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1.
Swiss Dent J ; 131(4): 327-338, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789417

RESUMO

When a syndrome forms the background of a systemic involvement of periodontal disease, it is necessary to fully exploit the resources outside, which soon reaches its limits in private practice. In the patient's environment, it must be checked whether support for the patient can be guaranteed. Without support, as in this presented case, the patient's oral hygiene could hardly be maintained. This article reports on a female patient who was referred to the Center for Dental Medicine at the University of Zurich. In addition to various secondary carious lesions, an apical whitening, two carious wisdom teeth and two extremely mobile molars in the third quadrant, the patient had chronic, localized advanced (stage III, grade B) periodontitis associated with systemic disease (deafness and Sturge-Weber syndrome). For two years, the patient was treated at the Department of Periodontology. Due to the strong bleeding tendency on the left side, facial localization of the naevus flammeus, the patient was partially referred to the Polyclinic of Oral Surgery and treated there. Numerous oral hygiene sessions, scaling and root planing, restoration with composite fillings, a root filling, removal of wisdom teeth and finally removal of hypermobile molars 36 and 37 during corona lockdown were performed. In the meantime, the patient has been orally rehabilitated. Home oral hygiene was reorganized with the patient's family and the patient was discharged to a close supportive periodontal recall for the time being.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Medicina , Mancha Vinho do Porto , Síndrome de Sturge-Weber , Feminino , Humanos , Aplainamento Radicular , Síndrome de Sturge-Weber/complicações
2.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806927

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential of salivary bacterial and protein markers for evaluating the disease status in healthy individuals or patients with gingivitis or caries. Saliva samples from caries- and gingivitis-free individuals (n = 18), patients with gingivitis (n = 17), or patients with deep caries lesions (n = 38) were collected and analyzed for 44 candidate biomarkers (cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases, a metallopeptidase inhibitor, proteolytic enzymes, and selected oral bacteria). The resulting data were subjected to principal component analysis and used as a training set for random forest (RF) modeling. This computational analysis revealed four biomarkers (IL-4, IL-13, IL-2-RA, and eotaxin/CCL11) to be of high importance for the correct depiction of caries in 37 of 38 patients. The RF model was then used to classify 10 subjects (five caries-/gingivitis-free and five with caries), who were followed over a period of six months. The results were compared to the clinical assessments of dental specialists, revealing a high correlation between the RF prediction and the clinical classification. Due to the superior sensitivity of the RF model, there was a divergence in the prediction of two caries and four caries-/gingivitis-free subjects. These findings suggest IL-4, IL-13, IL-2-RA, and eotaxin/CCL11 as potential salivary biomarkers for identifying noninvasive caries. Furthermore, we suggest a potential association between JAK/STAT signaling and dental caries onset and progression.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810094

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a common immune-inflammatory oral disease. Early detection plays an important role in its prevention and progression. Saliva is a reliable medium that mirrors periodontal health and is easily obtainable for identifying periodontal biomarkers in point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic salivary tests to determine periodontal status. Whole saliva (stimulated/unstimulated) from twenty healthy and twenty stage III grade B generalized periodontitis patients was tested for lactoferrin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, density, osmolarity, pH, phosphate, buffer capacity, salivary flow rate and dynamic viscosity. A semi-quantitative urinary strip test was used to evaluate markers of inflammation in saliva (erythrocytes, leukocytes, urobilinogen, nitrite, glucose, bilirubin, and ketones), clinical periodontal parameters and pathogenic bacteria. Concentrations of lactoferrin, hemoglobin, and leukocytes were found to be significantly higher in the stimulated and unstimulated saliva in periodontitis patients compared to healthy patients, whereas alkaline phosphatase levels were higher in unstimulated saliva of periodontitis patients (p < 0.05). Periodontal biomarker analysis using test strips may be considered rapid and easy tool for distinguishing between periodontitis and healthy patients. The increase in lactoferrin, hemoglobin, and leucocytes-determined by strip tests-may provide a non-invasive method of periodontal diagnosis.

