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1.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6(1): 60, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298933

RESUMO

We aimed to assess contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) compared with invasive breast cancer (BC). Women diagnosed with DCIS (N = 28,003) or stage I-III BC (N = 275,836) between 1989 and 2017 were identified from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cumulative incidences were estimated, accounting for competing risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) for metachronous invasive CBC. To evaluate effects of adjuvant systemic therapy and screening, separate analyses were performed for stage I BC without adjuvant systemic therapy and by mode of first BC detection. Multivariable models including clinico-pathological and treatment data were created to assess CBC risk prediction performance in DCIS patients. The 10-year cumulative incidence of invasive CBC was 4.8% for DCIS patients (CBC = 1334). Invasive CBC risk was higher in DCIS patients compared with invasive BC overall (HR = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.17), and lower compared with stage I BC without adjuvant systemic therapy (HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.82-0.92). In patients diagnosed ≥2011, the HR for invasive CBC was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.35-1.68) after screen-detected DCIS compared with screen-detected invasive BC, and was 2.14 (95% CI = 1.46-3.13) when not screen-detected. The C-index was 0.52 (95% CI = 0.50-0.54) for invasive CBC prediction in DCIS patients. In conclusion, CBC risks are low overall. DCIS patients had a slightly higher risk of invasive CBC compared with invasive BC, likely explained by the risk-reducing effect of (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy among BC patients. For support of clinical decision making more information is needed to differentiate CBC risks among DCIS patients.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that the combined effects of breast cancer (BC)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can improve BC risk stratification using polygenic risk scores (PRSs). The performance of PRSs in GWAS-independent clinical cohorts is poorly studied in individuals carrying mutations in moderately penetrant BC predisposition genes such as CHEK2. METHODS: 760 female CHEK2 mutation carriers were included; 561 women were affected with BC, of whom 74 developed metachronous contralateral BC (mCBC). For PRS calculations, two SNP sets covering 77 (SNP set 1, developed for BC risk stratification in women unselected for their BRCA1/2 germline mutation status) and 88 (SNP set 2, developed for BC risk stratification in female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers) BC-associated SNPs were used. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Both SNP sets provided concordant PRS results at the individual level (r = 0.91, p < 2.20 × 10-16). Weighted cohort Cox regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of PRSs with the risk for first BC. For SNP set 1, a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.71 per standard deviation of the PRS was observed (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.15, p = 3.87x10-6). PRSs identify a subgroup of CHEK2 mutation carriers with a predicted lifetime risk for first BC that exceeds the surveillance thresholds defined by international guidelines. Association of PRS with mCBC was examined via Cox regression analysis (SNP set 1 HR =: 1.23, 95%CI = 0.86 to 1.78, p = .26). CONCLUSION: PRSs may be used to personalize risk-adapted preventive measures for women with CHEK2 mutations. Larger studies are required to assess the role of PRSs in mCBC predisposition.

3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 327, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have investigated the association of risk factors with breast cancer prognosis. However, the results have been conflicting and it has been challenging to establish causality due to potential residual confounding. Using a Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach, we aimed to examine the potential causal association between breast cancer-specific survival and nine established risk factors for breast cancer: alcohol consumption, body mass index, height, physical activity, mammographic density, age at menarche or menopause, smoking, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We conducted a two-sample MR analysis on data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and risk factor summary estimates from the GWAS Catalog. The BCAC data included 86,627 female patients of European ancestry with 7054 breast cancer-specific deaths during 15 years of follow-up. Of these, 59,378 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 13,692 were ER-negative breast cancer patients. For the significant association, we used sensitivity analyses and a multivariable MR model. All risk factor associations were also examined in a model adjusted by other prognostic factors. RESULTS: Increased genetic liability to T2DM was significantly associated with worse breast cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.17, P value [P] = 0.003). There were no significant associations after multiple testing correction for any of the risk factors in the ER-status subtypes. For the reported significant association with T2DM, the sensitivity analyses did not show evidence for violation of the MR assumptions nor that the association was due to increased BMI. The association remained significant when adjusting by other prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: This extensive MR analysis suggests that T2DM may be causally associated with worse breast cancer-specific survival and therefore that treating T2DM may improve prognosis.

