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1.
ASAIO J ; 67(3): 263-269, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627599

RESUMO

Optimal management of cardiogenic shock requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is still an evolving area in which assessment and optimization of the microcirculation may be critically important. We hypothesized that the venous arterial carbon dioxide gap (P(v-a)CO2 gap); the ratio of this gap to arterio-venous oxygen content (P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio) and the anion gap would be early indicators of microcirculatory status and useful parameters for outcome prediction during ECMO support. We retrospectively reviewed 31 cardiogenic shock patients requiring veno-arterial ECMO, calculating P(v-a)CO2 gap and P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratios in the first 36 hours and the final 24 hours of ECMO support. Sixteen patients (52%) survived and 15 (48%) died. After 24 hours of ECMO support, the P(v-a)CO2 gap (4.9 ± 1.5 vs. 6.8 ± 1.9 mm Hg; p = 0.004) and anion gap (5.2 ± 1.8 vs. 8.7 ± 2.7 mmol/L; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in non-survivors. In the final 24 hours of ECMO support, the P(v-a)CO2 gap (3.5 ± 1.6 vs. 10.5 ± 3.2 mm Hg; p < 0.001), P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio (1.1 ± 0.5 vs. 2.7 ± 1.0; p < 0.001), anion gap (5.1 ± 3.0 vs. 9.3 ± 5.9 mmol/L; p = 0.02), and lactate (median 1.0 [interquartile range {IQR}: 0.7-1.5] vs. 2.8 [IQR: 1.7-7.7] mmol/L; p = <0.001) were all significantly lower in survivors. Increasing P(v-a)CO2 gap and increasing anion gap were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality. Optimum cut-points for prediction of mortality were 6 mm Hg for P(v-a)CO2 gap in combination with an anion gap above 6 mmol/L in the first 24 hours of ECMO in patients with cardiogenic shock requiring ECMO.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(3): e334-e335, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616361
4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 158, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The data on incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) are limited. We performed this retrospective cohort study to assess frequency, clinical characteristics, responsible pathogens, and outcomes of VAP in patients COVID-19 pneumonia requiring MV between March 12th and April 24th, 2020 (all had RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection). Patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring ECMO were compared with an historical cohort of 45 patients with severe influenza-associated ARDS requiring ECMO admitted to the same ICU during the preceding three winter seasons. RESULTS: Among 50 consecutive patients with Covid-19-associated ARDS requiring ECMO included [median (IQR) age 48 (42-56) years; 72% male], 43 (86%) developed VAP [median (IQR) MV duration before the first episode, 10 (8-16) days]. VAP-causative pathogens were predominantly Enterobacteriaceae (70%), particularly inducible AmpC-cephalosporinase producers (40%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37%). VAP recurred in 34 (79%) patients and 17 (34%) died. Most recurrences were relapses (i.e., infection with the same pathogen), with a high percentage occurring on adequate antimicrobial treatment. Estimated cumulative incidence of VAP, taking into account death and extubation as competing events, was significantly higher in Covid-19 patients than in influenza patients (p = 0.002). Despite a high P. aeruginosa-VAP rate in patients with influenza-associated ARDS (54%), the pulmonary infection recurrence rate was significantly lower than in Covid-19 patients. Overall mortality was similar for the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe Covid-19-associated ARDS requiring ECMO had a very high late-onset VAP rate. Inducible AmpC-cephalosporinase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently caused VAP, with multiple recurrences and difficulties eradicating the pathogen from the lung.

