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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096976

RESUMO

Micromotors are recognized as promising candidates for untethered micromanipulation and targeted cargo delivery in complex biological environments. However, their feasibility in the circulatory system has been limited due to the low thrust force exhibited by many of the reported synthetic micromotors, which is not sufficient to overcome the high flow and complex composition of blood. Here we present a hybrid sperm micromotor that can actively swim against flowing blood (continuous and pulsatile) and perform the function of heparin cargo delivery. In this biohybrid system, the sperm flagellum provides a high propulsion force while the synthetic microstructure serves for magnetic guidance and cargo transport. Moreover, single sperm micromotors can assemble into a train-like carrier after magnetization, allowing the transport of multiple sperm or medical cargoes to the area of interest, serving as potential anticoagulant agents to treat blood clots or other diseases in the circulatory system.

2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 10(1)2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963826

RESUMO

Deionized water and glucose without yeast and with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) of optical density OD600 that ranges from 4 to 16 has been put in the ring electrode region of six different types of impedance biochips and impedance has been measured in dependence on the added volume (20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 µL). The measured impedance of two out of the six types of biochips is strongly sensitive to the addition of both liquid without yeast and liquid with yeast and modelled impedance reveals a linear relationship between the impedance model parameters and yeast concentration. The presented biochips allow for continuous impedance measurements without interrupting the cultivation of the yeast. A multiparameter fit of the impedance model parameters allows for determining the concentration of yeast (cy) in the range from cy = 3.3 × 107 to cy = 17 × 107 cells/mL. This work shows that independent on the liquid, i.e., DI water or glucose, the impedance model parameters of the two most sensitive types of biochips with liquid without yeast and with liquid with yeast are clearly distinguishable for the two most sensitive types of biochips.

3.
Small ; 16(2): e1905141, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814275

RESUMO

The development of functional microstructures with designed hierarchical and complex morphologies and large free active surfaces offers new potential for improvement of the pristine microstructures properties by the synergistic combination of microscopic as well as nanoscopic effects. In this contribution, dedicated methods of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including tomography are used to characterize the complex hierarchically structured hybrid GaN/ZnO:Au microtubes containing a dense nanowire network on their interior. The presence of an epitaxially stabilized and chemically extremely stable ultrathin layer of ZnO on the inner wall of the produced GaN microtubes is evidenced. Gold nanoparticles initially trigger the catalytic growth of solid solution phase (Ga1- x Znx )(N1- x Ox ) nanowires into the interior space of the microtube, which are found to be terminated by AuGa-alloy nanodots coated in a shell of amorphous GaOx species after the hydride vapor phase epitaxy process. The structural characterization suggests that this hierarchical design of GaN/ZnO microtubes could offer the potential to exhibit improved photocatalytic properties, which are initially demonstrated under UV light irradiation. As a proof of concept, the produced microtubes are used as photocatalytic micromotors in the presence of hydrogen peroxide solution with luminescent properties, which are appealing for future environmental applications and active matter fundamental studies.

4.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax6973, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692752

RESUMO

The dynamic characterization of water multilayers on oxide surfaces is hard to achieve by currently available techniques. Despite this, there is an increasing interest in the evolution of water nanostructures on oxides to fully understand the complex dynamics of ice nucleation and growth in natural and artificial environments. Here, we report the in situ detection of the dynamic evolution of nanoscale water layers on an amorphous oxide surface probed by optical resonances. In the water nanolayer growth process, we find an initial nanocluster morphology that turns into a planar layer beyond a critical thickness. In the reverse process, the planar water film converts to nanoclusters, accompanied by a transition from a planar amorphous layer to crystalline nanoclusters. Our results are explained by a simple thermodynamic model as well as kinetic considerations. Our work represents an approach to reveal the nanostructure and dynamics at the water-oxide interface using resonant light probing.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(16): 160502, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702338

RESUMO

Transferring entangled states between photon pairs is essential in quantum communication. Semiconductor quantum dots are the leading candidate for generating polarization-entangled photons deterministically. Here we show for the first time swapping of entangled states between two pairs of photons emitted by a single dot. A joint Bell measurement heralds the successful generation of the Bell state Ψ^{+}, yielding a fidelity of 0.81±0.04 and violating the CHSH and Bell inequalities. Our photon source matches atomic quantum memory frequencies, facilitating implementation of hybrid quantum repeaters.