4.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247629

RESUMO

Salivary and mammary gland tumors show morphological similarities and share various characteristics, including frequent overexpression of hormone receptors and female preponderance. Although this may suggest a common etiology, it remains unclear whether patients with a salivary gland tumor carry an increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Our purpose was to determine the risk of BC in women diagnosed with salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) or pleomorphic adenoma (SGPA). BC incidence (invasive and in situ) was assessed in two nationwide cohorts: one comprising 1567 women diagnosed with SGC and one with 2083 women with SGPA. BC incidence was compared with general population rates using standardized incidence ratio (SIR). BC risk was assessed according to age at SGC/SGPA diagnosis, follow-up time and (for SGC patients) histological subtype. The mean follow-up was 7.0 years after SGC and 9.9 after SGPA diagnosis. During follow-up, 52 patients with SGC and 74 patients with SGPA developed BC. The median time to BC was 6 years after SGC and 7 after SGPA. The cumulative risk at 10 years of follow-up was 3.1% after SGC and 3.5% after SGPA (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 2.1%-4.7% and 2.6%-4.6%, respectively). BC incidence was 1.59 times (95%CI 1.19-2.09) higher in the SGC-cohort than expected based on incidence rates in the general population. SGPA-patients showed a 1.48 times (95%CI 1.16-1.86) higher incidence. Women with SGC or SGPA have a slightly increased risk of BC. The magnitude of risk justifies raising awareness, but is no reason for BC screening.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252836

RESUMO

This study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of trends in incidence, survival, mortality and treatment of first primary invasive breast cancer (BC), according to age, stage and receptor subtype in the Netherlands between 1989-2017. Data from all women diagnosed with first primary stage I-IV breast cancer (N=320,249) were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. BC mortality and general population data were retrieved from Statistics Netherlands. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated with annual and average annual percentage change statistics (APC and AAPC). The relative survival (RS) was used as estimator for disease-specific survival. The BC incidence for all BC patients combined increased until 2013 from 126 to 158 per 100,000 person-years, after which a declining trend was observed. Surgery became less extensive, but (neo)adjuvant systemic treatments and their combinations were given more frequently. The RS improved for all age groups and for most stages and receptor subtypes, but remained stable for all subtypes since 2012-2013 and since 2000-2009 for stage IV BC at 15-years of follow-up. Overall, the five- and ten-year RS increased from 76.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]:76.1, 77.4) and 55.9% (95%CI:54.7, 57.1) in 1989-1999 to 91.0% (95%CI:90.5, 91.5) and 82.9% (95%CI:82.2, 83.5), respectively, in 2010-2016. BC mortality improved regardless of age and overall decreased from 57 to 35 per 100,000 person-years between 1989-2017. In conclusion, the BC incidence in the Netherlands has steadily increased since 1989, but the latest trends show promising declines. Survival improved markedly for most patients and the mortality decreased regardless of age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3353, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620889

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1803-1811, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the performance of the recently extended Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA version 5) in a Dutch prospective cohort, using a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313 breast cancer (BC)-associated variants (PRS313) and other, nongenetic risk factors. METHODS: Since 1989, 6522 women without BC aged 45 or older of European descent have been included in the Rotterdam Study. The PRS313 was calculated per 1 SD in controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Cox regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between the PRS313 and incident BC risk. Cumulative 10-year risks were calculated with BOADICEA including different sets of variables (age, risk factors and PRS313). C-statistics were used to evaluate discriminative ability. RESULTS: In total, 320 women developed BC. The PRS313 was significantly associated with BC (hazard ratio [HR] per SD of 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.40-1.73]). Using 10-year risk estimates including age and the PRS313, other risk factors improved the discriminatory ability of the BOADICEA model marginally, from a C-statistic of 0.636 to 0.653. CONCLUSIONS: The effect size of the PRS313 is highly reproducible in the Dutch population. Our results validate the BOADICEA v5 model for BC risk assessment in the Dutch general population.

11.
Breast ; 52: 102-109, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hormone replacement therapy can diminish hormone depletion-related complaints in postmenopausal women, but is contraindicated for postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients. Recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in young hormone receptor-negative BC patients however, is accepted. To determine the safety of this strategy, we investigated the effect of recovery of menstruation on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in young hormone receptor-negative BC patients treated with (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: We selected 636 patients from a single-center cohort with early stage hormone receptor-negative BC and under the age of 50 years when treated with chemotherapy. Sufficient data on course of menstruation in medical records was retrospectively found for 397 patients, of whom 299 patients (75%) had a recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of recovery of menstruation on DFS and OS. RESULTS: Patients with recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy less frequently had lymph node involvement at diagnosis (45% vs 66%, p = 0.001). After a median follow-up of 6.7 years, the adjusted hazard ratios were 1.45 (95% CI: 0.83-2.54) for DFS and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.71-1.98) for OS. CONCLUSION: No significantly increased recurrence risk was found for hormone receptor-negative BC patients with recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy. However, the outcome of the multivariable model is not reassuring and a potentially increased recurrence risk cannot be excluded. The results need to be validated in a larger prospective study for a more definitive answer.

