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1.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992006

RESUMO

We determined the oncologic outcomes and safety profiles of adjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) compared to adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients at high risk after nephrectomy for clinically nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Network meta-analyses were conducted for disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events (AEs) with placebo as the common comparator arm. Six trials (KEYNOTE-564, S-TRAC, ASSURE, PROTECT, ATLAS, and SORCE) were included in our analysis. Compared to placebo, both pembrolizumab (hazard ratio [HR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.92) and pazopanib 800 mg (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97) were significantly associated with better DFS. Adjuvant pembrolizumab (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30-0.97) was significantly associated with better OS compared to TKIs (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.83-1.04). Analysis of treatment ranking revealed that pembrolizumab was the best treatment with regard to both DFS and OS and had the lowest likelihood of any-grade and high-grade AEs in comparison to TKIs. The superior oncologic benefit of pembrolizumab and its better toxicity profile support it as the new standard of care in the adjuvant setting for nephrectomy patients at high risk of RCC relapse. PATIENT SUMMARY: For patients with kidney cancer at high risk of relapse after surgical removal of their kidney, postoperative therapy with the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab offers the best risk/benefit ratio.

2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; : 103602, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063635

RESUMO

c-Met inhibitors are a class of drugs that include nonselective and selective molecules. These drugs can differ in terms of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties that may be clinically relevant. c-Met inhibitors with high potency and selectivity may allow achieving optimal c-Met inhibition in c-Met-driven tumors while reducing unwanted off-target toxicities due to activation of multiple kinases. Nonselective drugs can instead be considered in tumors that also recognize other drivers (e.g., ALK, ROS, VEGF). Improved understanding of the clinical pharmacokinetics of c-Met inhibitors can help avoid drug-drug interactions and optimize schedules for continuous in vivo inhibition of c-Met phosphorylation. The current review article provides a detailed overview of the clinical pharmacology of molecules used in c-Met-driven tumors.

3.
Curr Opin Urol ; 32(1): 61-68, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720102

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To perform indirect comparisons of efficacy and safety of first-line immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based combination therapies for renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features (sRCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Five trials were included in our network meta-analyses comprising 568 patients. The combinations nivolumab plus ipilimumab and nivolumab plus cabozantinib achieved significant improvement of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and objective response rates (ORR). Nivolumab plus ipilimumab was associated with the highest likelihood of achieving a complete response. All the included combinations significantly improved PFS and ORR. The combinations of pembrolizumab plus axitinib did not show a statistically significant association with OS. Nivolumab plus cabozantinib had the highest likelihood of improving PFS and OS. SUMMARY: Our network meta-analysis demonstrates that sRCC are responsive to immune-based combinations. The dual ICI with nivolumab plus ipilimumab improved all efficacy outcomes and achieved the highest complete response rates (CRR). Although the association of nivolumab plus cabozantinib with CRR was not statistically significant, this combination demonstrated the highest likelihood of PFS and OS improvements.

4.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911359

RESUMO

Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases, including AXL, MET and VEGF receptors. Here, we describe the rationale and design for the Phase II CaboPoint trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03945773), which will evaluate the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib as a second-line treatment in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma whose disease has progressed despite checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Patients will be recruited into two cohorts: prior ipilimumab plus nivolumab (cohort A) or prior checkpoint inhibitor-VEGF-targeted therapy (cohort B). All patients will receive once-daily oral cabozantinib 60 mg for up to 18 months. The primary end point is objective response rate. Secondary end points include overall survival, progression-free survival and safety.


Lay abstract Most patients diagnosed with kidney cancer have a type of tumor called renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Most cases of RCC are described as 'clear cell' because the tumor cells appear clear when viewed under a microscope. Cabozantinib is an oral treatment approved for use in some patients with advanced RCC, including those with clear cell disease. Cabozantinib slows RCC progression by targeting pathways that help tumors grow, including inhibition of VEGF. The ongoing CaboPoint study will assess the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib in patients with clear cell RCC that has progressed despite previous anticancer treatment involving an immune checkpoint inhibitor (CPI). CPI therapy helps the body to detect tumors and to launch its own anticancer response. Patients included in CaboPoint must be adults with clear cell RCC that is not suitable for surgery and has either spread within the kidney or to other organs, despite previous CPI-based therapy. In total, 250 patients will be recruited: 125 who received previous combination CPI treatment (ipilimumab plus nivolumab; Group A) and 125 who received previous CPI treatment plus anti-VEGF therapy (Group B). Patients will start cabozantinib at a dose of 60 mg/day and continue treatment for up to 18 months. The main outcome to be studied will be the number of patients with a reduction in tumor size (objective response rate). The length of time patients live with their disease, the effect of treatment on symptoms and patient safety will also be evaluated. Clinical trial registration: NCT03945773 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