4.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 139, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel anti-inflammatory cytokine that is produced by regulatory T cells. IL-35 mediates immunological functions and plays a protective role in several diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the role of IL-35 in gingivitis and periodontitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature and collecting the available evidence regarding the role of IL-35 in pathogenesis of periodontal disease. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases including MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted in November 2020 to identify studies addressing the Interleukin-35 pathobiology in periodontal disease. The identified studies were subjected to pre-identified inclusion criteria. The retrived papers were assessed by the authours independently and consensus was reached in cases where disagreement occurred. Articles written in languages other than English, case reports, letters to editors, conference abstracts, theses, and dissertations were excluded from the review. RESULTS: A total of 176 possibly relevant articles were identified through the search strategy. Finally, 15 papers which met the criteria of eligibility were included in this review by consensus. The included articles were classified based on their design and level of evidence.Three subclinical study, ten cross sectional investigation and two randomized clinical trials constituted the final set of studies in this review. At preclinical level, Il-35 showed inhibitory characteristics regarding alveolar bone resorption of animal periodontitis models. The results of observatory human studies confirmed the presence of high levels of IL-35 in saliva, GCF, serum, and gingival biopsies of patients suffering from inflammatory periodontal disease. Moreover, two included clinical trials showed that non-surgical periodontal therapy could downregulate IL-35 production in chronic periodontitis patients. CONCLUSION: Interleukin-35 has an undeniable role in pathobiology of inflammatory periodontal disease. Further well-controlled studies are needed to better elucidate the functional pattern of IL-35 in pathogeneisis of gingival and periodontal disease.

5.
Swiss Dent J ; 131(3): 229-234, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666383

RESUMO

«Guided Biofilm Therapy¼ (GBT) represents a systematic, risk and demand-oriented prophylaxis and treatment concept. A significant difference to conventional methods is - above all - the reduced, tissue-friendly and targeted use of ultrasound and hand instruments. The biofilm is consistently shown with suitable color solutions, the oral hygiene instruction and professional tooth cleaning is optimized. The use of suitable powders guarantees a tissue-conserving and targeted removal of biofilm. While individual treatments, techniques and materials have already been well investigated and described, little data is available on patient acceptance. The aim of the present study was to gain an impression of the acceptance of this method in comparison to the conservative-classical recall care mainly based on hand and ultrasound devices in a survey of 100 consecutive patients from the clinic's internal recall system. The overall results were very positive. The powder jet device showed the best acceptance. The aspect fear before/during the recall session was also interesting: At a low level (10%), an additional reduction to 4% occurred, since hand instruments were probably used much less and only very specifically. mConclusion: The use of plaque elevators makes the work in the recall session more efficient, more effective and guarantees ma higher quality control, which is also highly appreciated by patients.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Biofilmes , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos
6.
J Oral Sci ; 63(2): 152-156, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the impact of experimentally preformed peri-implant crater-shaped bone defects on the evolution of in situ microbiota and development of bone defects compared to those induced over time by ligature placement only. METHODS: Implants were installed in the mandibles of eight dogs. Standardized bone defects were preformed in four test animals but not in the other four control animals, prior to implant (3.3 mm × 8 mm) installation. After 2 months of healing, peri-implantitis was induced with silk ligatures in both groups for 2 months. Microbial samples were obtained from implants and teeth for analysis at three time points (qPCR), and the average depths of the bone defects were measured. RESULTS: At the baseline, the total marker load of periodontal-pathogenic bacteria (TML) for teeth accounted for 5.2% (0-17.4%). After implant healing, TMLs for implants and teeth were comparable (7.1% [0.3-17.4%]). The TML of both groups was 3.5%, 2 months after ligature placement. Bone defects had a mean depth of 1.84 mm at preformed defects and 1.64 mm at control sites (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Preformed defects in the test group showed comparable results to the control group in terms of TML, the incidence of periodontal-pathogenic bacteria, and bone defect depth.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Peri-Implantite , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Animais , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Ligadura , Mandíbula
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478112

RESUMO

Enzymes in toothpastes can support host immune responses, and thus maintain oral health. This study aimed to investigate gingival health and the plaque-reducing effects of enzyme-containing toothpastes. A laboratory study tested the antimicrobial potential of different enzyme-containing toothpaste formulations. Two promising formulations (enzyme-containing toothpastes with glucose oxidase and D-glucose with (C+) and without Citrox (C-) Citrox) were investigated in a clinical crossover trial (two slurries: sodium lauryl sulfate-containing (SLS), a toothpaste without SLS (reference), and water). Subjects (n = 20) abstained from toothbrushing for four days and rinsed with a toothpaste slurry. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices (PI) were measured. A mixed linear model was used to statistically compare the slurries with respect to BOP and PI change. The in vitro bacterial growth-inhibiting evaluation showed the best results for SLS, followed by C+ and C-. The change in BOP and PI exhibited statistically significant differences to water rinsing (BOP; PI changes in % points (difference of the baseline and post-rinse values: water = 8.8%; 90.0%; C+ = -1.4%; 80.4%; SLS = 1.5%; 72.1%; reference = 0.8%; 77.5%; C- = -1.8%; 75.1%). All slurries exhibited anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque effects, resulting in a prophylactic benefit for limited-access regions during brushing.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Cremes Dentais , Método Duplo-Cego , Gengiva , Humanos , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Escovação Dentária
8.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(12): 995-999, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267561

