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1.
Behav Ther ; 51(1): 149-161, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005332

RESUMO

Anxiety and insomnia disorders are two of the most common and costly mental health conditions. They are frequently comorbid, but current treatments do not target both. To streamline treatment, we developed a computerized intervention targeting a transdiagnostic factor, safety aids (cognitive or behavioral strategies used to cope with distress that paradoxically exacerbate symptoms). We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the acceptability and efficacy of this brief one-session intervention. Young adult undergraduates (N = 61) with elevated subclinical anxiety and insomnia were randomized to receive the anxiety-insomnia intervention or a physical health control condition. Participants were followed for 1 month and completed self-report measures. Analyses indicated that participants found the intervention acceptable, credible, and engaging. Analyses revealed the active intervention reduced sleep- and anxiety-related safety aids, with medium to large effect sizes. Findings suggest that targeting safety aids for anxiety and insomnia is acceptable and effective in reducing the target mechanism, safety aids, as well as worry. Future research should replicate these findings within a clinical sample and with a longer-term follow-up.

2.
Addict Behav ; 104: 106285, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006788

RESUMO

The opioid epidemic is having a disproportionate impact on veterans. Indeed, veterans are twice as likely to die from an accidental overdose than members of the general population, even after accounting for gender and age distribution. Although many veterans seek treatment, a large proportion drop out prematurely and/or relapse highlighting the need to identify malleable factors that may contribute to the recovery process. One such variable is anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of anxious arousal). AS is elevated in opioid use populations and is a predictor of treatment dropout among opioid users. Importantly, research suggests that AS is highly malleable; although, no studies have systematically examined such protocols among opioid users. To this end, the purpose of the proposed study was to test the acceptability, feasibility, and utility of a brief, one-session Computerized Anxiety Sensitivity Treatment (termed CAST) delivered to veterans seeking services for an opioid use disorder (OUD). Veterans (n = 16) were assessed at baseline and also at one-week and one-month following CAST. All veterans completed the protocol and reported being interested and engaged during the intervention. Further, small to medium reductions in psychopathology and substance use outcomes were found. Although more work is needed, the current study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of a brief AS-focused intervention among veterans seeking treatment for an OUD.

3.
Behav Res Ther ; 126: 103544, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981802

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adult research supports the efficacy of targeting the malleable risk factor of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in preventing anxiety and related psychopathology. However, very little work has evaluated the impact of AS reduction among youth, which is unfortunate given adolescence is a "core risk" period in terms of disorder onset. METHOD: The primary project aim was to test the effects of an Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Program for Youth (ASAP-Y) among a sample of 88 youth aged 10-14 years with elevated AS. High AS youth and a parent were randomly assigned to either the ASAP-Y, which consisted of psychoeducation and experimenter-led and parent-led exposures, or a general health information control condition. RESULTS: Youth in the intervention condition sustained low AS levels across the intervention period, and although AS levels in both conditions decreased from baseline to the one-month assessment, this decrease was more pronounced at one-month for youth in the intervention condition. Further, significant indirect effects of condition on one-month anxiety and depression symptoms via reduced AS were detected. Homework compliance rates and self-report data support the acceptability of the ASAP-Y. Contrary to hypotheses, differences between conditions in emotional reactivity elicited using experimental psychopathology methods were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings offer preliminary support for the ASAP-Y as an acceptable selective preventive intervention for at-risk youth, with specific anxiety- and depression-related effects through reduced AS.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 936, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969671