5.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2168-2183, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175277

RESUMO

Pulmonary infection is one of the main complications occurring in patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Besides traditional risk factors, dysregulation of lung immune defenses and microbiota may play an important role in ARDS patients. Prone positioning does not seem to be associated with a higher risk of pulmonary infection. Although bacteria associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in ARDS patients are similar to those in patients without ARDS, atypical pathogens (Aspergillus, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus) may also be responsible for infection in ARDS patients. Diagnosing pulmonary infection in ARDS patients is challenging, and requires a combination of clinical, biological and microbiological criteria. The role of modern tools (e.g., molecular methods, metagenomic sequencing, etc.) remains to be evaluated in this setting. One of the challenges of antimicrobial treatment is antibiotics diffusion into the lungs. Although targeted delivery of antibiotics using nebulization may be interesting, their place in ARDS patients remains to be explored. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the most severe patients is associated with a high rate of infection and raises several challenges, diagnostic issues and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics changes being at the top. Prevention of pulmonary infection is a key issue in ARDS patients, but there is no specific measure for these high-risk patients. Reinforcing preventive measures using bundles seems to be the best option.

7.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2464-2476, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140180

RESUMO

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) can support gas exchange in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). During ECLS, venous blood is drained from a central vein via a cannula, pumped through a semipermeable membrane that permits diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and returned via a cannula to a central vein. Two related forms of ECLS are used. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which uses high blood flow rates to both oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide, may be considered in patients with severe ARDS whose oxygenation or ventilation cannot be maintained adequately with best practice conventional mechanical ventilation and adjunctive therapies, including prone positioning. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) uses lower blood flow rates through smaller cannulae and provides substantial CO2 elimination (~ 20-70% of total CO2 production), albeit with marginal improvement in oxygenation. The rationale for using ECCO2R in ARDS is to facilitate lung-protective ventilation by allowing a reduction of tidal volume, respiratory rate, plateau pressure, driving pressure and mechanical power delivered by the mechanical ventilator. This narrative review summarizes physiological concepts related to ECLS, as well as the rationale and evidence supporting ECMO and ECCO2R for the treatment of ARDS. It also reviews complications, limitations, and the ethical dilemmas that can arise in treating patients with ECLS. Finally, it discusses future key research questions and challenges for this technology.

8.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(11): 2048-2057, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) compared to conventional management in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) performed after Jan 1, 2000 comparing ECMO to conventional management in patients with severe ARDS. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. Primary analysis was by intent-to-treat. RESULTS: We identified two RCTs (CESAR and EOLIA) and combined data from 429 patients. On day 90, 77 of the 214 (36%) ECMO-group and 103 of the 215 (48%) control group patients had died (relative risk (RR), 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-0.94; P = 0.013; I2 = 0%). In the per-protocol and as-treated analyses the RRs were 0.75 (95% CI 0.6-0.94) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.68-1.09), respectively. Rescue ECMO was used for 36 (17%) of the 215 control patients (35 in EOLIA and 1 in CESAR). The RR of 90-day treatment failure, defined as death for the ECMO-group and death or crossover to ECMO for the control group was 0.65 (95% CI 0.52-0.8; I2 = 0%). Patients randomised to ECMO had more days alive out of the ICU and without respiratory, cardiovascular, renal and neurological failure. The only significant treatment-covariate interaction in subgroups was lower mortality with ECMO in patients with two or less organs failing at randomization. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis of individual patient data in severe ARDS, 90-day mortality was significantly lowered by ECMO compared with conventional management.

9.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 118, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894389

RESUMO

The French Society of Intensive Care Medicine (SRLF), jointly with the French-Speaking Group of Paediatric Emergency Rooms and Intensive Care Units (GFRUP) and the French-Speaking Association of Paediatric Surgical Intensivists (ADARPEF), worked out guidelines for the management of central venous catheters (CVC), arterial catheters and dialysis catheters in intensive care unit. For adult patients: Using GRADE methodology, 36 recommendations for an improved catheter management were produced by the 22 experts. Recommendations regarding catheter-related infections' prevention included the preferential use of subclavian central vein (GRADE 1), a one-step skin disinfection(GRADE 1) using 2% chlorhexidine (CHG)-alcohol (GRADE 1), and the implementation of a quality of care improvement program. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated CVC should likely not be used (GRADE 2, for children and adults). Catheter dressings should likely not be changed before the 7th day, except when the dressing gets detached, soiled or impregnated with blood (GRADE 2- adults). CHG dressings should likely be used (GRADE 2+). For adults and children, ultrasound guidance should be used to reduce mechanical complications in case of internal jugular access (GRADE 1), subclavian access (Grade 2) and femoral venous, arterial radial and femoral access (Expert opinion). For children, an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach of the brachiocephalic vein was recommended to reduce the number of attempts for cannulation and mechanical complications. Based on scarce publications on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and on their experience (expert opinion), the panel proposed definitions, and therapeutic strategies.