RESUMO

During intraosseous anesthesia (IOA), the cancellous bone is infiltrated directly with the anesthetic through the cortical bone. Advantages of IOA are seen in the immediate onset of action without co-anesthetics of the surrounding soft tissue and in the low dosage. The industry-supported statement that no necroses of the periodontal structures are to be feared and that there is no risk of fracture of the injection needle is refuted by clinical progress reports form the practice. These risks are rarely mentioned in current studies; on the contrary - IOA continues to be presented as particularly low in complications. In contrast, more attention should be paid to whether necrotic bone changes can be displayed over time, which may be related to the anesthesia technique. It would be desirable to systematically conduct clinical studies in the future with the aim of recording possible long-term damage by the IOA. In the present study, this type of anesthesia is evaluated with regard to its clinical application and periodontal risks, and possible examples of the course of complication are radiographically presented and discussed based on the rather scarce literature.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320905

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the distribution and deposition of aerosols during simulated periodontal therapy. METHODS: A manikin with simulated fluorescein salivation was treated by four experienced dentists applying two different periodontal treatment options, i.e. air-polishing with an airflow device or ultrasonic scaling in the upper and lower anterior front for 5 minutes, respectively. Aerosol deposition was quantitatively measured on 21 pre-defined locations with varying distances to the manikins mouth in triplicates using absorbent filter papers. RESULTS: The selected periodontal interventions resulted in different contamination levels around the patient's mouth. The highest contamination could be measured on probes on the patient's chest and forehead but also on the practitioner's glove. With increasing distance to the working site contamination of the probes decreased with both devices. Air-polishing led to greater contamination than ultrasonic. CONCLUSION: Both devices showed contamination of the nearby structures, less contamination was detected when using the ultrasonic. Affirming the value of wearing protective equipment we support the need for universal barrier precautions and effective routine infection control in dental practice.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Polimento Dentário/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/métodos , Periodontia/instrumentação , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Humanos , Manequins , Segurança do Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Saliva/química
10.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(11): 899-905, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161692

RESUMO

Studies on interdental cleaning have shown an advantage of interdental brushes (IDB) over other interdental care products. Sticks (STK) made of rubber are often recommended as an alternative, as they are considered user-friendly, gentle but nevertheless effective. This laboratory study aimed to compare the cleaning efficiency with the same application force between IDB and STK. Brushes with different geometries and diameters were tested. Two conical STK from two manufacturers of the sizes "XS/S" (0.7-2.6 mm) and "L" (0.9-3.4 mm) were tested. For the IDB, one conical (2.7-3.4 mm), two cylindrical (1.9 and 2.5 mm) and one waisted brush (4-2-4 mm) were assessed. A geometric model with parallel-walled metal blocks (black and coated with titanium oxide) was used. The brushes were tested with one and five cleaning cycles each in horizontal direction. The test surfaces were measured planimetrically for cleaning efficiency by calculating the areas freed from titanium oxide in relation to the maximum cleanable total area. The maximum cleaning efficiency of the IDB was 45% at 1 mm distance with one cleaning cycle and 95% with five cycles. For the sticks, the cleaning efficiency with one cleaning cycle was 30% and 67% with five cycles. At a distance of 2 mm, the maximum cleaning efficiency was 50% with one cleaning cycle and 87% with five cycles for the IDBs and only 10% for the STKs. Taking into account the limitations of this study, the IDBs showed an overall better cleaning efficiency with the same application force, compared to STKs, with the waisted IDB achieving better cleaning efficiency than the conical IDB. In conclusion, STKs can be used in narrow interdental spaces where app opriate, but overall IDBs are more preferable in narrow and wider contact point conditions.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária , Humanos , Escovação Dentária
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933084

