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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044483, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic, autoimmune connective tissue disease associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Currently, there are several treatments available in early dcSSc that aim to change the disease course, including immunosuppressive agents and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). HSCT has been adopted in international guidelines and is offered in current clinical care. However, optimal timing and patient selection for HSCT are still unclear. In particular, it is unclear whether HSCT should be positioned as upfront therapy or rescue treatment for patients refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. We hypothesise that upfront HSCT is superior and results in lower toxicity and lower long-term medical costs. Therefore, we propose this randomised trial aiming to determine the optimal treatment strategy for early dcSSc by comparing two strategies used in standard care: (1) upfront autologous HSCT versus (2) immunosuppressive therapy (intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy followed by mycophenolate mofetil) with rescue HSCT in case of treatment failure. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UPSIDE (UPfront autologous hematopoietic Stem cell transplantation vs Immunosuppressive medication in early DiffusE cutaneous systemic sclerosis) study is a multicentre, randomised, open-label, controlled trial. In total, 120 patients with early dcSSc will be randomised. The primary outcome is event-free survival at 2 years after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include serious adverse events, functional status and health-related quality of life. We will also evaluate changes in nailfold capillaroscopy pattern, pulmonary function, cardiac MR and high-resolution CT of the chest. Follow-up visits will be scheduled 3-monthly for 2 years and annually in the following 3 years. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Dutch Central Committee on Research Concerning Human Subjects (NL72607.041.20). The results will be disseminated through patient associations and conventional scientific channels. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT04464434; NL 8720.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(3): 585-594, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403468

RESUMO

The term complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) describes a broad spectrum of health care practices that are not an integral part of the conventional health care system. Many patients worldwide use CAM on their own initiative, often in combination with their conventional medical therapy. CAM use is attractive especially to patients with primary immunodeficiency, since they suffer from frequent infections and autoimmunity. Those are frequently addressed by CAM providers. The aim of this multicentric study was to collect information on the use of CAM by these patients and to define characteristics that are associated with the use of CAM. A total of 101 patients with primary immunodeficiencies at German hospitals were surveyed on their CAM use (further 14 patients rejected to participate). Multiple psychological tests (MARS-D, WHO-5, PHQ9, EFQ) were conducted to investigate variations among personality traits associated with CAM use. Additionally, clinical and sociodemographic patient data was collected. A total of 72% of patients used CAM to treat their primary immunodeficiency. The three most frequently used methods were physical exercise or fitness training (65%), dietary supplements (58%), and homeopathy (49%). Most patients did not discuss CAM use with their doctors, mostly because they felt that there was no time for it. CAM plays an important role for patients with primary immunodeficiency in a high-resource health care setting such as Germany. In clinical practice, doctors should create a platform to discuss needs that go beyond conventional therapy.

3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 572475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042152

RESUMO

Memory B cells have known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the emergence of B cell-targeted therapies, the modulation of memory B cells appears to be a key therapeutic target. Human peripheral memory B cells can be distinguished based on the phenotypic expression of CD27 and IgD, characterizing the three major B cell subpopulations: CD27+IgD+ pre-switch, CD27+IgD- post-switch, and CD27-IgD- double-negative memory B cells. We evaluated different memory cell populations for activation markers (CD95 and Ki-67) and chemokine receptors (CXCR3 and 4) expressing B cells in active RA, as well as under IL6-R blockade by tocilizumab (TCZ) and TNF-α blockade by adalimumab (ADA). Memory B cells were phenotypically analyzed from RA patients at baseline, week 12, and week 24 under TCZ or ADA treatment, respectively. Using flow cytometry, surface expression of CD95, intracellular Ki-67, and surface expressions of CXCR3 and CXCR4 were determined. Compared with healthy donors (n = 40), the phenotypic analysis of RA patients (n = 80) demonstrated that all three types of memory B cells were activated in RA patients. Surface and intracellular staining of B cells showed a significantly higher percentage of CD95+ (p < 0.0001) and Ki-67+ (p < 0.0001) cells, with numerically altered CXCR3+ and CXCR4+ cells in RA. CD95 and Ki-67 expressions were highest in post-switch memory B cells, whereas CD19+CXCR3+ and CD19+CXCR4+ expressing cells were substantially higher in the pre-switch compartment. In all subsets of the memory B cells, in vivo IL-6R, and TNF-α blockade significantly reduced the enhanced expressions of CD95 and Ki-67. Based on our findings, we conclude that the three major peripheral memory B cell populations, pre-, post-switch, and double-negative B cells, are activated in RA, demonstrating enhanced CD95 and Ki-67 expressions, and varied expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors when compared with healthy individuals. This activation can be efficaciously modulated under cytokine inhibition in vivo.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 581338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123167