RESUMO

Intrusive re-experiencing of traumatic events is a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder, characterized by rich and vivid sensory details as reported in "flashbacks". While prevailing models of trauma intrusions focus on dysregulated emotional processes, we hypothesize that a deficiency in intrinsic sensory inhibition could drive overactivation of sensory representations of trauma memories, precipitating sensory-rich intrusions. In a sample of combat veterans, we examined resting-state alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillatory activity (in both power and posterior→frontal connectivity), given its role in sensory cortical inhibition, in association with intrusive re-experiencing symptoms. Veterans further participated in an odor task (including both combat and non-combat odors) to assess olfactory trauma memory and emotional response. We observed an association between intrusive re-experiencing symptoms and attenuated resting-state posterior→frontal alpha connectivity, which were both correlated with olfactory trauma memory. Importantly, olfactory trauma memory was identified as a mediator of the relationship between alpha connectivity and intrusive re-experiencing, suggesting that deficits in intrinsic sensory inhibition contributed to intrusive re-experiencing of trauma via heightened trauma memory. Therefore, by permitting unfiltered sensory cues to enter information processing and activate sensory representations of trauma, sensory disinhibition can constitute a sensory mechanism of intrusive re-experiencing in trauma-exposed individuals.

5.
Behav Res Ther ; 125: 103549, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923776

RESUMO

Hoarding disorder (HD) is a severe and persistent mental illness characterized by extreme difficulty parting with possessions and considerable clutter that can result in dangerous living conditions. HD poses a considerable public health burden; however, treatment for HD remains relatively limited, as many individuals do not respond to treatment and/or do not maintain treatment gains, suggesting there are important factors not being adequately addressed. In particular, one area that is not well-understood nor well-integrated into cognitive behavioral models is the pathological attachment individuals with HD hold to their possessions. The current review delineates existing work regarding attachment in HD and integrates findings regarding attachment into existing cognitive behavioral models of HD. We use attachment theory as a foundation by which to examine HD and better understand the dysfunctional relationships seen in those who hoard. We propose that both maladaptive cognitions and dysfunctional attachments to people and possessions jointly underlie saving behaviors characteristic of the disorder. The hypotheses put forth in this theory may help to advance our knowledge of HD, identify potential factors that can be targeted in intervention and prevention efforts, and provide important future directions for empirical work.

6.
J Sleep Res ; 29(1): e12909, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569285

RESUMO

Insomnia symptoms prior to traumatic event exposure predict the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms. However, potential mechanisms underlying the association between insomnia and risk for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms have not been prospectively tested. The current study used the trauma film paradigm to test whether insomnia symptoms prior to analogue trauma exposure predict subsequent analogue post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and potential mediators of this relationship, among an at-risk sample of 108 participants. Results indicated that, after covarying for negative affectivity, insomnia symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to analogue trauma exposure significantly predicted increased post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 3 days and 1 week post-exposure. Moreover, distress immediately after exposure and post-traumatic avoidance mediated the association between insomnia symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 1 week after exposure. Effect sizes were small. The current study uses an analogue trauma and analogue post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms to model clinical symptoms, includes an additional intervention prior to analogue trauma, and lacks a control film. Findings suggest increased reactivity to trauma exposure and subsequent reminders, and attempts to suppress trauma memories may be mechanisms in the association between insomnia symptoms and risk for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 262: 344-349, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and impairing condition that often involves difficulties with interpersonal functioning. Targeting interpersonal difficulties may be a promising alternative approach to reducing PTSD symptoms, particularly given the relatively low rates of treatment engagement and efficacy for first-line treatments for PTSD. Recent research has identified perceived burdensomeness (i.e., feelings of being a burden on others) and thwarted belongingness (i.e., feeling isolated and as if one does not belong) as two specific interpersonal factors related to increased PTSD symptoms. Thus, the current study tested whether a brief, computerized intervention would reduce PTSD symptoms via reductions in perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, vs. a repeated contact control condition. METHOD: Hypotheses were tested among 250 trauma-exposed participants who were randomized to receive one of two active computerized interventions designed to target interpersonal factors (i.e., perceived burdensomeness or thwarted belongingness) or anxiety sensitivity, or participate in a repeated contact control condition, as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Participants were then followed over six-months. RESULTS: Results indicated a direct effect of the active interventions on PTSD symptoms at month-one, that was not detected at months three or six. However, there was a significant indirect effect of condition at all-time points, such that reductions in perceived burdensomeness mediated condition effects on PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Findings identify perceived burdensomeness as a potential etiological factor in the maintenance of PTSD symptoms, and suggest that targeting perceived burdensomeness may be an effective approach to reducing PTSD symptoms.