RESUMO

Oral health is maintained by a healthy microbiome, which can be monitored by state-of-the art diagnostics. Therefore, this study evaluated the presence and quantity of ten oral disease-associated taxa (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, F. nucleatum, C. rectus, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, oral associated Lactobacilli) in saliva and their clinical status association in 214 individuals. Upon clinical examination, study subjects were grouped into healthy, caries and periodontitis and their saliva was collected. A highly specific point-of-care compatible dual color qPCR assay was developed and used to study the above-mentioned bacteria of interest in the collected saliva. Assay performance was compared to a commercially available microbial reference test. Eight out of ten taxa that were investigated during this study were strong discriminators between the periodontitis and healthy groups: C. rectus, T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, S. mutans, F. nucleatum, T. denticola, P. intermedia and oral Lactobacilli (p < 0.05). Significant differentiation between the periodontitis and caries group microbiome was only shown for S. mutans (p < 0.05). A clear distinction between oral health and disease was enabled by the analysis of quantitative qPCR data of target taxa levels in saliva.

12.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical debridement and/or air polishing on the healing of ligature-induced buccal periimplantitis dehiscence defects in dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight implants were placed in the mandibles of twelve beagle dogs, and periimplantitis was induced for 2 months using ligatures. The resulting buccal dehiscence-type defects were surgically cleaned and augmented (xenogenic filler and resorbable membrane) according to one of the following treatments: (1) Cleaning with carbon curette (debridement - D) and guided bone regeneration (GBR/G): DG, (2) air polishing cleaning (A) and GBR: AG, (3) a combination of D/A/G: DAG, and (4) D/A without GBR: DA. After 2 months, histomorphometric and inflammatory evaluations were conducted. RESULTS: The median bone gain after therapy ranged between 1.2 mm (DG) and 2.7 mm (AG). Relative bone gain was between 39% (DG) and 59% (AG). The lowest inflammation scores were obtained in DA without GBR (5.84), whereas significantly higher values between 8.2 and 9.4 were found in the groups with augmentation. At lingual sites without defects, scores ranged from 4.1 to 5.9. According to ISO, differences above 2.9 were considered representative for irritative properties. CONCLUSIONS: All treatments resulted in partial regeneration of the defects. No treatment group showed a significantly (p < 0.05) better outcome. However, pretreatment with air polishing showed a tendency for less inflammation. Noteworthy, inflammation assessment showed an overall irritative potential after GBR in the evaluated early healing phase. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Periimplantitis treatment still represents a big issue in daily practice and requires additional preclinical research in order to improve treatment concepts.

13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(10): 3335-3345, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is an integral part of the pathogenesis of periodontitis and sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to review systematically the current evidence relating to the association between periodontal diseases and non-apnea sleep disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic searches were performed in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Scopus without any limitation. Following preliminary screening, the quality of the remaining selected papers was appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Due to substantial heterogeneity among the selected articles, main outcomes were reported in a qualitative manner. RESULTS: Following screening and evaluation, a final set of 13 studies was selected for inclusion. These studies examined the association between periodontal disease and short sleep duration, long sleep duration, poor sleep quality, or non-specific sleep disorders. The majority (N = 12/13) reported an association or trend between one type of sleep abnormality and periodontal or gingival parameters. CONCLUSION: Despite the respective limitations of the articles included in this systematic review, an association between periodontal diseases and sleep disturbances was apparent. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adequate management of periodontal disease requires that a patient's lifestyle factors be taken into consideration in treatment planning. One such factor is sleep initiation and maintenance. An obvious association between sleep disturbances and periodontitis exists. Sleep disorders may induce systemic inflammation, which, in turn, could influence the development of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Gengiva , Humanos
14.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(7-8): 572-583, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515568

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review was to compare the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole or azithromycin when used as adjunct systemic antibiotics during the non-surgical periodontal therapy of chronic periodontitis. The databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Biosis were electronically searched. Additionally, a hand search was conducted up to24 October 2019. From 76 papers, only two papers could be included in the analysis. The calculated mean probability of having probing depth (PD) ≤ 3 mm after non-surgical periodontal therapy in moderate (4-6 mm) and deep (> 6 mm) pockets accounted for 7% and 6% for the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. For azithromycin it was 3% and 1%, respectively. The mean probability of persisting pockets ≥ 5 mm was 0 for moderate pockets with both antibiotic therapies whereas for deep pockets therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole seems slightly lower. On the basis of two studies included in this systematic review, azithromycin as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the non-surgical adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis seems to provide clinical results similar to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. On behalf of patients' compliance and well-being, the use of azithromycin as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy of chronic periodontitis may be a substitute to amoxicillin and metronidazole. However, interpretation should be taken with caution, since the results are based on two studies only; thus, further clinical trials are necessary to underline or refute this trend.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Metronidazol , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina , Raspagem Dentária , Humanos , Aplainamento Radicular
15.
Dent J (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503214