11.
Ann. intensive care ; 118: 1-26, Sept. 07, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1128263

RESUMO

The French Society of Intensive Care Medicine (SRLF), jointly with the French-Speaking Group of Paediatric Emer­ gency Rooms and Intensive Care Units (GFRUP) and the French-Speaking Association of Paediatric Surgical Inten­ sivists (ADARPEF), worked out guidelines for the management of central venous catheters (CVC), arterial catheters and dialysis catheters in intensive care unit. For adult patients: Using GRADE methodology, 36 recommendations for an improved catheter management were produced by the 22 experts. Recommendations regarding catheterrelated infections' prevention included the preferential use of subclavian central vein (GRADE 1), a one-step skin disinfection(GRADE 1) using 2% chlorhexidine (CHG)-alcohol (GRADE 1), and the implementation of a quality of care improvement program. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated CVC should likely not be used (GRADE 2, for children and adults). Catheter dressings should likely not be changed before the 7th day, except when the dressing gets detached, soiled or impregnated with blood (GRADE 2− adults). CHG dressings should likely be used (GRADE 2+). For adults and children, ultrasound guidance should be used to reduce mechanical complications in case of internal jugular access (GRADE 1), subclavian access (Grade 2) and femoral venous, arterial radial and femoral access (Expert opinion). For children, an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach of the brachiocephalic vein was recommended to reduce the number of attempts for cannulation and mechanical complications. Based on scarce publications on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and on their experience (expert opinion), the panel proposed defnitions, and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/transmissão , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas
12.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 545-552, 2020 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy with cardiogenic shock have a high mortality. This study assessed venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support for sepsis-induced cardiogenic shock refractory to conventional treatments. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicentre, international cohort study, we compared outcomes of 82 patients (aged ≥18 years) with septic shock who received VA-ECMO at five academic ECMO centres, with 130 controls (not receiving ECMO) obtained from three large databases of septic shock. All patients had severe myocardial dysfunction (cardiac index 3 L/min per m2 or less or left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 35% or less) and severe haemodynamic compromise (inotrope score at least 75 µg/kg per min or lactic acidaemia at least 4 mmol/L) at time of inclusion. The primary endpoint was survival at 90 days. A propensity score-weighted analysis was done to control for confounders. FINDINGS: At baseline, patients treated with VA-ECMO had more severe myocardial dysfunction (mean cardiac index 1·5 L/min per m2vs 2·2 L/min per m2, LVEF 17% vs 27%), more severe haemodynamic impairment (inotrope score 279 µg/kg per min vs 145 µg/kg per min, lactataemia 8·9 mmol/L vs 6·5 mmol/L), and more severe organ failure (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score 17 vs 13) than did controls, with p<0·0001 for each comparison. Survival at 90 days for patients treated with VA-ECMO was significantly higher than for controls (60% vs 25%, risk ratio [RR] for mortality 0·54, 95% CI [0·40-0·70]; p<0·0001). After propensity score weighting, ECMO remained associated with improved survival (51% vs 14%, adjusted RR for mortality 0·57, 95% CI [0·35-0·93]; p=0·0029). Lactate and catecholamine clearance were also significantly enhanced in patients treated with ECMO. Among the 49 survivors treated with ECMO, 32 who had been treated at the largest centre reported satisfactory Short Form-36 evaluated health-related quality of life at 1-year follow-up. INTERPRETATION: Patients with severe sepsis-induced cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO had a large and significant improvement in survival compared with controls not receiving ECMO. However, despite the careful propensity-weighted analysis, we cannot rule out unmeasured confounders. