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1.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 112: 104519, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier evidence indicated an association between chronotype and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). However, these earlier data were collected without objective control for participant compliance being available, which, following recent guidelines, is considered critical for ensuring data validity. Here, we are seeking to replicate these earlier findings within a well-controlled sleep laboratory set up. METHODS: The sample consisted of 103 young males, including 12 participants defined as 'evening' (MEQ < 41) and 20 participants defined as 'morning type' (MEQ > 59) types. All participants slept for one night in a sleep laboratory and were wakened at 6:30 AM the next morning. Saliva samples for the assessment of the CAR were collected under strict supervision at 0, 15, and 30 min post-awakening. RESULTS: Significant effects of chronotype emerged consistently from both dimensional analyses across the entire sample and from comparisons between morning vs. evening type. Overall, greater morningness was associated with an increased cortisol level upon awakening (S1) as well as with a greater overall cortisol output (AUCG), however, it was not associated with the CAR (AUCI). DISCUSSION: Our data corroborate earlier evidence by showing that, under well-controlled sleep-laboratory conditions, chronotype is related to an altered cortisol secretion over the post-awakening period with no association with the CAR. However, the results have to be replicated since it is only a single day study design.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837450

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Fatigue is a frequent symptom in patients suffering from chronic diseases. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) is often used to measure fatigue. The aim of this article was to test the scale structure of the questionnaire. METHODS: The MFI-20 data were obtained from seven samples, including general population samples and samples of patients with different diseases (N between 122 and 1993). Five confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were tested for each sample. RESULTS: The scale structure postulated by the original test authors could not be confirmed by the CFAs. The inclusion of a method factor which considers the positive versus the negative orientation of the items yielded a better model fit. Cronbach's alpha was acceptable for most of the samples and scales: the total score of the MFI-20 reached alpha coefficients above 0.89. A short form of the MFI-20 which is restricted to the 10 positively oriented items (MFI-10) showed relatively good CFA indices. CONCLUSION: The factorial validity of the MFI-20 is insufficient, an issue which is due, at least in part, to the inclusion of positively and negatively oriented items. Nevertheless, we recommend maintaining the scale structure of the MFI-20 and not searching for alternative structures.

3.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1956, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543848

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00832.].

4.
Psychopathology ; 52(3): 184-190, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different studies have shown that a patient's attachment correlates with the psychotherapy outcome. However, these findings are based on the traditional interview and paper and pencil attachment methods. Latency-based methods like the Implicit Association Test (IAT) have not yet been investigated in clinical attachment research, specifically in therapy outcome research. OBJECTIVES: It can be hypothesized that patients with positive schemas of their mother and their partner may show a better psychotherapeutic outcome than those with less positive schemas of their mother/partner. METHOD: A sample of 103 patients suffering from panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (age 36.73, SD = 10.80), including 56% of patients with affective or other anxiety disorders as comorbidities without a personality disorder, based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/II), were treated with a manualized cognitive-behavioral confrontation therapy. Two IATs (for mother and partner) were implemented before the therapy (t1). The symptom reduction was assessed by the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with symptoms at t1 and IAT at t1 as predictors of symptoms at t2. RESULTS: The results confirmed a moderate to high therapeutic effect of the confrontation therapy. Furthermore, the mother's IAT at t1 predicted the Global Severity Index (ß = 0.20) as well as the Anxiety subscale (ß = 0.18) at t2 above and beyond the t1 measurement of the criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Implicit attitudes of the mother predicted the symptom reduction and a better therapeutic outcome. Relationship aspects with less impact awareness predicted the therapeutic outcome, even though mostly cognitive-behavioral techniques were used.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315141

RESUMO

Sense of coherence is a psychological resource which contributes substantially to an individual's ability to cope well with stressful situations. In the present study we investigate an ultra-short form of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-3) in a representative sample of the German general population (N=2.018). The 3-item model evinced excellent model fit qualities and acceptable reliability. We present evidence for partial strict invariance across sex and age groups. In terms of construct validity, our analyses demonstrate strong overlap between the SOC-3 and two longer versions (-9 and -29). In addition, correlations to related constructs such as attachment styles, physical and mental health, as well as quality of life were similar between the SOC versions. For the first time, normative values for the German population are presented to allow for the classification of individual scores. We recommend the SOC-3 as a screener for applied sciences and for large-scale surveys in particular.

6.
Assessment ; : 1073191119860910, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272193

RESUMO

The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) is a widely applied measure of depression and anxiety. The present study examines two of its short forms-the HSCL-5 and HSCL-10, which have been proposed by previous research-in a representative sample of the German general population. To this end, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory analysis on two subsamples (n = 1,246 and n = 1,216). Our results suggest that, compared with the HSCL-25, both short forms represent economical ways of assessing depression and anxiety. Model fit was good and correlations with established measures demonstrate convergent validity. Both HSCL short forms are strongly invariant across sex, and we found evidence for partial strong invariance across age groups. Further analyses showed that differences in HSCL can be partially explained by sociodemographic variables. Finally, we report normative values for usage by researchers and clinicians. We recommend the HSCL-5 and HSCL-10 for clinical and research-oriented application.

