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2.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 35(1): 109-112, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270967

RESUMO

Traumatic left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are rare and surgical correction is the treatment of choice. In this article, it is reported a case of a myocardial stab injury with primary suture and development of a giant pseudoaneurysm, five years later, that underwent surgical repair.

3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 114(2): 305-312, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215503

RESUMO

Familial lipodystrophy is a rare genetic condition in which individuals have, besides metabolic changes and body fat deposits, a type of cardiomyopathy that has not been well studied. Many of the patients develop cardiovascular changes, the most commonly reported in the literature being the expression of a type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This article, presented as a bibliographic review, reviews the clinical and cardiovascular imaging aspects in this scenario of cardiomyopathy in a rare metabolic disease, based on the latest scientific evidence published in the area. Despite the frequent association of congenital lipodystrophy and ventricular hypertrophy described in the literature, the pathophysiological mechanisms of this cardiomyopathy have not yet been definitively elucidated, and new information on cardiac morphological aspects is emerging in the aegis of recent and advanced imaging methods, such as cardiac magnetic resonance.

4.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201592

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the association of cigarette smoking and right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic functions in a population-based cohort of individuals at middle age. Methods: This cross-sectional study included participants who answered the smoking questionnaire and underwent echocardiography at the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adulthood year 25 examination. RV systolic function was assessed by echocardiographic-derived tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and by right ventricular peak systolic velocity (RVS'), while RV diastolic function was evaluated by early right ventricular tissue velocity (RVE'). Multivariable linear regression models assessed the relationship of smoking with RV function, adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, pulmonary function, left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and coronary artery calcium score. Results: A total of 3424 participants were included. The mean age was 50±4 years; 57% were female; and 53% were black. There were 2106 (61%) never smokers, 750 (22%) former smokers and 589 (17%) current smokers. In the multivariable analysis, current smokers had significantly lower TAPSE (ß=-0.082, SE=0.031, p=0.008), RVS' (ß=-0.343, SE=0.156, p=0.028) and RVE' (ß=-0.715, SE=0.195, p<0.001) compared with never smokers. Former smokers had a significantly lower RVE' compared with never smokers (ß=-0.414, SE=0.162, p=0.011), whereas no significant difference in RV systolic function was found between former smokers and never smokers. Conclusions: In a large multicenter community-based biracial cohort of middle-aged individuals, smoking was independently related to both worse RV systolic and diastolic functions.

5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 305-312, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1088853

RESUMO

Abstract Familial lipodystrophy is a rare genetic condition in which individuals have, besides metabolic changes and body fat deposits, a type of cardiomyopathy that has not been well studied. Many of the patients develop cardiovascular changes, the most commonly reported in the literature being the expression of a type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This article, presented as a bibliographic review, reviews the clinical and cardiovascular imaging aspects in this scenario of cardiomyopathy in a rare metabolic disease, based on the latest scientific evidence published in the area. Despite the frequent association of congenital lipodystrophy and ventricular hypertrophy described in the literature, the pathophysiological mechanisms of this cardiomyopathy have not yet been definitively elucidated, and new information on cardiac morphological aspects is emerging in the aegis of recent and advanced imaging methods, such as cardiac magnetic resonance.


Resumo A lipodistrofia familiar é uma condição genética rara na qual indivíduos apresentam, além das alterações metabólicas e de depósitos de gordura físicos, um tipo de cardiomiopatia pouco estudada. Muitos dos pacientes desenvolvem alterações cardiovasculares, sendo a mais comumente reportada em literatura, a expressão de um tipo de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica. Este artigo, apresentado como uma revisão bibliográfica, revisa os aspectos clínicos e de imagem cardiovascular neste cenário de cardiomiopatia em doença metabólica rara, com base nas últimas evidências científicas publicadas na área. Apesar da frequente associação de lipodistrofia congênita e hipertrofia ventricular descrita em literatura, os mecanismos fisiopatológicos desta cardiomiopatia ainda não estão definitivamente elucidados, e novas informações do aspecto morfológico cardíaco surgem à égide de recentes e avançados métodos de imagem como a ressonância cardíaca magnética.

6.
Schizophr Res ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948896

RESUMO

The core symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) include abnormal semantic processing which may rely on the ventral language stream of the human brain. Thus, structural disruption of the ventral language stream may play an important role in semantic deficits observed in SSD patients. Therefore, we compared white matter tract integrity in SSD patients and healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging combined with probabilistic fiber tractography. For the ventral language stream, we assessed the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and uncinate fasciculus. The arcuate fasciculus and corticospinal tract were used as control tracts. In SSD patients, the relationship between semantic processing impairments and tract integrity was analyzed separately. Three-dimensional tract reconstructions were performed in 45/44 SSD patients/controls ("Bern sample") and replicated in an independent sample of 24/24 SSD patients/controls ("Basel sample"). Multivariate analyses of fractional anisotropy, mean, axial, and radial diffusivity of the left IFOF showed significant differences between SSD patients and controls (p(FDR-corr) < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.23) in the Bern sample. Axial diffusivity (AD) of the left UF was inversely correlated with semantic impairments (r = -0.454, p(FDR-corr) = 0.035). In the Basel sample, significant group differences for the left IFOF were replicated (p < .01, ηp2 = 0.29), while the correlation between AD of the left IFOF and semantic processing decline (r = -0.376, p = .09) showed a statistical trend. No significant effects were found for the dorsal language stream. This is direct evidence for the importance of the integrity of the ventral language stream, in particular the left IFOF, in semantic processing deficits in SSD.