5.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-6, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736367

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: METEOR was a phase 3 trial (NCT01865747) of cabozantinib versus everolimus in adults with advanced or metastatic clear cell RCC previously treated with VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This post hoc analysis of METEOR compared outcomes for patients recruited from European and non-European countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adults with advanced/metastatic clear cell RCC who had received ≥ 1 prior VEGFR-TKI treatment were randomized 1:1 to receive cabozantinib or everolimus. Patients were categorized by recruitment region: Europe or outside of Europe (rest of world [RoW]). Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and adverse events (AEs) were compared between regional subgroups. RESULTS: In total, there were 320 eligible patients from Europe (cabozantinib, 167; everolimus, 153) and 338 from RoW (North America, 240 patients; Asia-Pacific, 86; Latin America, 12; randomized as cabozantinib, 163; everolimus, 175). PFS and OS were longer with cabozantinib than with everolimus and similar for the Europe and RoW subgroups. For PFS, the hazard ratio (HR) for cabozantinib versus everolimus was 0.54 for the Europe subgroup (p < .001) and 0.50 for the RoW subgroup (p < .001). For OS, the HR was 0.75 for the Europe subgroup (p = .034) and 0.69 for the RoW subgroup (p = .006). ORR in the Europe subgroup was 15% for cabozantinib and 3.9% for everolimus (p < .001). For the RoW subgroup, ORR was 20% for cabozantinib and 2.9% for everolimus (p < .001). Incidence of grade 3/4 AEs were similar for the Europe (cabozantinib, 74%; everolimus, 58%) and RoW subgroups (cabozantinib, 69%; everolimus, 64%). CONCLUSION: In the METEOR trial, efficacy outcomes for patients recruited from European and non-European countries favored cabozantinib over everolimus. The efficacy and safety results for the regional subgroups were consistent with those of the overall METEOR population.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 385(22): 2090-2091, 2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818485
7.
World J Urol ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of a panel of SIR-biomarkers, relative to standard clinicopathological variables, to improve mRCC patient selection for cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A panel of preoperative SIR-biomarkers, including the albumin-globulin ratio (AGR), De Ritis ratio (DRR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), was assessed in 613 patients treated with CN for mRCC. Patients were randomly divided into training and testing cohorts (65/35%). A machine learning-based variable selection approach (LASSO regression) was used for the fitting of the most informative, yet parsimonious multivariable models with respect to prognosis of cancer-specific survival (CSS). The discriminatory ability of the model was quantified using the C-index. After validation and calibration of the model, a nomogram was created, and decision curve analysis (DCA) was used to evaluate the clinical net benefit. RESULTS: SIR-biomarkers were selected by the machine-learning process to be of high discriminatory power during the fitting of the model. Low AGR remained significantly associated with CSS in both training (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.82, p = 0.01) and testing (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.26-2.51, p = 0.01) cohorts. High levels of SII (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.08, p = 0.01) and DRR (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.96, p = 0.04) were associated with CSS only in the testing cohort. The exclusion of the SIR-biomarkers for the prognosis of CSS did not result in a significant decrease in C-index (- 0.9%) for the training cohort, while the exclusion of SIR-biomarkers led to a reduction in C-index in the testing cohort (- 5.8%). However, SIR-biomarkers only marginally increased the discriminatory ability of the respective model in comparison to the standard model. CONCLUSION: Despite the high discriminatory ability during the fitting of the model with machine-learning approach, the panel of readily available blood-based SIR-biomarkers failed to add a clinical benefit beyond the standard model.

