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1.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101766, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126057

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and irreversible disease characterized by an increase in differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in lung tissue. Pharmacological activation of NRF2 has proved to be a valuable antifibrotic approach, however the detailed mechanisms of how NRF2 mediates antifibrotic function remain unclear. In this study, we found that the antifibrotic function of sulforaphane (SFN), an NRF2 activator, was largely dependent on LOC344887, a long noncoding RNA. Two functional AREs were identified in both the promoter and intron 1 of LOC344887, which defines LOC344887 as a novel anti-fibrotic NRF2 target gene. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LOC344887 controls genes and signaling pathways associated with fibrogenesis. Deletion or downregulation of LOC344887 enhanced expression of CDH2/N-cadherin, as well as a number of other fibrotic genes and blunted the antifibrotic effects of SFN. Furthermore, LOC344887-mediated downregulation of fibrotic genes may involve the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K activity blocked the effects of LOC344887 knockdown. Our findings demonstrate that NRF2-mediated LOC344887 upregulation contributes to the antifibrotic potential of SFN by repressing the expression of CDH2 and other fibrotic genes, providing novel insight into how NRF2 controls the regulatory networks of IPF. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of NRF2 activators against pulmonary fibrosis and presents a novel therapeutic axis for prevention and intervention of fibrosis-related diseases.

2.
Redox Biol ; 37: 101714, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927319

RESUMO

Radiation therapy is a frontline treatment option for cancer patients; however, the effects of radiotherapy on non-tumor tissue (e.g. radiation-induced dermatitis) often worsen patient quality of life. Previous studies have implicated the importance of redox balance in preventing dermatitis, specifically in reference to modulation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) signaling pathway. Due to the cytoprotective functions of transcriptional target genes of NRF2, we investigated how modulation of NRF2 expression could affect DNA damage, oxidative stress, and cell viability in response to radiotherapy. Specifically, it was noted that NRF2 knockdown sensitized human skin keratinocytes to ionizing radiation; likewise, genetic ablation of NRF2 in vivo increased radiosensitivity of murine epidermis. Oppositely, pharmacological induction of NRF2 via the apocarotenoid bixin lowered markers of DNA damage and oxidative stress, while preserving viability in irradiated keratinocytes. Mechanistic studies indicated that topical pretreatment using bixin as an NRF2 activator antagonized initial DNA damage by raising cellular glutathione levels. Additionally, topical application of bixin prevented radiation-induced dermatitis, epidermal thickening, and oxidative stress in the skin of SKH1 mice. Overall, these data indicate that NRF2 is critical for mitigating the harmful skin toxicities associated with ionizing radiation, and that topical upregulation of NRF2 via bixin could prevent radiation-induced dermatitis.

3.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 402: 115138, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682831

RESUMO

Chronic low dose arsenic exposure continues to be a worldwide health concern because of its prevalence and link to increased cancer risk, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Mortality of NSCLC patients increases with the development of a metastatic lesion compared to when the tumor is localized; however, the exact mechanism for what causes NSCLC cells to metastasize in the context of environmental toxicant exposure has yet to be fully elucidated. One proposed contributor to metastasis in NSCLC is nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), a transcription factor with known oncogenic properties that has proved to be critical for arsenic carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that chronic arsenic exposure enhances the invasive and migratory capacity of immortalized lung epithelial cells via NRF2-dependent upregulation of SRY-box 9 (SOX9), another transcription factor linked with cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis. We identified a functional antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of SOX9, suggesting that it is an NRF2 target gene, with mutation of the ARE preventing NRF2 binding. Pharmacological induction or inhibition of NRF2 increased or decreased SOX9 expression, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hyperactivation of NRF2 via knockout of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), its negative regulator, contributes to proliferation; while, inhibition of NRF2 or direct knockdown of SOX9 slowed the ability of NSCLC cells to proliferate, migrate, and invade. Overall, this study suggests that NRF2-mediated SOX9 upregulation can contribute to the metastatic potential of both environmentally and genetically driven lung tumors.

4.
Cell Chem Biol ; 27(4): 436-447, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275864

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic mode of regulated cell death that is iron and lipid peroxidation dependent. As new mechanistic insight into ferroptotic effectors and how they are regulated in different disease contexts is uncovered, our understanding of the physiological and pathological relevance of this mode of cell death continues to grow. Along these lines, a host of pharmacological modulators of this pathway have been identified, targeting proteins involved in iron homeostasis; the generation and reduction of lipid peroxides; or cystine import and glutathione metabolism. Also, of note, many components of the ferroptosis cascade are target genes of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), indicating its critical role in mediating the ferroptotic response. In this review, we discuss the in vitro, in vivo, and clinical evidence of ferroptosis in disease, including a brief discussion of targeting upstream mediators of this cascade, including NRF2, to treat ferroptosis-driven diseases.

5.
Arch Pharm Res ; 43(3): 361-369, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372933

RESUMO

Kidney disease affects ~ 10% of the population worldwide, resulting in millions of deaths each year. Mechanistically, oxidative stress is a major driver of various kidney diseases, and promotes the progression from acute to chronic injury, as well as renal cancer development. NRF2, the master regulator of redox balance, has been shown to protect against kidney disease through its negation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, many kidney diseases exhibit high levels of ROS as a result of decreased NRF2 protein levels and transcriptional activity. Many studies have tested the strategy of using NRF2 inducing compounds to alleviate ROS to prevent or slow down the progression of kidney diseases. Oppositely, in specific subsets of renal cancer, NRF2 is constitutively activated and contributes to tumor burden and overall poor prognosis; therefore, there has been a recent interest in studies investigating the benefits of NRF2 inhibition. In this review, we summarize recent literature investigating the role of NRF2 and oxidative stress in various kidney diseases, and how pharmacological modification of NRF2 signaling could play a protective role.