8.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 109: 1-7, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856945

RESUMO

Available smoking cessation treatments have shown only modest quit success. Presence of a psychologically based behavioral health condition (PBHC), such as depression, anxiety, or addiction, can impact smoking cessation treatment engagement and quit success; however, the differential effect of treatment engagement on smoking cessation outcomes across smokers with and without a PBHC is unknown. The current study examined the moderating effect presence (versus absence) of a PBHC on the relation between treatment attendance and early smoking abstinence following a 4-session smoking cessation treatment. Participants included 529 (45.9% male; Mage = 38.23 years, SD = 13.56; 75.4% White) smokers enrolled in a large randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a transdiagnostic smoking cessation treatment. A repeated-measures latent class analysis (RMLCA) was conducted to examine treatment attendance. The effects of treatment attendance, PBHC (present/absent), and their interaction were modeled on biochemically-verified point prevalence abstinence using a latent growth curve from 1-week to 1-month post-quit. The RMLCA provided evidence for three classes: Drop-outs (n = 197), Titrators (n = 89), and Completers (n = 243). A significant interaction emerged such that Completers without a PBHC were significantly more likely to be abstinent relative to Completers with a PBHC (b = 2.69, SE = 0.67, p < .001) and Titrators without a PBHC (b = 3.36, SE = 0.80, p < .001). These results provide novel data that implicate the clinical importance of treatment attendance and PBHC status on smoking abstinence.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820417

RESUMO

Research has identified the neural response to errors (the error-related negativity; ERN) as a marker of current anxiety, as well as risk for future anxiety. Previous work found that traditional cognitive behavioral therapy approaches do not impact the ERN. However, none of these approaches directly target the psychological constructs linked to an increased ERN (e.g., error sensitivity). In the current study, we examine the extent to which a brief, computerized intervention ("Treating the ERN"; i.e., TERN) might impact the ERN by reducing error sensitivity. Results suggest that TERN reduced the ERN and that the impact of the intervention was larger amongst individuals with an increased baseline ERN. This study is an important first step in the development of a novel intervention approach that directly targets error sensitivity, and thereby the ERN.

10.
Behav Ther ; 50(6): 1173-1184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), or fear of cognitive dyscontrol sensations, confers risk for anxiety and mood psychopathology. Recent work demonstrated that novel perceptual challenges generated by a head mounted display can elicit fear among those with elevated ASCC. This suggests that interoceptive exposure to perceptual challenges may offer a means to mitigate ASCC. This study was designed to evaluate whether repeated exposure to novel perceptual challenges can reduce ASCC, and if these effects are stronger among those experiencing greater negative emotionality as a proxy for individuals likely to present for treatment. METHODS: Participants with elevated ASCC (N = 57) were randomized to one of three experimental conditions utilizing a head-mounted display. In the rotations condition (n = 20), participants viewed themselves spinning in a circle. In the opposite directions condition (n = 20), participants turned their head while the camera moved in the opposite direction creating dissonance in their visual field. In the control condition (n = 17), participants completed a series of simple arithmetic problems. RESULTS: Participants in the rotation condition, relative to control, reported significant reductions in ASCC from pre- to post-exposure and these effects were strongest for those with elevated negative affect. The main effect of the opposite directions exposure on post-treatment ASCC was non-significant, but follow-up analyses revealed that reductions in ASCC were observed among those with elevated negative affectivity. DISCUSSION: Perceptual illusion challenges appear to have utility for reducing ASCC through repeated exposure. There was evidence for the perceptual illusion exercises, particularly the rotations condition, specifically reducing ASCC, making this challenge the first we are aware of that specifically targets ASCC-related concerns. LIMITATIONS: As a proof-of-concept study, the present sample was not recruited for clinically-significant psychopathology, and only a brief follow-up was utilized. Future research should utilize a longer follow-up and test if these exposures mitigate ASCC-relevant psychopathology among clinical samples.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research suggests that inhibitory control deficits may differentiate individuals who think about suicide from those who make a suicide attempt. However, no available research, to our knowledge, has examined whether suicidal behaviors are associated with disruptions in the ability to determine when inhibitory control is needed or the ability to engage inhibition of an inappropriate or maladaptive behavior. The current study utilized event-related potentials to investigate specific facets of inhibitory control and their associations with suicide attempt history among a heterogeneous clinical sample who reported current suicidal ideation. METHODS: Ideators with no past suicide attempts (n = 46) and those with a history of suicide attempts (n = 22) completed a complex go/no-go task. Raw waveforms and temporospatial principal components analysis were used to index conflict detection (i.e., ΔN2) and motor inhibition (i.e., ΔP3a). Behavioral performance indices were also examined. RESULTS: Suicide attempters exhibited deficits in detecting the need for inhibitory control, as indexed by a more positive ΔN2 factor, than did ideating nonattempters, even when accounting for psychiatric comorbidity and age. However, these results only emerged in the principal components analysis-derived latent factor. No differences in behavioral performance or ΔP3a amplitude emerged. CONCLUSIONS: A relative inability to detect when to inhibit a maladaptive behavior, but not the ability to engage motor inhibition to stop that behavior, may distinguish suicide ideators who make a suicide attempt from those who do not. However, future research with prospective designs are needed to determine how conflict detection deficits may contribute to the emergence or escalation of a suicidal crisis.

