding scalp hair.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Alopecia/fisiopatologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Rombencéfalo/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Alopecia/diagnóstico , Alopecia/patologia , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Síndromes Neurocutâneas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neurocutâneas/patologia , Síndromes Neurocutâneas/fisiopatologia , Rombencéfalo/anormalidades , Rombencéfalo/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 169(5): 569-72, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19813022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In most countries, hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 is not included in routine newborn screening. DISCUSSION: We present the case of a female newborn with prenatal diagnosis of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 and clear identification of this disorder by succinylacetone measurement in cord blood and peripheral blood immediately after birth. Succinylacetone was 44 micromol/L (norm <5 micromol/L) and increased within 12 h to 87.5 micromol/L. CONCLUSION: With the high toxic potential of downstream metabolites, these data clearly point out the necessity of early nitisinone treatment to prevent symptomatic disease.


Assuntos
Heptanoatos/sangue , Tirosinemias/sangue , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Tirosinemias/diagnóstico , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise
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