7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(1): 109-112, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1092458

RESUMO

Abstract Traumatic left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are rare and surgical correction is the treatment of choice. In this article, it is reported a case of a myocardial stab injury with primary suture and development of a giant pseudoaneurysm, five years later, that underwent surgical repair.

8.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(1): 82-89.e1, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAcT) is correlated with higher pulmonary artery pressure. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that PAcT measured in young adulthood would be associated with future cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults year 5 examination (1990-1991), PAcT was measured as the time interval from onset to peak flow velocity at the pulmonary valve annulus on Doppler echocardiography. The primary outcome was a composite of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease events: myocardial infarction, non-myocardial infarction acute coronary syndrome, coronary revascularization, congestive heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attack, carotid artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease. RESULTS: PAcT was obtained in 4,171 participants (mean age, 30 ± 4 years, 55% women, 51% white). PAcT groups obtained using linear spline methodology were as follows: group I, PAcT ≥ 196 msec (n = 122); group II, PAcT < 196 and ≥115 msec (n = 3,195); and group III, PAcT < 115 msec (n = 854). During follow-up (median, 24.9 years), the primary outcome occurred in 216 participants (5.2%); 66 of 854 (7.7%) of those with PAcT < 115 msec, 149 of 3,195 (4.7%) of those with intermediate PAcT level, and one of 122 (0.8%) of those with PAcT ≥ 196 msec. In a fully adjusted model, the lowest and intermediate PAcT groups had hazard ratios of 8.3 (95% CI, 1.1-62.1; P = .04) and 6.8 (95% CI, 0.9-50.5; P = .06), respectively, in comparison with the highest PAcT group. CONCLUSIONS: PAcT is useful for better identifying young adults at higher risk for cardiovascular events, who may benefit from a strict control of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

10.
Neuroimaging Clin N Am ; 30(1): 65-72, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759573

RESUMO

MR imaging is a suitable instrument for the detection of incidental radiological findings in patients with early psychosis and guidance of subsequent treatment adjustments. We outline evidence showing the clinical utility of MR imaging to guide treatment selection by identifying radiological abnormalities and predicting clinical outcomes in early-stage psychosis. We argue that MR imaging is an indispensable screening tool to detect gross radiological abnormalities in early psychosis and implementation in routine clinical assessments is warranted. We highlight future key challenges and make pragmatic suggestions to exploit the potential of MR imaging to construct robust prognostic models for personalized early interventions.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611826

RESUMO

There is reported a study performed with a novel paradigm aiming at investigation of the translational validity of von Zerssen's paranoid-depression scale and its fMRI correlates in terms of focus on exploration of the results on the contrast between the Paranoid Specific (DP) blocks and the Depression Specific (DS) blocks. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significant activations in a number of regions (right angular gyrus, left posterior cingulate and precuneus, right transverse temporal gyrus) during responses to paranoia versus depression items which differ topologically from those found in patients with major depression (left middle cingulate and right superior temporal gyrus). The direct comparison between the groups, however, did not yield any residual activations after correction.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample. METHOD: To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls. RESULTS: The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.

15.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 32: 145-152, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that a normal sodium diet could be associated with preservation of serum sodium during treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-four patients hospitalized for ADHF were blindly randomized by using block method to a low sodium diet (LS: 3 g/day of dietary sodium chloride; n = 22, 59.5 ± 11.9 y.o., 50% males. LVEF = 30.0 ± 13.6%); and a normal sodium diet (NS: 7 g/day; n = 22, 56.4 ± 10.3 y.o., 68% males; LVEF = 27.8 ± 11.7%), and both groups were submitted to fluid restriction of 1.000 mL/day. At the 7th day of intervention 16 patients of LS group and 15 patients of NS group were assessed for difference in serum sodium. Both groups had equivalent decongestion, reflected by similar percent reduction of body weight (LS: -5.0 ± 4.7% vs NS: -4.5 ± 5.2%. p = 0.41). Reduction of the N terminal fragment of type B natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was significant only in the NS (-1497.0 [-18843.0 - 1191.0]. p = 0.04). The LS group showed lower levels of serum sodium (135.4 ± 3.5 mmol/L) compared to the NS group (137.5 ± 1.9 mmol/L; p = 0.04). Four cases of hyponatremia were observed only in the LS group (22%). The NS group exhibited higher mean blood pressure values (79.4 ± 2.4 mmHg vs 75.5 ± 3.0 mmHg. p = 0.03), and lower heart rate (73.2 ± 1.6 bpm vs 75.5 ± 2.1 bpm. p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a normal sodium diet, when compared to a low sodium diet, is associated with similar degrees of decongestion, but with higher levels of natremia, blood pressure and lower neurohormonal activation during ADHF treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier no. NCT03722069.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8516, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186482