12.
Behav Ther ; 50(5): 886-897, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422845

RESUMO

Suicide is a growing public health crisis among military veterans. Despite recent attention to this area, there are few empirically supported preventative interventions for suicidality among veterans. In the context of an empirically supported theoretical framework, the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, the current study targeted suicide risk factors (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) among a sample of 46 veterans selected from a larger clinical trial. Participants were randomized to receive either a newly developed computerized intervention aimed at decreasing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, or participate in a repeated contact control condition. Results indicated a direct effect of the intervention on both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Temporal mediation analyses also revealed an indirect effect of condition on suicidality at Month 1 follow-up via reductions in perceived burdensomeness. The current results are the first to indicate that factors from the interpersonal theory of suicide can be reduced among veterans, and to demonstrate that these reductions in perceived burdensomeness lead to reductions in suicidality. Because of the brevity and computer delivery system, this intervention could be widely and rapidly disseminated among military veterans to reduce the public health burden of suicide in this population.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Trauma Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
13.
J Affect Disord ; 257: 536-550, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Theories of suicide posit distinct etiological pathways for suicide attempts (SA) and suicidal ideation (SI) that are marked, in part, by disruptions in the ability to regulate reactions to threat/mutilation and interpersonally-relevant emotional stimuli. However, little research has specifically tested these associations. To address this gap, the present study extracted the Late Positive Potential (LPP) during an emotion regulation task to evaluate the independent associations that SA history and SI share with initial responsivity to, and regulation of, these distinct emotional contents. METHODS: A clinical sample (N = 257) were recruited based on elevations in suicide risk factors. Participants completed a picture viewing and regulation task that included threat/mutilation, reward, and neutral images from the International Affective Picture System. Immediately prior to picture onset, participants were instructed to passively view the image, increase their emotional reaction to the image, or decrease their emotional reaction to the image. RESULTS: Differential patterns of LPP amplitudes only emerged in the context of attempts to regulate emotional responses such that SA history predicted a superior ability to volitionally mitigate responses to threat/mutilation while SI was related to a worse ability to increase responses to reward. Effect sizes were in the small and small-to-medium range. LIMITATIONS: The present data were cross-sectional and included low trial counts. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings support existing theories of suicide suggesting that distinct mechanisms underlie suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Future research should seek to determine if these mechanisms may serve as a viable intervention targets.