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Choque Séptico/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(11): 1121-1131, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can have symptoms that rapidly evolve to profound hypoxaemia and death. The efficacy of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with severe ARDS in the context of COVID-19 is unclear. We aimed to establish the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with respiratory failure and COVID-19 treated with ECMO. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was done in the Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network, comprising five intensive care units (ICUs) and included patients who received ECMO for COVID-19 associated ARDS. Patient demographics and daily pre-ECMO and on-ECMO data and outcomes were collected. Possible outcomes over time were categorised into four different states (states 1-4): on ECMO, in the ICU and weaned off ECMO, alive and out of ICU, or death. Daily probabilities of occupation in each state and of transitions between these states until day 90 post-ECMO onset were estimated with use of a multi-state Cox model stratified for each possible transition. Follow-up was right-censored on July 10, 2020. FINDINGS: From March 8 to May 2, 2020, 492 patients with COVID-19 were treated in our ICUs. Complete day-60 follow-up was available for 83 patients (median age 49 [IQR 41-56] years and 61 [73%] men) who received ECMO. Pre-ECMO, 78 (94%) patients had been prone-positioned; their median driving pressure was 18 (IQR 16-21) cm H2O and PaO2/FiO2 was 60 (54-68) mm Hg. At 60 days post-ECMO initiation, the estimated probabilities of occupation in each state were 6% (95% CI 3-14) for state 1, 18% (11-28) for state 2, 45% (35-56) for state 3, and 31% (22-42) for state 4. 35 (42%) patients had major bleeding and four (5%) had a haemorrhagic stroke. 30 patients died. INTERPRETATION: The estimated 60-day survival of ECMO-rescued patients with COVID-19 was similar to that of studies published in the past 2 years on ECMO for severe ARDS. If another COVID-19 outbreak occurs, ECMO should be considered for patients developing refractory respiratory failure despite optimised care. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , /terapia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Crit Care Med ; 48(10): e856-e863, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite rapid implementation of anti-arrhythmic treatment and sedation and controlling the triggering event, rare patients develop treatment-refractory electrical storm and their hemodynamic instability prevents emergency catheter ablation. In that context, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation could rapidly restore hemodynamics and tissue perfusion and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, until adequate anti-arrhythmic drug levels are reached to safely perform catheter ablation. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter study over an 8-year period. SETTING: Two French tertiary care centers. PATIENTS: Eighty-three consecutive adults with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-supported treatment-refractory electrical storm (median [interquartile range] age, 55 yr [48-63 yr]). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-nine percent of these patients had acute ischemic cardiomyopathy and 66% underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation, with 18% cannulated during it. Fifty patients (60%) had ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation alternating with short periods of sinus rhythm and 33 (40%) had refractory ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation. Twelve patients (15%) underwent safe catheter ablation under venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After a median of 3 days (1-13 d) on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, 37 patients (45%) were successfully weaned off and 42% were alive 6 months post-ICU admission. Multivariable analysis retained ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation episodes alternating with short periods of sinus rhythm (odds ratio, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06-0.52; p = 0.002) and age less than 50 years (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89; p = 0.002) as being independent protective factors with 6-month survival, regardless of the underlying electrical storm cause. CONCLUSIONS: Among venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-supported drug-refractory electrical storm patients, 42% survived 6 months post-ICU admission. Ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation episodes alternating with short periods of sinus rhythm and age less than 50 years were independently associated with better survival.