9.
Urol Oncol ; 39(11): 764-773, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400065

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been widely used in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the use of systemic therapies in the adjuvant setting of localized and locally advanced RCC has shown conflicting results across the literature. Therefore, we aimed to conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of TKIs in the adjuvant setting for patients with localized and locally advanced RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched in December 2020 to identify phase III randomized controlled trials of patients receiving adjuvant therapies with TKI for RCC. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were the primary endpoints. The secondary endpoints included treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) of high and any grade. RESULTS: Five trials (S-TRAC, ASSURE, PROTECT, ATLAS, and SORCE) were included in our meta-analysis comprising 6,531 patients. The forest plot revealed that TKI therapy was associated with a significantly longer DFS compared to placebo (pooled HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.96, P= 0.004). The Cochrane's Q test (P = 0.51) and I2 test (I2 = 0%) revealed no significant heterogeneity. Adjuvant TKI was not associated with improved OS compared to placebo (pooled HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83-1.04, P= 0.23). The Cochrane's Q test (P = 0.74) and I2 test (I2 = 0%) revealed no significant heterogeneity. The forest plot revealed that TKI therapy, compared to placebo, was associated with higher rates of high grade TRAEs (OR: 5.20, 95% CI: 4.10-6.59, P< 0.00001) as well as any grade TRAEs (OR: 3.85, 95% CI: 1.22-12.17, P= 0.02). The Cochrane's Q tests (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.00001, respectively) and I2 tests (I2 = 79% and I2 = 90%, respectively) revealed significant heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our analyses suggest an improved DFS in patients with localized and locally advanced RCC receiving adjuvant TKI as compared to placebo; however, this did not translate into any significant OS benefit. Additionally, TKI therapy led to significant toxicity. Adjuvant TKI does not seem to offer a satisfactory risk and/orbenefit balance for all patients. Select patients with very poor prognosis may be considered in a shared decision-making process with the patient. With the successful arrival of immune-based therapies in RCC, these may allow a more favorable risk/benefit profile.

10.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 99: 102242, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway is important in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, some dissimilarities between anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 inhibitors have emerged. We aimed to assess differences between anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 combination immunotherapies as first-line treatments in mRCC patients. METHODS: Multiple databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) were searched for articles published until March 2021. Studies were eligible if they compared overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rates (ORR), complete response rates (CRR), and adverse events. RESULTS: Five studies met the eligibility criteria. PD-1 combination therapy was associated with significantly better OS and PFS and higher ORR and CRR than sunitinib (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.89; HR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.37-0.75; odds ratio [OR]: 3.20, 95% CI: 2.18-4.68; and OR: 3.05, 95% CI: 2.13-4.37, respectively; P < 0.001). For all oncological outcomes, anti-PD-1 agents were superior to anti-PD-L1 agents based on HR and OR (OS: HR = 0.88, PFS: HR = 0.76, ORR: OR = 1.85, and CRR: OR = 2.24). Conversely, anti-PD-L1 agents were superior to anti-PD-1 agents in their safety profiles. In network meta-analyses, pembrolizumab plus lenvatinib seemed the worst tolerated anti-PD-1 combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates the superior oncologic benefits of first-line anti-PD-1 combination therapies over anti-PD-L1 combination therapies in mRCC patients. This biological difference is of vital importance for clinical treatment decision making and the design of future rational combination therapy trials in mRCC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
J Neurooncol ; 153(3): 497-505, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical value of the inflammation based prognostic scores for patients with radiosurgically treated brain metastases (BM) originating from non-pulmonary primary tumor (PT). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 340 BM patients of different PT origin (melanoma, breast, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary cancer) was performed. Pre-radiosurgical laboratory prognostic scores, such as the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), the Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Lymphocyte-to-Monocyte Ratio (LMR), and the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), were investigated within 14 days before the first Gamma Knife radiosurgical treatment (GKRS1). RESULTS: In our study cohort, the estimated survival was significantly longer in patients with NLR < 5 (p < 0.001), LMR > 4 (p = 0.001) and in patients with a mGPS score of 0 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models revealed NLR ≥ 5, LMR < 4 and mGPS score ≥ 1 as independent prognostic factors for an increased risk of death even after adjusting for age, sex, KPS, extracranial metastases status, presence of neurological symptoms and treatment with immunotherapy (IT) or targeted therapy (TT). CONCLUSIONS: Summarizing previously published and present data, pre-radiosurgical mGPS and NLR groups seem to be the most effective and simple independent prognostic factors to predict clinical outcome in radiosurgically treated BM patients.