12.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(11): 687-705, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555420

RESUMO

The European Collaborative on Personalized Early Detection and Prevention of Breast Cancer (ENVISION) brings together several international research consortia working on different aspects of the personalized early detection and prevention of breast cancer. In a consensus conference held in 2019, the members of this network identified research areas requiring development to enable evidence-based personalized interventions that might improve the benefits and reduce the harms of existing breast cancer screening and prevention programmes. The priority areas identified were: 1) breast cancer subtype-specific risk assessment tools applicable to women of all ancestries; 2) intermediate surrogate markers of response to preventive measures; 3) novel non-surgical preventive measures to reduce the incidence of breast cancer of poor prognosis; and 4) hybrid effectiveness-implementation research combined with modelling studies to evaluate the long-term population outcomes of risk-based early detection strategies. The implementation of such programmes would require health-care systems to be open to learning and adapting, the engagement of a diverse range of stakeholders and tailoring to societal norms and values, while also addressing the ethical and legal issues. In this Consensus Statement, we discuss the current state of breast cancer risk prediction, risk-stratified prevention and early detection strategies, and their implementation. Throughout, we highlight priorities for advancing each of these areas.

14.
Breast ; 50: 95-103, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The majority of 'low-risk' (grade I/II) Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) may not progress to invasive breast cancer during a women's lifetime. Therefore, the safety of active surveillance versus standard surgical treatment for DCIS is prospectively being evaluated in clinical trials. If proven safe and selectively implemented in clinical practice, a significant group of women with low-risk DCIS may forego surgery and radiotherapy in the future. Identification of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with prognosis after a primary DCIS would also enhance our care of women with low-risk DCIS. METHODS: To identify modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for subsequent breast events after DCIS, we performed a systematic literature search in PUBMED, EMBASE and Scopus. RESULTS: Six out of the 3870 articles retrieved were included for final data extraction. These six studies included a total of 4950 patients with primary DCIS and 640 recorded subsequent breast events. There was moderate evidence for an association of a family history of breast cancer, premenopausal status, high BMI, and high breast density with a subsequent breast cancer or further DCIS. CONCLUSION: There is a limited number of recent studies published on the impact of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors on subsequent events after DCIS. The available evidence is insufficient to identify potential targets for risk reduction strategies, reflecting the relatively small numbers and the lack of long-term follow-up in DCIS, a low-event condition.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 146(8): 2296-2304, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901133

RESUMO

The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) was evaluated as a promising parameter for breast cancer prognostication in clinically relevant subgroups of patients. The TSR was assessed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue slides of 1,794 breast cancer patients from the Nottingham City Hospital. An independent second cohort of 737 patients from the Netherlands Cancer Institute to Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was used for evaluation. In the Nottingham Breast Cancer series, the TSR was an independent prognostic parameter for recurrence-free survival (RFS; HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.10-1.66, p = 0.004). The interaction term was statistically significant for grade and triple-negative status. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a more pronounced effect of the TSR for RFS in grade III tumors (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.43-2.51, p < 0.001) and triple-negative tumors (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.10-3.14, p = 0.020). Comparable hazard ratios and confidence intervals were observed for grade and triple-negative status in the ONCOPOOL study. The prognostic value of TSR was not modified by age, tumor size, histology, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status or lymph node status. In conclusion, patients with a stroma-high tumor had a worse prognosis compared to patients with a stroma-low tumor. The prognostic value of the TSR is most discriminative in grade III tumors and triple-negative tumors. The TSR was not modified by other clinically relevant parameters making it a potential factor to be included for improved risk stratification.