14.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 65: 101489, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns, the fear of observable anxiety symptoms is posited as a risk factor for social anxiety by increasing fear reactivity in social situations when observable anxiety symptoms are present. Experimental evaluation of AS social concerns is limited. The current study utilized several manipulations designed to be relevant to AS social concerns or fear of negative evaluation (FNE), a distinct social anxiety risk factor. The effects of these manipulations on fear reactivity to a speech were examined. METHODS: Participants (N = 124 students; M age = 19.44, SD = 2.45; 64.5% female) were randomized to one of four conditions in a 2 (100 mg niacin vs 100 mg sugar pill) X 2 (instructional set) design. For the instructional set manipulation, participants were told their speech performance would be evaluated by a judge based on their performance (i.e., FNE-relevant) or their observable anxiety symptoms (i.e., AS social concerns-relevant). RESULTS: There was a main effect for vitamin condition with participants in the niacin condition reporting higher panic symptoms post-speech relative to those in the placebo condition. There was no main effect for speech instructions. As hypothesized, these effects were qualified by an interaction indicating that AS social concerns significantly predicted panic symptoms for those receiving niacin. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the reliance on self-reports of outcome variables and the use of an undergraduate student sample. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight a distinct role of AS social concerns in fear responding to socially evaluative situations in the context of physically observable arousal.

15.
Psychiatry Res ; 276: 262-268, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125903

RESUMO

Suicide remains a public health concern with suicide rates showing a consistent increase over the last 20 years. Recent studies have found a relationship between anxiety sensitivity (i.e., the fear of anxiety related symptoms) and suicidality. Specifically, a relationship has been found between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC) and suicidality. The knowledge around this relationship, however, has relied mostly on self-report measures. This study seeks to expand on the current literature by exploring the association between ASCC and suicidality, through the use of head-mounted display perceptual illusion challenges (e.g., using tactile sensations and mannequins to create illusions that the participant has switched bodies). A head-mounted display was used to elicit symptoms (e.g., depersonalization, derealization) related to ASCC in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 54). Suicidality and depression were measured by the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms-2 (IDAS-II), anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and distress by the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS). Findings indicated that suicidality was associated with self-reported ASCC as well as the fear generated from the challenges. Furthermore, our results found that challenge-induced fear predicted suicidality scores above and beyond the traditional self-report measures of ASCC. The small sample size and low suicide risk of the current sample limits generalizations to more severe populations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Despersonalização/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 21(5): 36, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016410

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent research regarding gender differences in OCD, with a focus on prevalence, course of illness, symptom presentation, comorbidity, and treatment response. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, findings remain mixed. OCD may be more common among males in childhood, but is more common among females in adolescence and adulthood. Males tend to report an earlier age of onset and present with symptoms related to blasphemous thoughts. Females often describe symptom onset as occurring during or after puberty or pregnancy and present with symptoms related to contamination and/or aggressive obsessions. Females also tend to report significantly higher depression and anxiety. There are no reported gender differences in treatment outcome. Gender may play a role in the onset, presentation, and impact of OCD symptoms. However, more work is needed to account for differences across studies, with one promising future direction being the study of reproductive hormones.

17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 199: 35-41, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that insomnia symptoms exacerbate alcohol use disorder symptoms, there is a dearth of prospective research testing bidirectional associations between these variables. Furthermore, no studies have prospectively examined these associations among military personnel, a vulnerable population for sleep- and alcohol-related problems. Thus, the current study examined whether insomnia symptoms prospectively predicted increased alcohol use disorder symptoms among a sample of military service members and veterans over a 6-month follow-up period, as well as whether alcohol use disorder symptoms led to increases in insomnia. METHOD: Hypotheses were tested among a sample of 274 current and past military service members who participated in a baseline and 6-month assessment using self-report measures. RESULTS: Path analyses revealed that insomnia symptoms significantly prospectively predicted increased month-6 heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems, but not days drinking or being bothered by drinking. None of the alcohol variables significantly predicted insomnia. CONCLUSION: Results support a model in which insomnia symptoms exacerbate alcohol use disorder symptoms, specifically heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Future research should seek to examine these findings in diverse populations and test potential mechanisms and clinical implications of these results.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-13, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955483