RESUMO

Objectives: The severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is largely determined by the immune response. First studies indicate altered lymphocyte counts and function. However, interactions of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain elusive. In the current study we characterized the immune responses in patients suffering from severe COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed COVID-19 between March 14th and May 28th 2020 (n = 39). Longitudinal data were collected within routine clinical care, including flow-cytometry of lymphocyte subsets, cytokine analysis and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15). Antibody responses against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein were analyzed. Results: All patients suffered from severe ARDS, 30.8% died. Interleukin (IL)-6 was massively elevated at every time-point. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was concomitantly upregulated with IL-6. The cellular response was characterized by lymphocytopenia with low counts of CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) and naïve T helper cells. CD8+ T and NK cells recovered after 8 to 14 days. The B cell system was largely unimpeded. This coincided with a slight increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike-RBD immunoglobulin (Ig) G and a decrease in anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike-RBD IgM. GDF-15 levels were elevated throughout ICU treatment. Conclusions: Massively elevated levels of IL-6 and a delayed cytotoxic immune defense characterized severe COVID-19-induced ARDS. The B cell response and antibody production were largely unimpeded. No obvious imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms was observed, with elevated GDF-15 levels suggesting increased tissue resilience.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Feminino , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Linfopenia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
5.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 183, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is a treatment option for a selected group of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with good available evidence but can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe infectious complications and distinct immune reconstitution patterns after aHSCT and to detect risk factors in lymphocyte subsets, which are associated with an elevated rate of infections after aHSCT. METHODS: Seventeen patients with SSc were included in this single-center retrospective cohort study. Clinical and laboratory data was collected before and for 12 months after aHSCT, including immunophenotyping of peripheral whole blood by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RESULTS: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivations were common in CMV-IgG-positive patients (50%) and needed treatment. Mycotic infections occurred in 17.6%. One patient died (resulting in a mortality of 5.9%) due to pneumonia with consecutive sepsis. All patients showed decreased T helper cells (CD3+/CD4+) and within the B cell compartment decreased post-switched memory B cells (CD19+/CD27+/IgD-) and elevated naïve B cells (CD19+/CD27-/IgD+) until 12 months after aHSCT. Patients who developed infections had significantly lower B cells before aHSCT than patients who did not develop infections. CONCLUSION: After aHSCT, monitoring for infectious complications, especially for CMV reactivations, is crucial as the reconstitution of the immune system takes longer than 12 months. Low peripheral B cells might be a risk factor for an elevated infection rate.

8.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(7): 699-723, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713146

RESUMO

The increasingly frequent use of immunomodulatory agents in dermatology requires the observance of specific recommendations for immunization. These recommendations are developed and regularly updated by the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO), an independent advisory group at the Robert Koch Institute. Dermatological patients on immunosuppressive treatment should ideally receive all vaccinations included in the standard immunization schedule. Additionally, it is recommended that they also undergo vaccination against the seasonal flu, pneumococci, and herpes zoster (inactivated herpes zoster subunit vaccine for patients ≥ 50 years). Additional immunizations against Haemophilus influenzae type B, hepatitis B and meningococci may be indicated depending on individual comorbidities and exposure risk. Limitations of use, specific contraindications and intervals to be observed between vaccination and immunosuppression depend on the immunosuppressive agent used and its dosing. Only under certain conditions may live-attenuated vaccines be administered in patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Given its strong suppressive effect on the humoral immune response, no vaccines - except for flu shots - should be given within six months after rituximab therapy. This CME article presents current recommendations on immunization in immunocompromised individuals, with a special focus on dermatological patients. Its goal is to enable readers to provide competent counseling and to initiate necessary immunizations in this vulnerable patient group.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Vacinação , Dermatologia/educação , Educação Médica Continuada , Alemanha , Humanos , Vacinação/normas
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670291

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in adults. It is associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, recurring infections and autoimmune phenomena. Treatment includes immunoglobulin substitution and immunosuppressants. Autoimmune neurological manifestations of CVID are rare and occur predominantly as granulomatous disease. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with CVID who developed autoimmune encephalitis as demonstrated by double cerebral biopsy. Infectious or malignant causes could be excluded. Despite intensive immunosuppressive therapy with common regimens no significant improvement could be achieved. Ultimately, an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed, resulting in lasting complete remission of the encephalitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of refractory autoimmune phenomena in CVID treated by autologous HSCT.

10.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(8): 2491, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474886

RESUMO

The original version of this article was published without open access. With the author(s)' decision to opt for Open Choice the copyright of the article changed.].