15.
Clin Transplant ; 34(11): e14057, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the early and late outcome of heart transplantation (HT) using marginal (MDs) and optimal donors (ODs). METHODS: Clinical records of recipients transplanted between July 2004 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. MDs were defined as follows: age >55 years, high-dose inotropic support, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, left ventricular hypertrophy, donor to recipient predicted heart mass ratio <0.86, ischemic time >4 hours. RESULTS: A total of 412 (55%) recipients received an organ from a MD; recipients who received an organ from an OD had less primary graft dysfunction (PGD) (25% vs 38%; P < .001), less acute renal failure (23% vs 34%; P < .001), and higher survival rates (90.2% vs 81.8% at 30 days, 79.5% vs 71.1% at 1 year, 51.8% vs 45.4% at 12 years; P = .01) than recipients who received an organ from a MD. There was no statistically significant difference in 30-day conditional survival between the two groups (survival rates 57.4% vs 55.5% at 12 years; P = .43). PGD, perioperative hemodialysis, and sepsis were independent risk factors of mortality at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of MDs for HT is associated with a higher incidence of PGD and acute renal failure, and a reduction of 30-day survival.

17.
ASAIO J ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618584

RESUMO

Optimal management of cardiogenic shock requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is still an evolving area in which assessment and optimization of the microcirculation may be critically important. We hypothesized that the venous arterial carbon dioxide gap (P(v-a)CO2 gap); the ratio of this gap to arterio-venous oxygen content (P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio) and the anion gap would be early indicators of microcirculatory status and useful parameters for outcome prediction during ECMO support. We retrospectively reviewed 31 cardiogenic shock patients requiring veno-arterial ECMO, calculating P(v-a)CO2 gap and P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratios in the first 36 hours and the final 24 hours of ECMO support. Sixteen patients (52%) survived and 15 (48%) died. After 24 hours of ECMO support, the P(v-a)CO2 gap (4.9 ± 1.5 vs. 6.8 ± 1.9 mm Hg; p = 0.004) and anion gap (5.2 ± 1.8 vs. 8.7 ± 2.7 mmol/L; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in non-survivors. In the final 24 hours of ECMO support, the P(v-a)CO2 gap (3.5 ± 1.6 vs. 10.5 ± 3.2 mm Hg; p < 0.001), P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio (1.1 ± 0.5 vs. 2.7 ± 1.0; p < 0.001), anion gap (5.1 ± 3.0 vs. 9.3 ± 5.9 mmol/L; p = 0.02), and lactate (median 1.0 [interquartile range {IQR}: 0.7-1.5] vs. 2.8 [IQR: 1.7-7.7] mmol/L; p = <0.001) were all significantly lower in survivors. Increasing P(v-a)CO2 gap and increasing anion gap were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality. Optimum cut-points for prediction of mortality were 6 mm Hg for P(v-a)CO2 gap in combination with an anion gap above 6 mmol/L in the first 24 hours of ECMO in patients with cardiogenic shock requiring ECMO.

18.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(12): 1728-1737, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Impella® device is a form of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) used in critically ill adults with cardiogenic shock. We sought to evaluate short- and long-term outcomes following the use of Impella, including mortality, healthcare utilization, and costs. METHODS: Population-based, retrospective cohort study of adult patients (≥ 16 yr) receiving Impella in Ontario, Canada (1 April 2012-31March 2019). We captured outcomes through linkage to health administrative databases. The primary outcome was mortality during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included mortality at 30 days, 90 days, and one year following Impella insertion. We analyzed health system costs in Canadian dollars in the year following the date of the index admission, including the costs of inpatient admission. RESULTS: We included 162 patients. Mean (standard deviation) age was 59.2 (14.5) yr, and 73.5% of patients were male. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] time to Impella insertion from date of hospital admission was 2 [1-9] days. In-hospital mortality was 56.8%, and a significant proportion of patients were bridged to a ventricular assist device (67.9%). Mortality at one year was 61.7%. Among hospital survivors, only 38.6% were discharged home independently. Median [IQR] total cost in the year following admission among all patients was $88,397 [32,718-225,628], of which $66,529 [22,789-183,165] was attributed to inpatient care. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality among patients with cardiogenic shock receiving Impella is high, but with minimal increase at one year. While Impella patients accrued substantial costs, these largely reflected inpatient costs, and not costs incurred following hospital discharge.

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