12.
Curr Opin Urol ; 31(4): 332-339, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965978

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To compare the safety profiles of systemic immune checkpoint inhibitor-based combination therapies that were evaluated in the first-line setting of the management of patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Six phase III randomized control trials comparing first-line immune-based combination therapies to sunitinib in previously untreated patients with mRCC. Network meta-analyses were conducted to compare treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), treatment discontinuation, and treatment-related mortality. SUMMARY: Lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab was associated with the highest likelihood of grade ≥3 TRAEs, and treatment discontinuation rates. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab was associated with the lowest rates of grade ≥3 TRAEs. However, it was associated with a higher likelihood of endocrine-related adverse events (AEs). A higher likelihood of high-grade diarrhea was associated with pembrolizumab plus axitinib and avelumab plus axitinib. All combinations showed low rates of hematological AEs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Axitinibe , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Metanálise em Rede , Sunitinibe
14.
Curr Opin Urol ; 31(3): 276-284, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742984

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current treatment landscape of metastatic renal cell carcinoma has changed dramatically from the dominance of single-agent tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy to immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based combinations in recent years. However, the optimal subsequent therapy remains ill-defined owing to the novelty of this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment with TKIs after failure of single or dual ICI therapies may result in robust clinical efficacy. Nonetheless, there is a trend toward lower efficacy of TKIs after previous ICI-TKI combination therapy. Currently, tivozanib is the only drug whose third- and later-line use after failure of TKI and ICI is supported by evidence, with significantly longer progression-free survival and higher objective response rates than sorafenib. Data from retrospective studies highlight the safety and clinical activity of ICI rechallenge. SUMMARY: Overall, the level of evidence remains low. Treatment after failure of dual ICI therapy is not well defined and may consist of any available TKI. Although first-line use of TKI is less common, strong evidence suggests cabozantinib or nivolumab as standard options in that setting. The recommendations after first-line TKI-ICI therapy failure mirror this recommendation, although the data are less robust.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Curr Opin Urol ; 31(3): 270-275, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742987

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss treatment decisions in the first-line setting of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Immune check point inhibitor (ICI) combinations have replaced sunitinib as the standard of care in the first-line treatment of mRCC. Dual ICI treatment with nivolumab and ipilimumab was shown to significantly improve overall survival and objective response rates. Similarly, the ICI-tyrosine kinase inhibitor combinations pembrolizumab and axitinib and nivolumab and cabozantinib have demonstrated superiority in terms of overall survival, objective response rates and progression-free survival versus sunitinib. The lack of both comparative trials and predictive markers impedes individualized treatment decisions. Clinicians are left to make treatment choices based on clinical and biological factors. These factors may include differences in toxicity profiles, the rate of complete remission, a clinical situation that requires urgent tumor shrinkage, the presence of inflammation, histological or immune-histochemical features and others. SUMMARY: In the absence of comparative trials, clinical and biological factors may facilitate the choice between various treatment options in the first-line setting of mRCC. In addition, both the experience of the physician with a specific treatment together with patient's preferences and expectations of systemic therapy may be part of the decision-making process.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Axitinibe/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos
16.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 4(5): 755-765, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757737