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20201, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384515

RESUMO

Most studies of methotrexate (MTX) in combination with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors have focused on treatment-naive patients with early disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether previous biologic therapy influenced the impact of concomitant MTX in patients initiating treatment with adalimumab.We retrospectively analyzed data from 2 large noninterventional studies of German patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who initiated adalimumab therapy during routine clinical practice. Patients were seen between April 2004 and February 2013 for study 1 and between April 2003 and March 2013 for study 2. Key outcomes were Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28), patient global assessment of health (PGA), and pain. Subgroup analyses by prior biologic treatment were performed on patients treated with continuous adalimumab monotherapy or adalimumab plus MTX for 12 months and 2-sample t tests were used to evaluate differences. We also assessed outcomes in subgroups in which MTX had been added or removed at 6 months and compared outcomes with 1-sample t tests.Of 2654 patients, 1911 (72%) were biologic naive and 743 (28%) had received prior biologic therapy, usually with a TNF inhibitor. All subgroups showed improvements following initiation of adalimumab therapy. In patients with no previous biologic treatment, continuous adalimumab plus MTX was associated with greater improvements in DAS28, PGA, and pain at month 12 compared with continuous adalimumab monotherapy (P = .0006, .0031, and .0032, respectively). In patients with previous biologic treatment, concomitant MTX was associated with statistically significant benefits in pain only. Adding MTX at month 6 resulted in additional benefits in patients with no prior biologic therapy, but not those with previous biologics.We conclude that concomitant MTX resulted in additional improvements in DAS28 and PGA vs adalimumab monotherapy in patients with no previous biologic therapy, but changes were not statistically significant in patients treated with prior biologics. These findings may help inform the patient/provider treatment decision during routine clinical care.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Produtos Biológicos , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Dor/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 59-64, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare sexual dysfunction (SDF) in female patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), to correlate sexual function with disease characteristics and depression, and to evaluate a short questionnaire (Qualisex) as a screening test. METHODS: Female patients with systemic sclerosis or systemic lupus erythematosus in two German tertiary university hospitals were evaluated in a prospective study. A self-designed questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Qualisex, and the Beck's depression inventory were used. RESULTS: 171 female patients were included into the study (83 with SSc, and 88 with SLE). 62.6% (52 of 83) of SSc patients and 67.0% (59 of 88) of SLE patients were sexually active. Only 9.6% of SSc patients and 14.8% of SLE patients had ever discussed sexual problems with their physician. Significantly more SSc patients would wish to discuss sexuality with their physician more intensively (37.3% vs. 28.4% in SLE patients, p=0.011). Among the 51 sexually active and evaluable SSc patients a mean FSFI of 25.53 (±5.06) was found, with a FSFI value defining sexual dysfunction (SDF) (<26.55) in 49% of patients, which did not differ significantly compared to SLE patients (n=59, mean FSFI 26.92 (±5.17), SDF in 45.8%). The Qualisex correlated significantly with the FSFI, and both Qualisex and FSFI correlated with depressiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction (SDF) is a frequent problem in female patients with SSc and SLE. Addressing sexual issues during medical consultation is an unmet need. The Qualisex constitutes a short questionnaire, which is suitable for addressing concerns on sexuality.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(11): 3380-3389, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis is a heterogeneous, multisystem disease. It can occur at any age, but most patients develop the disease between the age of 40 to 50 years. There is controversial evidence on whether/how the age at disease onset affects their clinical phenotype. We here investigate the relationship between age at disease onset and symptoms in a large cohort of SSc patients (lcSSc, dcSSc and SSc-overlap syndromes). METHODS: Clinical data of the registry of the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma including 3281 patients were evaluated and subdivided into three age groups at disease onset (<40 years, 40-60 years, >60 years). RESULTS: Among all SSc patients, 24.5% developed their first non-Raynaud phenomenon symptoms at the age <40 years, and 22.5% were older than 60 years of age. In particular, older patients at onset developed the lcSSc subset significantly more often. Furthermore, they had pulmonary hypertension more often, but digital ulcerations less often. Remarkably, the course of the disease was more rapidly progressing in the older cohort (>60 years), except for gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal involvement. No significant difference was found for the use of corticosteroids. However, significantly, fewer patients older than 60 years received immunosuppressive treatment. CONCLUSION: In this large registry, ∼25% of patients developed SSc at an age above 60 years with an increased frequency of lcSSc. In this age group, an onset of internal organ involvement was significantly accelerated across all three subsets. These findings suggest that, in the elderly cohort, more frequent follow-up examinations are required for an earlier detection of organ complications.