RESUMO

The current study tested whether emotion dysregulation predicts suicidal ideation over the course of 6 months. Community members (N = 298) with elevated suicide risk completed a clinical interview and self-report questionnaires at baseline and month-6 follow-up appointments. Elevated general emotion dysregulation but not subscales significantly predicted increases in suicidal ideation at month-6 follow-up after accounting for initial suicidal ideation, treatment condition, and negative affectivity. Furthermore, general emotion dysregulation as well as lack of awareness and lack of clarity subscales were significantly associated with prior suicide attempts at baseline after accounting for negative affectivity. Findings support the establishment of emotion dysregulation as a risk factor for suicidal ideation and provide evidence for a role in suicide attempts. Findings call for the development of interventions targeting emotion dysregulation in effectively predicting and preventing suicidality.

19.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 64: 64-71, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or fear of the unknown, is as an important transdiagnostic risk factor across anxiety-related conditions, namely generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD). IU is typically indexed using self-report measures. Given the importance of multi-method assessments and the shortcomings associated with existing behavioral indices of IU, additional methods of assessment are needed. Emerging literature supports the use of interpretation bias (IB) paradigms to index constructs such as IU. However, only one study to date has examined the association between an IU-focused IB paradigm (IU-IB) and self-report IU and no research has investigated whether an IU-IB paradigm would be related to increased anxiety-related symptoms. METHODS: The current investigation examined the utility of an IU-IB paradigm across two separate samples wherein participants completed an interpretation bias task and self-report measures. Sample 1 included 86 participants (74.4% female; Mage = 19.14) and sample 2 included 138 participants (79.7% female; Mage = 18.88). RESULTS: Findings from Study 1 indicated a significant association between an exaggerated IU-IB and symptoms of GAD and OCD, and this relationship held after covarying for negative affect. Study 2 results indicated a significant relationship between an exaggerated IU-IB and symptoms of GAD, OCD, and SAD, after covarying for negative affect. LIMITATIONS: The current study had a variety of limitations, including the use of cross-sectional data and an undergraduate sample. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide an important replication and extension of previous work and highlight the transdiagnostic utility of this IU-IB task.

20.
Psychiatry ; 82(1): 72-79, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730786

RESUMO

Depression is often modeled as a unidimensional construct despite evidence for distinct symptom dimensions (i.e., cognitive, affective, and somatic symptoms). Intolerance of uncertainty (IU; a cognitive bias that increases distress in uncertain situations) is a risk factor implicated in the development of depression. However, it is unclear how IU lower-order dimensions (i.e., inhibitory IU, the fear of future unpredictable events; prospective IU, avoidance due to fear of uncertain events) relate to depressive symptoms. The current study used confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to examine the relations between depressive symptoms and lower-order dimensions of IU in a sample of 374 adults (M age = 35.5, 54.3% female) with elevated psychopathology (89.2% meeting criteria for at least one DSM-5 diagnosis, 25.6% primary depressive disorder). A two-factor model of depression, composed of Cognitive and Affective/Somatic factors, provided superior model fit compared to one- and three-factor solutions. A bifactor model of IU, composed of a general IU factor and specific Inhibitory IU and Prospective IU factors, provided superior model fit compared to one- and two-factor solutions. The general IU factor related to both Cognitive and Affective/Somatic factors. Inhibitory IU related to the Cognitive factor, but not the Affective/Somatic factor. Prospective IU was not related to Cognitive or Affective/Somatic factors. These findings elucidate the relations between IU and depression symptoms and have important theoretical implications regarding the etiology of depressive symptoms. In particular, inhibitory IU may be a novel target for intervention efforts in individuals presenting with depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Teóricos , Incerteza , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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