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There have been substantial changes in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) over the past decade, with upfront immunotherapy-based combinations replacing targeted therapies. A broad range of combinations have been approved, and comparisons of their efficacy and safety are needed to guide the optimal choice of first-line therapy. OBJECTIVE: To perform indirect comparisons of efficacy and safety of first-line immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based combination therapies for mRCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched multiple databases and abstracts of major scientific meetings up to February 2021 to identify phase III randomized controlled trials of patients receiving first-line ICI-based combination therapies for mRCC. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were the primary endpoints. The secondary endpoints included complete response rates (CRRs), objective response rates (ORRs), grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), and rates of treatment discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs). Subgroup network meta-analyses were performed based on patients' risk group categories and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression status. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Six trials were included in our network meta-analyses comprising 5121 patients. Nivolumab plus cabozantinib had the highest likelihood of providing the maximal OS (P score: 0.7573). Lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab demonstrated the highest likelihood of PFS (P score: 0.9906) and ORR (P score: 0.9564). CRRs were more likely to be associated with nivolumab plus ipilimumab (P score: 0.8682). In patients with ≥1% PD-L1 expression, the highest likelihood of better PFS was associated with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab was also associated with the lowest rates of grade ≥3 TRAEs; while the highest likelihood of AE-related treatment discontinuation was associated with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab. CONCLUSIONS: Our network meta-analysis suggests that combinations of ICIs and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) provide superior PFS, ORR, and OS to ICI-ICI combinations, regardless of the on International mRCC Database Consortium risk group. However, an ICI-ICI combination could be the optimal treatment for tumors with increased PD-L1 expression. The newly introduced ICI-TKI combinations, nivolumab plus cabozantinib and lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab, showed promising activity and are likely to have an important role in the mRCC treatment strategy. PATIENT SUMMARY: The use of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based combinations (ICI plus tyrosine kinase inhibitor and ICI-ICI) improved oncological outcomes of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression status could help guide physicians and patients to select the appropriate treatment strategy.

17.
N Engl J Med ; 384(14): 1289-1300, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenvatinib in combination with pembrolizumab or everolimus has activity against advanced renal cell carcinoma. The efficacy of these regimens as compared with that of sunitinib is unclear. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1 ratio) patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and no previous systemic therapy to receive lenvatinib (20 mg orally once daily) plus pembrolizumab (200 mg intravenously once every 3 weeks), lenvatinib (18 mg orally once daily) plus everolimus (5 mg orally once daily), or sunitinib (50 mg orally once daily, alternating 4 weeks receiving treatment and 2 weeks without treatment). The primary end point was progression-free survival, as assessed by an independent review committee in accordance with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Overall survival and safety were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 1069 patients were randomly assigned to receive lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab (355 patients), lenvatinib plus everolimus (357), or sunitinib (357). Progression-free survival was longer with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab than with sunitinib (median, 23.9 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.49; P<0.001) and was longer with lenvatinib plus everolimus than with sunitinib (median, 14.7 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.80; P<0.001). Overall survival was longer with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab than with sunitinib (hazard ratio for death, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88; P = 0.005) but was not longer with lenvatinib plus everolimus than with sunitinib (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.50; P = 0.30). Grade 3 or higher adverse events emerged or worsened during treatment in 82.4% of the patients who received lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab, 83.1% of those who received lenvatinib plus everolimus, and 71.8% of those who received sunitinib. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurring in at least 10% of the patients in any group included hypertension, diarrhea, and elevated lipase levels. CONCLUSIONS: Lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival and overall survival than sunitinib. (Funded by Eisai and Merck Sharp and Dohme; CLEAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02811861.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(2): 265-273, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757054

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Management of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) has undergone a paradigm shift with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in the first-line setting. However, direct comparative data are inadequate to inform treatment decisions. Therefore, we aimed to assess first-line therapy for mRCC and indirectly compare the efficacy and safety of currently available treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple databases were searched for articles published before June 2020. Studies that compared overall and/or progression-free survival (OS/PFS) and/or adverse events (AEs) in mRCC patients were considered eligible. RESULTS: Six studies matched our eligibility criteria. For OS, pembrolizumab plus axitinib [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.73-0.98] and nivolumab plus ipilimumab (HR 0.86, 95% CrI 0.75-0.99) were significantly more effective than sunitinib, and pembrolizumab plus axitinib was probably the best option based on analysis of the treatment ranking. For PFS, pembrolizumab plus axitinib (HR 0.86, 95% CrI 0.76-0.97) and avelumab plus axitinib (HR 0.85, 95% CrI 0.74-0.98) were statistically superior to sunitinib, and avelumab plus axitinib was likely to be the preferred option based on analysis of the treatment ranking, closely followed by pembrolizumab plus axitinib. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab had significantly lower rates of serious AEs than sunitinib. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab plus axitinib seemed to be the most efficacious first-line agents, while nivolumab plus ipilimumab had the most favorable efficacy-tolerability equilibrium. These findings may facilitate individualized treatment strategies and inform future direct comparative trials in an expanding treatment options without direct comparison between approved drugs.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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