14.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(9): 2583-2592, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of adalimumab therapy on work-related outcomes in employed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHOD: We utilized data from an observational cohort of German patients who initiated adalimumab treatment during routine clinical care. Analyses were based on employed patients (part-time or full-time) who continued adalimumab treatment for 24 months. Major outcomes were self-reported sick leave days in the previous 6 months, absenteeism, presenteeism, and total work productivity impairment as assessed by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire and disease activity assessments. The normal number of sick leave days was based on data from the German Federal Statistical Office. RESULTS: Of 783 patients, 72.3% were women, mean age was 47.9 years, and mean disease duration was 7.8 years. At baseline (before adalimumab initiation), 42.9% of patients had higher than normal sick leave days (> 5) in the previous 6 months. During 24 months of adalimumab treatment, 61% of patients with higher than normal sick leave days at baseline returned to normal sick leave values (≤ 5 days/6 months). Overall, mean sick leave days/6 months decreased from 14.8 days at baseline to 7.4 days at month 24. Improvements were observed in WPAI assessments and disease activity measures, although presenteeism levels remained high (32.2% at month 24). CONCLUSIONS: Adalimumab treatment was associated with strong and sustained improvements in work-related outcomes in employed patients who continued on adalimumab for 24 months. Presenteeism appears to be the work outcome most resistant to improvement during RA treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01076205 Key Points • Long-term adalimumab therapy was associated with sustained improvements in work outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. • Despite improvements in sick leave days and work absenteeism, presenteeism (impairment while at work) remained relatively high.

15.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949011

RESUMO

Three randomized controlled trials in early severe systemic sclerosis demonstrated that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was superior to standard cyclophosphamide therapy. This European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation multi-center prospective non-interventional study was designed to further decipher efficacy and safety of this procedure for severe systemic sclerosis patients in real-life practice and to search for prognostic factors. All consecutive adult systemic sclerosis patients undergoing a first autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between December 2012 and February 2016 were prospectively included in the study. Primary endpoint was progression free survival. Secondary endpoints were overall survival, non-relapse mortality, response and incidence of progression. Eighty systemic sclerosis patients were included. Median follow-up duration was 24 (6-57) months after stem cell transplantation using cyclophosphamide plus antithymocyte globulins conditioning for all, with CD34+ selection in 35 patients. At 2 years, progression free survival was 81.8%, overall survival was 90%, response was 88.7% and incidence of progression was 11.9%. The 100 days non-relapse mortality was 6.25% (n=5) with four deaths from cardiac event, including three due to cyclophosphamide toxicity. Modified Rodnan skin score and forced vital capacity improved with time (p< 0.001). By multivariate analysis, baseline skin score >24 and older age at transplant were associated with lower progression free survival (Hazard ration 3.32) and 1.77, respectively). CD34+-selection was associated with better response (Hazard ration: 0.46). This study confirms the efficacy of autologous stem cell transplantation in real-life practice for severe systemic sclerosis using non myeloablative conditioning. Careful cardio-pulmonary assessment to identify organ involvement at patient referral, reduced cyclophosphamide doses and CD34+ selection may improve outcomes. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02516124.

16.
J Rheumatol ; 47(2): 241-248, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a severe life-threatening manifestation in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the knowledge about risk factors for SRC is limited. We determined here the frequency of SRC and identified risk factors for the prediction of SRC. METHODS: Based on regular followup data from the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma, we used univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations to analyze the association between clinical variables, SSc subsets, therapy [i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), corticosteroids], and the occurrence of SRC. RESULTS: Data of 2873 patients with 10,425 visits were available for analysis with a mean number of registry visits of 3.6 ± 2.8 and a mean time of followup of 3.6 ± 3.8 years. In total, 70 patients developed SRC (70/2873, 2.4%). Of these patients, 57.1% (40/70) were diagnosed with diffuse cutaneous SSc, 31.4% (22/70) with limited cutaneous SSc, and 11.4% (8/70) with SSc-overlap syndromes. Predictive independent factors with the highest probability for SRC were positive anti-RNA polymerase antibodies (RNAP), a history of proteinuria prior to SRC onset, diminished DLCO, and a history of hypertension. Interestingly, positive antitopoisomerase autoantibodies did not predict a higher risk for SRC. Further, patients with SRC were significantly more frequently treated with ACEi and corticosteroids without being independently associated with SRC. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, SRC has become a rare complication. By far the highest risk for SRC was associated with the detection of anti-RNAP and proteinuria.