RESUMO

This case report describes a rare case of a broken periodontal probe tip and its removal. A male patient presented himself in June 2019 due to a painful tooth in the upper left quadrant. The patient elected treatment in the dental school's student course. In October 2019, in preparation for full-mouth rehabilitation, a complete diagnostic status was performed, including radiographs. In this context, a metal-dense fragment was identified in the apical region of the (missing) tooth 45. It was diagnosed as the broken tip of a periodontal probe (type AE P OWB). Since a PCP-12 probe is generally used in-house, iatrogenic damage during the initial examination or student course could be excluded a priori. The patient was not able to remember any treatment that could be associated with the instrument's breaking. Since the probe fragment was palpable and a translocation could not be precluded, the patient agreed to its removal under local anesthesia, after a cone-beam CT. This article describes and discusses this particular case, with special emphasis on iatrogenic instrument fractures and their removal.

16.
Ann Anat ; 231: 151524, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether placement of a soft cortical membrane can restore and regenerate the original alveolar ridge contour in deficient sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One Beagle dog was used in this proof-of-principle evaluation. In a first intervention, a standardized buccal dehiscence defect was artificially created at the distal roots of the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars. Four weeks later, following endodontic treatment of the mesial roots, teeth were hemisected and the distal roots were extracted without raising a flap. A cortical membrane (Lamina®, Osteobiol) was placed outside of the bony envelope of the extraction socket to rebuild the buccal bone contour. Afterwards, sockets were filled with a collagen-modified porcine bone graft material (Gen-Os®, Osteobiol) to the level of the surrounding bone height. The socket orifice was closed with a porcine dermal matrix (Derma®). After four months, block specimens containing the socket-sites and remaining roots were retrieved, histologically processed and analyzed. RESULTS: Surgery and post-operative healing were uneventful. Histologically, bone formation under the membrane was found, i.e. bony protrusions and ossicles by osteoblasts could be identified. Concomitantly, the membrane showed clear signs of degradation. Bone substitute was well integrated in newly formed bone and resorption of particles was found. CONCLUSION: Three major observations were made in the present proof-of-principle study: (i) regeneration of a compromised socket seems possible when applying the presented approach, (ii) the soft cortical membrane was sufficiently stable to allow for the establishment of the contour and to inhibit soft tissue invasion and (iii) the applied xenogenic graft material was undergoing remodelling processes while allowing adequate bone regeneration.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7922, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404897

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether interdental brush shape influences cleaning efficacy, by comparing a waist-shaped interdental brush (W-IDB) with a cylindrical IDB (C-IDB); both provided with the same bristle texture. Cleaning efficacy of differently shaped IDBs was measured in proximal surfaces of teeth in a split-mouth cross-over design. Twenty-eight patients abolished oral hygiene for 4 d. Line angle plaque area was scanned with an intraoral camera after use of disclosing dye in baseline and after IDB application and analyzed planimetrically. Additionally, bacterial load in the IDBs was analyzed after usage by colony forming units (cfu). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test with continuity correction was used to compare the results of the waist-shaped and the cylindrically-shaped IDBs. The waist-shaped IDBs cleaned significantly better than their cylindrically-shaped counterparts (area cleaned: 23.1% vs. 18.3%), when applied at same interdental spaces (p < 0.001). However, no significant differences were found in comparison of bacterial load on the IDBs (median cfu counts: 2.3E9 vs. 2.7E9, p = 0.93). Irrespective of bristle texture or size, IDB shape have impact on cleaning efficacy. Waist-shaped IDBs are more effective in cleaning of the line angle area than cylindrically-shaped IDBs.