7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 108: 28-34, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is assumed that the expression of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is modulated by light exposure during the peri-awakening period. While initial evidence supports this principal effect, the specific role of the spectral composition of light (brightness and wavelength) is still incompletely understood. METHOD: Two counterbalanced within-subject experiments were conducted in a standardized sleep laboratory setting to investigate the effect of light intensity (study I; two days: dim vs. bright light) and spectral composition (study II; three days: red vs. blue vs. green light) on the CAR. Across studies, light exposure was conducted for one-hour post-awakening and the accuracy of CAR assessments (based on eight saliva samples) was well-controlled in line with recent guidelines. RESULTS: The two studies revealed consistent effects of light exposure on the CAR. Specifically, an increased CAR was found after exposure to bright (vs. dim) light (study I; (F(3.7, 106.4) = 11.93, p < .001, η²p = .29) and following blue and green (vs. red) light exposure (study II; F(4.9, 194.6) = 2.49, p = .037, η²p = .10). CONCLUSION: Our findings illustrate the crucial role of light intensity and wavelength for expression of the CAR, in line with current theoretical knowledge of underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

8.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-10, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046437

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death, worldwide. To protect those vulnerable to cardiac arrest, defibrillators performing reanimation by automatic discharge are implanted. Due to the high pain intensity of such a procedure, many patients develop anxiety disorders. To diagnose the fear-relevant symptoms, the English version of the Florida Shock Anxiety Scale (FSAS) is used. The present study investigates the quality of the German version of the FSAS using a confirmatory factor analysis. Therefore, a sample of N = 138 participants (n = 38 female and n = 100 male; age: M = 60.99, SD = 11.58) with implanted or wearable cardioverter defibrillators was examined. Similar to the English version, the most suitable model includes the two factors 'consequence' and 'trigger stimulus'. Although, in our investigation, it is not a second order model but a bi-factorial model which reaches the best fit. Both the internal consistency and the convergent validity were checked and showed sufficiently good values. In summary, the German version of the FSAS may also be recommended for the diagnosis of shock-induced anxiety disorder.

9.
Front Psychol ; 10: 832, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057460

RESUMO

Humans are highly motivated to achieve shared reality - common inner states (i.e., judgments, opinions, attitudes) with others about a target object. Scholarly interest in the phenomenon has been rapidly growing over the last decade, culminating in the development of a five-item self-report scale for Shared Reality about a Target (SR-T; Schmalbach et al., unpublished). The present study aims to validate the German version of the scale. Individuals can establish shared reality either by receiving social verification (i.e., agreement or confirmation from an interaction partner) or by aligning their inner state with that of their partner. To increase the scope of the present validation, we implemented both pathways of shared-reality creation in three studies (N = 522). Study 1 employed a social judgment task, in which participants assessed ambiguous social situations and received confirming (vs. disconfirming) feedback from their partner. Studies 2 and 3 build on the saying-is-believing paradigm, in which participants align their own evaluation of the target with their partner's judgment. Based on an evaluatively ambiguous description, participants communicated about a target person and later recalled information about the target (Study 2). To further generalize the findings, message production was omitted from the paradigm in Study 3. Overall, the five-item model of the SR-T evinced good fit and reliability. In Study 1, the SR-T reflected experimentally induced differences in commonality of judgments- even when controlling for several related state measures, such as Inclusion of Other in the Self and Need Threat. In Studies 2 and 3, the SR-T predicted participants' evaluative recall bias, which is an established, indirect index of communicators' shared-reality creation. This effect was stronger when participants overtly communicated with their study partner, but it still emerged without overt communication. Across all studies, correlations with related constructs support the convergent validity of the SR-T. In sum, we recommend the use of the SR-T in research on interpersonal processes and communication.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SCL-K-9 is the latest short version of the multidimensional Symptom-Checklist 90-R. Up to now, its psychometric properties have not been clarified sufficiently as the nine items have not yet been presented exclusively in a representative sample. Therefore, psychometric properties, model fit values as well as norm-values were analyzed. METHODS: For the sample, N = 2,507 participants aged 14 to 92, n = 1,379 women and n = 1,128 men, and a mean age of 48.79 (SD = 17.91), were selected from the general population by random-route sampling. Confirmatory factor analyses applying full information maximum likelihood (FIML) tested the model fit. The reliability estimations and effect sizes were reported. RESULTS: The items' discriminative power ranged between .49 to .65, and the Cronbach's Alpha was α = .87, which stands for a good reliability of the SCL-K-9. Norm values as well as gender and age specificities were presented in this section. The CFA with all nine items loading on one latent factor resulted in a good fit. There was evidence of invariance across age and gender groups. SUMMARY: Based on these results, the short screening version SCL-K-9 of the Symptom-Checklist 90-R showed good reliability and good model fit; specific norm values could be determined. Further studies should evaluate the usefulness of the standardization in clinical samples.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/patologia , Braço/fisiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/patologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Saúde Mental/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 64(4): 394-410, 2018 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516100