17.
BMC Rheumatol ; 3: 51, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867564

RESUMO

Background: The Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) is used to assess functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the change required for meaningful improvements remains unclear. A minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of 0.22 is frequently used in RA trials. The aim of this study was to determine a statistically defined critical difference for HAQ-DI (HAQ-DI-dcrit) and evaluate its association with therapeutic outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from adult German patients with RA enrolled in a multicenter observational trial in which they received adalimumab therapy at the decision of the treating clinician during routine clinical care. The HAQ-DI-dcrit, defined as the minimum change that can be reliably discriminated from random long-term variations in patients on stable therapy, was determined by evaluating intra-individual variation in patient scores. Other outcomes of interest included Disease Activity Score-28 joints and patient-reported pain and fatigue. Results: The HAQ-DI-dcrit was calculated as an improvement (decrease) from baseline of 0.68 in a discovery cohort (N = 1645) of RA patients on stable therapy and with moderate disease activity (mean DAS28 [standard deviation] of 4.4 [1.6]). In the full patient cohort (N = 2740), 22.1% of patients achieved a HAQ-DI-dcrit improvement at month 6. Compared with patients with a small improvement in HAQ-DI (decrease of ≥0.22 to < 0.68) or no improvement (< 0.22), patients achieving a HAQ-DI-dcrit at month 6 had better therapeutic outcomes at months 12 and 24, including stable functional improvements. Change in pain was the most important predictor of HAQ-DI improvement during the first 6 months of therapy. Conclusions: A HAQ-DI-dcrit of 0.68 is a reliable measure of functional improvement. This measure may be useful in routine clinical care and clinical trials. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01076205. Registered on February 26, 2010 (retrospectively registered).

18.
Eur J Dermatol ; 29(5): 468-476, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789272

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a predominantly T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorder with a characteristic sequence of Th1 and Th2 inflammation resulting in fibrosis. The contribution of differentiated memory T-cell subpopulations and methylation of CpG regions of Th1- or Th2-specific transcription factor genes on the inflammatory cytokine signature in SSc is not well understood. The study aimed to investigate phenotypic differentiation, the cytokine signature, sensitivity of memory T cells to in vitro suppression by autologous regulatory T cells (Tregs), and methylation of Th1- and Th2-specific transcription factor genes in patients with limited (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) compared to healthy donors (HD). Phenotype/intracellular cytokine production and methylation of Th1- and Th2-specific transcription factor genes were determined by flow cytometry and epigenetic analysis, respectively, and compared between patients with lcSSc, dcSSc and HD. Discrimination of CD4+ T cells that lack CCR7 expression revealed that CCR7- CD4+ memory T cells and effectors are producers of intracellular TNFα, IL-13 and IL-4, particularly in dcSSc. A proportional increase in CCR7- memory T cells was demonstrated by SSc-derived CD4+ T-cells after insufficient suppression by Tregs. A higher level of methylation of GATA3 or STAT4 (Th2- and Th1-specific transcription factor genes, respectively) was observed in dcSSc. An abundance of specific CD4+ memory T-cell subpopulations strongly contributes to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in dcSSc. Our results suggest that therapeutic concepts should focus more intensively on the memory phenotype to control T cell-mediated inflammation in SSc patients.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Receptores CCR7/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/imunologia , Linfopenia/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT4/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 106, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is performed in patients with aggressive forms of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The profile of B cell reconstitution after aHSCT is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate changes of B cell subsets and cytokine production of B cells in patients with SSc after aHSCT. METHODS: Peripheral blood of six patients with SSc was collected at defined intervals up to 16 months after aHSCT. Immunophenotyping was performed, and B cell function was determined by measuring cytokine secretion in supernatants of stimulated B cell cultures. RESULTS: Within 1 month after aHSCT, a peak in the percentage of CD38++/CD10+/IgD+ transitional B cells and CD38++/CD27++/IgD- plasmablasts was detected. Long-term changes persisted up to 14 months after aHSCT and showed an increased percentage of total B cells; the absolute B cell number did not change significantly. Within the B cell compartment, an increased CD27/IgD+ naïve B cell percentage was found whereas decreased percentages of CD27+/IgD+ pre-switched memory, CD27+/IgD- post-switched memory, and CD27-/IgD- double-negative B cells were seen after aHSCT. Cytokine secretion in B cell cultures showed significantly increased IL-10 concentrations 13 to 16 months after aHSCT. CONCLUSION: A changed composition of the B cell compartment is present for up to 14 months after aHSCT indicating positive persisting effects of aHSCT on B cell homeostasis. The cytokine secretion profile of B cells changes in the long term and shows an increased production of the immune regulatory cytokine IL-10 after aHSCT. These findings might promote the clinical improvements after aHSCT in SSc patients.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/tendências , Homeostase/fisiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia , Adulto , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Transplante Autólogo/tendências , Adulto Jovem
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