6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(14): 1689-1693, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129054

RESUMO

Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is the ER resident 70 kDa heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and has been hypothesized to be a therapeutic target for various forms of cancer due to its role in mitigating proteotoxic stress in the ER, its elevated expression in some cancers, and the correlation between high levels for GRP78 and a poor prognosis. Herein we report the development and use of a high throughput fluorescence polarization-based peptide binding assay as an initial step toward the discovery and development of GRP78 inhibitors. This assay was used in a pilot screen to discover the anti-infective agent, hexachlorophene, as an inhibitor of GRP78. Through biochemical characterization we show that hexachlorophene is a competitive inhibitor of the GRP78-peptide interaction. Biological investigations showed that this molecule induces the unfolded protein response, induces autophagy, and leads to apoptosis in a colon carcinoma cell model, which is known to be sensitive to GRP78 inhibition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/efeitos dos fármacos , Hexaclorofeno/uso terapêutico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Hexaclorofeno/farmacologia , Humanos
7.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 134: 702-707, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654017

RESUMO

NRF2, a transcription factor that has been deemed the master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis, declines with age. NRF2 transcriptionally upregulates genes that combat oxidative stress; therefore, loss of NRF2 allows oxidative stress to go unmitigated and drive the aging phenotype. Oxidative stress is a common theme among the key features associated with the aging process, collectively referred to as the "Hallmarks of Aging", as it disrupts proteostasis, alters genomic stability, and leads to cell death. In this review, we outline the role that oxidative stress and the reduction of NRF2 play in each of the Hallmarks of Aging, including how they contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and other age-related pathologies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol ; 59: 555-575, 2019 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256716

RESUMO

The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central regulator of redox, metabolic, and protein homeostasis that intersects with many other signaling cascades. Although the understanding of the complex nature of NRF2 signaling continues to grow, there is only one therapeutic targeting NRF2 for clinical use, dimethyl fumarate, used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The discovery of new therapies is confounded by the fact that NRF2 levels vary significantly depending on physiological and pathological context. Thus, properly timed and targeted manipulation of the NRF2 pathway is critical in creating effective therapeutic regimens. In this review, we summarize the regulation and downstream targets of NRF2. Furthermore, we discuss the role of NRF2 in cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes as well as cardiovascular, kidney, and liver disease, with a special emphasis on NRF2-based therapeutics, including those that have made it into clinical trials.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos
9.
J Biol Chem ; 293(6): 2029-2040, 2018 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255090

RESUMO

Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 1 (NRF1) and NRF2 are essential for maintaining redox homeostasis and coordinating cellular stress responses. They are highly homologous transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes bearing antioxidant-response elements (AREs). Genetic ablation of NRF1 or NRF2 results in vastly different phenotypic outcomes, implying that they play different roles and may be differentially regulated. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) is the main negative regulator of NRF2 and mediates ubiquitylation and degradation of NRF2 through its NRF2-ECH homology-like domain 2 (Neh2). Here, we report that KEAP1 binds to the Neh2-like (Neh2L) domain of NRF1 and stabilizes it. Consistently, NRF1 is more stable in KEAP1+/+ than in KEAP1-/- isogenic cell lines, whereas NRF2 is dramatically stabilized in KEAP1-/- cells. Replacing NRF1's Neh2L domain with NRF2's Neh2 domain renders NRF1 sensitive to KEAP1-mediated degradation, indicating that the amino acids between the DLG and ETGE motifs, not just the motifs themselves, are essential for KEAP1-mediated degradation. Systematic site-directed mutagenesis identified the core amino acid residues required for KEAP1-mediated degradation and further indicated that the DLG and ETGE motifs with correct spacing are insufficient as a KEAP1 degron. Our results offer critical insights into our understanding of the differential regulation of NRF1 and NRF2 by KEAP1 and their different physiological roles.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/química , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/química , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/genética , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise
10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 27(17): 4082-4085, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757063

RESUMO

Activation of translation initiation is a common trait of cancer cells. Formation of the heterotrimeric eukaryotic initiation factor F (eIF4F) complex is the rate-limiting step in 5' m7GpppN cap-dependent translation. This trimeric complex includes the eIF4E cap binding protein, the eIF4G scaffolding protein, and the DEAD box RNA helicase eIF4A. eIF4A is an ATP-dependent helicase and because it is the only enzyme in the eIF4F complex, it has been shown to be a potential therapeutic target for a variety of malignancies. To this end, we have used a simple ATPase biochemical screen to survey several hundred marine and terrestrial derived natural products. Herein, we report the discovery of two natural products from marine sources, elisabatin A (1) and allolaurinterol (2), which show low µM inhibition of eIF4A ATPase activity. Enzymological analyses revealed 1 and 2 to be ATP-competitive, and cellular evaluations showed reasonable cytotoxicity against A549 (lung cancer) and MDA-MA-468 (breast cancer) cell lines. However, only compound 2 showed potent inhibition of helicase activity congruent with its ATPase inhibitory activity.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/antagonistas & inibidores , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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