RESUMO

Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the Health Regulatory Focus Scale Objectives: This study examines the psychometric properties of the German version of the Health Regulatory Focus Scale (HRFS), which measures health-related promotion- and prevention-based motivation. METHODS: The study is based on data from the 28th (N = 332) and 29th survey wave (N = 253) of the Saxony Longitudinal Study. It examines item characteristics, factorial, convergent and prognostic validity as well as the influence of sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: The psychometric properties of the German version are excellent, after removal of Item 5. A two-factor structure as well as good validity were confirmed. CONCLUSION: The shortened German version of the HRFS is well suited to capturing the health related regulatory focus of this test and makes it useful in the area of health promotion and prevention.


Assuntos
Análise Fatorial , Psicometria , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 18(1): 164, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The SCL-90 and the SCL-90-R are the most applied measures regarding psychological distress. To reduce and prevent an overload to of the individuals, the Brief Symptom Inventory with 18 items (BSI-18) was developed based on the SCL-90. Since psychological disorders more frequently occur at an older age, there is a growing need for efficient instruments to measure distress in the elderly. However, the BSI-18's psychometric properties, norm values, and factorial structure have not yet been investigated in this age group. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the BSI-18 in a sample of elderly people and to establish norm values for this specific population. Subsequently, demographic information and BSI-18 results were collected from a sample totaling 884 (55% female, mean age of 70.75 years, SD = 7.08, age range = 60-95 years). The questionnaire contains three six-item scales: somatization (SOMA), anxiety (ANX), and depression (DEPR), which form a general symptom index (GSI). RESULTS: We found an acceptable to good model fit for a three-factor-model with a general GSI factor. The BSI-18's psychometric properties were satisfactory. Strict measurement invariance was shown for age and gender. Additionally, we found differences in psychological distress based on sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underline the growing need for preventive mechanisms for elderly people such as, e.g., (re)activating their social networks and strengthening their physical and psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 23: 57-61, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331878

RESUMO

Communication is a key arena and means for shared-reality creation. Most studies explicitly devoted to shared reality have focused on the opening part of a conversation, that is, a speaker's initial message to an audience. The aspect of communication examined by this research is the evaluative adaptation (tuning) of the messages to the audience's attitude or judgment. The speaker's shared-reality creation is typically assessed by the extent to which the speaker's evaluative representation of the topic matches the audience-tuned view expressed in the message. We first review research on such audience-tuning effects, with a focus on shared-reality goals and conditions facilitating the generalization of shared reality. We then review studies using other paradigms that illustrate factors of shared-reality creation in communication, including mere message production, grounding, validation responses, and communication about commonly known information (including stereotypes) in intragroup communication. The different lines of research reveal the potency, but also boundary conditions, of communication effects on shared reality.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Interpessoais , Teste de Realidade , Atitude
14.
BMC Psychol ; 5(1): 40, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Regulatory Focus Questionnaire (RFQ) assesses regulatory promotion and prevention focus, which represent orientations towards gains or losses. The main objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the newly translated German version. METHODS: A sample of 1024 participants answered the questionnaire and several related instruments. We used an online survey tool to collect this data. Data analysis was conducted using methods of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS and AMOS. RESULTS: The RFQ displayed acceptable reliability, while its correlations with other, related psychological constructs indicated good validity. Factor analysis showed good fit for a two-dimensional model. Tests of measurement invariance revealed clear evidence for metric invariance while scalar invariance remained uncertain. Differences in regulatory focus based on sociodemographic characteristics are reported and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the RFQ can be recommended for application in fields dealing with motivation and goal attainment in a broad sense.


Assuntos
Metas , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Teoria Psicológica , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Psychol ; 8: 2005, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184528

RESUMO

The Health Regulatory Focus Scale (HRFS) is a short scale which measures an individual's prevention and promotion focus in a health-specific context. The main objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the newly translated German version of the HRFS. Reliability and item characteristics were found to be satisfactory. Validity of both subscales toward other psychological constructs including behavioral approach and avoidance, core self-evaluations, optimism, pessimism, neuroticism, as well as several measures of physical and mental health was shown. In addition, invariance of the measure across age and gender groups was shown. Exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analyses clearly indicated a two-factorial structure with a moderate correlation between the two latent constructs. Differences in health promotion and prevention focus between socio-demographic groups are discussed. The HRFS is found to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of regulatory focus in health-related environments.

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