Assuntos
Células Estromais/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 216-232, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous gene-environment interaction studies of breast cancer risk have provided sparse evidence of interactions. Using the largest available dataset to date, we performed a comprehensive assessment of potential effect modification of 205 common susceptibility variants by 13 established breast cancer risk factors, including replication of previously reported interactions. METHODS: Analyses were performed using 28 176 cases and 32 209 controls genotyped with iCOGS array and 44 109 cases and 48 145 controls genotyped using OncoArray from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Gene-environment interactions were assessed using unconditional logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen-receptor (ER) status. Bayesian false discovery probability was used to assess the noteworthiness of the meta-analysed array-specific interactions. RESULTS: Noteworthy evidence of interaction at ≤1% prior probability was observed for three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-risk factor pairs. SNP rs4442975 was associated with a greater reduction of risk of ER-positive breast cancer [odds ratio (OR)int = 0.85 (0.78-0.93), Pint = 2.8 x 10-4] and overall breast cancer [ORint = 0.85 (0.78-0.92), Pint = 7.4 x 10-5) in current users of estrogen-progesterone therapy compared with non-users. This finding was supported by replication using OncoArray data of the previously reported interaction between rs13387042 (r2 = 0.93 with rs4442975) and current estrogen-progesterone therapy for overall disease (Pint = 0.004). The two other interactions suggested stronger associations between SNP rs6596100 and ER-negative breast cancer with increasing parity and younger age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study does not suggest strong effect modification of common breast cancer susceptibility variants by established risk factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Fator XIII , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1117-1131, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional epidemiologic studies have evaluated associations between circulating lipid levels and breast cancer risk, but results have been inconsistent. As Mendelian randomization analyses may provide evidence for causal inference, we sought to evaluate potentially unbiased associations between breast cancer risk and four genetically predicted lipid traits. METHODS: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 164 discrete variants associated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and total cholesterol. We used 162 of these unique variants to construct weighted genetic scores (wGSs) for a total of 101 424 breast cancer cases and 80 253 controls of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between per standard deviation increase in genetically predicted lipid traits and breast cancer risk. Additional Mendelian randomization analysis approaches and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess pleiotropy and instrument validity. RESULTS: Corresponding to approximately 15 mg/dL, one standard deviation increase in genetically predicted HDL-C was associated with a 12% increased breast cancer risk (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.16). Findings were consistent after adjustment for breast cancer risk factors and were robust in several sensitivity analyses. Associations with genetically predicted triglycerides and total cholesterol were inconsistent, and no association for genetically predicted LDL-C was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong evidence that circulating HDL-C may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, whereas LDL-C may not be related to breast cancer risk.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 203-211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a systematic field synopsis of 1059 breast cancer candidate gene studies and investigated 279 genetic variants, 51 of which showed associations. The major limitation of this work was the small sample size, even pooling data from all 1059 studies. Thereafter, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accumulated data for hundreds of thousands of subjects. It's necessary to re-evaluate these variants in large GWAS datasets. METHODS: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets. FINDINGS: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 2·19 × 10-4. The associations for four variants reached P < 5 × 10-8 and have been reported by previous GWAS, including rs6435074 and rs6723097 (CASP8), rs17879961 (CHEK2) and rs2853669 (TERT). The remaining eight variants were rs676387 (HSD17B1), rs762551 (CYP1A2), rs1045485 (CASP8), rs9340799 (ESR1), rs7931342 (CHR11), rs1050450 (GPX1), rs13010627 (CASP10) and rs9344 (CCND1). Further investigating these 10 genes identified associations for two additional variants at P < 5 × 10-8, including rs4793090 (near HSD17B1), and rs9210 (near CYP1A2), which have not been identified by previous GWAS. INTERPRETATION: Though most candidate gene variants were not associated with breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Caspase 8 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Risco
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 90, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391067

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is correlated with good prognosis and outcome after (immuno)therapy in triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. However, the role of TILs in luminal breast cancer is less clear. Emerging evidence has now demonstrated that genetic aberrations in malignant cells influence the immune landscape of tumors. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is the most common altered pathway in ER-positive breast cancer. It is unknown whether changes in the PI3K pathway result in a different composition of the breast tumor microenvironment. Here we present the retrospective analysis of a prospective randomized trial in ER-positive breast cancer on the prognostic and predictive value of specific tumor-associated lymphocytes in the context of PI3K alterations. METHODS: We included 563 ER-positive tumors from a multicenter trial for stage I to III postmenopausal breast cancer patients, who were randomized to tamoxifen or no adjuvant therapy. The amount of CD8-, CD4-, and FOXP3-positive cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantified by imaging-analysis software. We analyzed the associations between PIK3CA hotspot mutations, PTEN expression, phosphorylated proteins of the PI3K and MAPK pathway (p-AKT, p-ERK1/2, p-4EBP1, p-p70S6K), and recurrence-free interval after adjuvant tamoxifen or no adjuvant treatment. RESULTS: CD8-positive lymphocytes were significantly more abundant in PIK3CA-mutated tumors (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.03-2.68). While CD4 and FOXP3 were not significantly associated with prognosis, patients with tumors classified as CD8-high had increased risk of recurrence (HR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.14-3.41; multivariable model including PIK3CA status, treatment arm, and other standard clinicopathological variables). Lymphocytes were more often present in tumors with increased PI3K downstream phosphorylation. This was most pronounced for FOXP3-positive cells. CONCLUSION: These exploratory analyses of a prospective trial in luminal breast cancer suggest high CD8 infiltration is associated with unfavorable outcome and that PI3K pathway alterations might be associated with the composition of the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Transcriptoma
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