18.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369987

RESUMO

This review aimed to systematically compare microbial profiles of peri-implantitis to those of periodontitis and healthy implants. Therefore, an electronic search in five databases was conducted. For inclusion, studies assessing the microbiome of peri-implantitis in otherwise healthy patients were considered. Literature was assessed for consistent evidence of exclusive or predominant peri-implantitis microbiota. Of 158 potentially eligible articles, data of 64 studies on 3730 samples from peri-implant sites were included in this study. Different assessment methods were described in the studies, namely bacterial culture, PCR-based assessment, hybridization techniques, pyrosequencing, and transcriptomic analyses. After analysis of 13 selected culture-dependent studies, no microbial species were found to be specific for peri-implantitis. After assessment of 28 studies using PCR-based methods and a meta-analysis on 19 studies, a higher prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia (log-odds ratio 4.04 and 2.28, respectively) was detected in peri-implantitis biofilms compared with healthy implants. Actinomyces spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Rothia spp. were found in all five pyrosequencing studies in healthy-, periodontitis-, and peri-implantitis samples. In conclusion, the body of evidence does not show a consistent specific profile. Future studies should focus on the assessment of sites with different diagnosis for the same patient, and investigate the complex host-biofilm interaction.

19.
Case Rep Dent ; 2020: 5961452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089900

RESUMO

Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection primarily caused by anaerobic gram-positive filamentous bacteria, primarily of the genus Actinomyces. Oral-cervicofacial actinomycosis is the localization found most often, presenting as a soft tissue swelling, an abscess, a mass lesion, or sometimes an ulcerative lesion. Periodontitis-like lesions, however, are rare findings. This report describes the case of a 41-year-old healthy female patient (nonsmoker), who was referred to the clinic with dull and throbbing pain in the second quadrant. Tooth 25 showed increased mobility and probing pocket depths up to 10 mm, with profuse bleeding upon probing. Radiographically, considerable interproximal horizontal bone loss was found, and the diagnosis of periodontitis stage 3, grade C was made. The situation was initially stabilized with adhesive splinting and local anti-infective therapy. Two weeks later, the bone defect was treated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) using a xenogenic filler material (BioOss Collagen) and a resorbable membrane (Bio-Gide). Due to a suspicious appearance of the excised granulation tissue, the collected fragments were sent for histopathological evaluation. This evaluation revealed a chronic granulomatous inflammation with the presence of filamentous bacterial colonies, consistent with Actinomyces. The patient was successfully treated. While there are only few reports in the literature, actinomycotic lesions represent a rare but possible finding in cases with localized periodontal destruction. In conclusion, systematic biopsy of the infrabony tissue in localized periodontal lesions may help to provide a more accurate counting of Actinomyces-associated lesions, thereby improving diagnosis, therapy, and prevention.

20.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 22(2): 213-219, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus has been related to higher risk of implant treatment complications due to increased susceptibility to infection and delayed wound healing. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulate cytokine production leading to chronic inflammation and immunological host response that accentuates the destruction of periodontal tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different glycemic conditions on secretion and mineralization of bone matrix under sterile inflammation induced by LPS on osteoblasts seeded over sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA) titanium surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteoblast cell viability was performed to determine the influence of different glucose concentrations (5.5, 8, 12, and 24 mM), which were chosen to reflect normal, postprandial, and high glucose values, similar to those typically seen in Diabetes mellitus under clinical conditions. Cells were seeded on titanium SLA discs (Straumann AG, Waldenburg, Switzerland) and exposed to glucose concentrations and LPS (1µg/mL) in order to test inflammatory response (qPCR) and mineralization (Alizarin Red staining). RESULTS: Osteoblast viability was severely decreased when exposed to higher glucose levels (≥12 mM) and LPS (P < .05) compared to control. When the osteoblasts were exposed to LPS and glucose at ≥8 mM, the gene transcripts of inflammatory cytokines were ≈2.5-fold upregulated, while ≤8 mM glucose elicited no significant change compared to control without glucose treatment (P > .05). Osteoblasts exposed to LPS produced sparse extracellular matrix mineralization, especially combined with higher glucose values (≥12 mM), together with decreased calcium deposition compared to control (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: High glucose levels combined with LPS inflammatory stimulation elicited an adverse effect on the volume and quality of mineralized hard tissue formation on SLA titanium surfaces in vitro. Hence, both normal glucose levels and infection control including low levels of circulating LPS during initial osseointegration period may be required to increase the success rate of dental implants.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Glucose/metabolismo , Osteoblastos , Titânio , Humanos , Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Osseointegração , Propriedades de Superfície , Suíça
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