RESUMO

Depressive symptoms in subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) or at first-episode psychosis (FEP) are often treated with antidepressants. Our cross-sectional study investigated whether brain morphology is altered by antidepressant medication. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI scans of 33 CHR-P and FEP subjects treated with antidepressants, 102 CHR-P and FEP individuals without antidepressant treatment and 55 controls, were automatically segmented using Freesurfer 6.0. Linear mixed-effects modelling was applied to assess the differences in subcortical volume, surface area and cortical thickness in treated, non-treated and healthy subjects, taking into account converted dosages of antidepressants. Increasing antidepressant dose was associated with larger volume of the pallidum and the putamen, and larger surface of the left inferior temporal gyrus. In a pilot subsample of separately studied subjects of known genomic risk loci, we found that in the right postcentral gyrus, the left paracentral lobule and the precentral gyrus antidepressant dose-associated surface increase depended on polygenic schizophrenia-related-risk score. As the reported regions are linked to the symptoms of psychosis, our findings reflect the possible beneficial effects of antidepressant treatment on an emerging psychosis.

17.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 19(5): 1273-1285, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165440

RESUMO

Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have a heightened sensitivity to social exclusion. Experimental manipulations have produced inconsistent findings and suggested that baseline negative affect (NA) might influence the experience of exclusion. We administered a standardized social exclusion protocol (Cyberball paradigm) in BPD (n = 39) and age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 29) to investigate the association of NA on social exclusion and activation in brain regions previously implicated in this paradigm. Compared with controls, patients with BPD showed higher activation during social exclusion in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and in the right precuneus. Prescan NA ratings were associated with higher brain activation in the ACC and mPFC over all conditions, and post hoc t tests revealed that differences between the groups were only significant when controlling for NA. Brain activation during exclusion was correlated with NA separately for each group. Only BPD patients showed a significant association of NA and exclusion related precuneus activation (r = .52 p = .001). Additionally, BPD patients experienced less feelings of belonging compared with a healthy control (HC) group during inclusion and exclusion, although they estimated their ball possessions significantly higher than did the HC. These findings suggest that baseline NA has a crucial impact on Cyberball-related brain activation. The results underscore the importance of considering levels of NA in social exclusion protocols for participants high in this trait.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 115: 68-78, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies during pregnancy. Tumours often present characteristics of high malignancy and are hormone receptor negative/HER2 positive or triple negative. In general, pregnancy, including the postpartum period, is associated with a transiently increased risk of developing breast cancer but followed by a long-lasting protective period. Placental metastases are very rare and, thus far, breast cancer metastases in the foetal compartment have not been described. To discuss these apparently contradictory observations, this narrative review resumes immunological and hormonal alterations during pregnancy potentially affecting breast cancer risk as well as tumour growth and behaviour. OBSERVATIONS: Upregulation of breast cancer-associated genes involved in immunological and reproductive processes has been observed in parous women and is potentially responsible for a transiently increased risk in pregnancy. In contrast, maternal immunisation and immunoglobulin production against antigens expressed on trophoblast cells, such as specific glycosylation patterns of mucin-1 or RCAS1-associated truncated glycans, seem to prevent breast cancer development in later years. Animal and human studies indicate that T cells are involved in these processes. Several placenta-derived factors, especially kisspeptin, have direct anti-tumour effects. The pregnancy-related increase of estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones influence growth and characteristics of breast cancer while the role of further placenta-secreted factors is still controversially discussed. CONCLUSION: Several factors and cells are involved in altered breast cancer risk during and after pregnancy and have potential for developing novel treatment strategies in future.

20.
Eur J Neurosci ; 50(6): 3060-3071, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012514

RESUMO

Grey matter (GM) volume alterations have been repeatedly demonstrated in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Some of these neuroanatomical abnormalities are already evident in the at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis. Not only GM alterations but also neurocognitive impairments predate the onset of frank psychosis with verbal learning and memory (VLM) being among the most impaired domains. Yet, their interconnection with alterations in GM volumes remains ambiguous. Thus, we evaluated associations of different subcortical GM volumes in the medial temporal lobe with VLM performance in antipsychotic-naïve ARMS and FEP patients. Data from 59 ARMS and 31 FEP patients, collected within the prospective Früherkennung von Psychosen study, were analysed. Structural T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VLM was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test and its factors Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory and Inaccurate Memory. FEP patients showed significantly enlarged volumes of hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus compared to ARMS patients. A significant negative association between amygdala and pallidum volume and Attention Span was found in ARMS and FEP patients combined, which however did not withstand correction for multiple testing. Although we found significant between-group differences in subcortical volumes and VLM is among the most impaired cognitive domains in emerging psychosis, we could not demonstrate an association between low performance and subcortical GM volumes alterations in antipsychotic-naïve patients. Hence, deficits in this domain do not appear to stem from alterations in subcortical structures.

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