6.
Lab Chip ; 19(24): 4043-4051, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723953

RESUMO

The ability to separate specific biological components from cell suspensions is indispensable for liquid biopsies, and for personalized diagnostics and therapy. This paper describes an advanced surface acoustic wave (SAW) based device designed for the enrichment of platelets (PLTs) from a dispersion of PLTs and red blood cells (RBCs) at whole blood concentrations, opening new possibilities for diverse applications involving cell manipulation with high throughput. The device is made of patterned SU-8 photoresist that is lithographically defined on the wafer scale with a new proposed methodology. The blood cells are initially focused and subsequently separated by an acoustic radiation force (ARF) applied through standing SAWs (SSAWs). By means of flow cytometric analysis, the PLT concentration factor was found to be 7.7, and it was proven that the PLTs maintain their initial state. A substantially higher cell throughput and considerably lower applied powers than comparable devices from literature were achieved. In addition, fully coupled 3D numerical simulations based on SAW wave field measurements were carried out to anticipate the coupling of the wave field into the fluid, and to obtain the resulting pressure field. A comparison to the acoustically simpler case of PDMS channel walls is given. The simulated results show an ideal match to the experimental observations and offer the first insights into the acoustic behavior of SU-8 as channel wall material. The proposed device is compatible with current (Lab-on-a-Chip) microfabrication techniques allowing for mass-scale, reproducible chip manufacturing which is crucial to push the technology from lab-based to real-world applications.

7.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8597-8604, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730351

RESUMO

Novel schemes based on the design of complex three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale architectures are required for the development of the next generation of advanced electronic components. He+ focused-ion-beam (FIB) microscopy in combination with a precursor gas allows one to fabricate 3D nanostructures with an extreme resolution and a considerably higher aspect ratio than FIB-based methods, such as Ga+ FIB-induced deposition, or other additive manufacturing technologies. In this work, we report the fabrication of 3D tungsten carbide nanohelices with on-demand geometries via controlling key deposition parameters. Our results show the smallest and highest-densely packed nanohelix ever fabricated so far, with dimensions of 100 nm in diameter and aspect ratio up to 65. These nanohelices become superconducting at 7 K and show a large critical magnetic field and critical current density. In addition, given its helical 3D geometry, fingerprints of vortex and phase-slip patterns are experimentally identified and supported by numerical simulations based on the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. These results can be understood by the helical geometry that induces specific superconducting properties and paves the way for future electronic components, such as sensors, energy storage elements, and nanoantennas, based on 3D compact nanosuperconductors.

8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(20): 1901051, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637162

RESUMO

The rapid development of microelectronics has equally rapidly increased the demand for miniaturized energy storage devices. On-chip microsupercapacitors (MSCs), as promising power candidates, possess great potential to complement or replace electrolytic capacitors and microbatteries in various applications. However, the areal capacities and energy densities of the planar MSCs are commonly limited by the low voltage window, the thin layer of the electrode materials and complex fabrication processes. Here, a new-type three-dimensional (3D) tubular asymmetric MSC with small footprint area, high potential window, ultrahigh areal energy density, and long-term cycling stability is fabricated with shapeable materials and photolithographic technologies, which are compatible with modern microelectronic fabrication procedures widely used in industry. Benefiting from the novel architecture, the 3D asymmetric MSC displays an ultrahigh areal capacitance of 88.6 mF cm-2 and areal energy density of 28.69 mW h cm-2, superior to most reported interdigitated MSCs. Furthermore, the 3D tubular MSCs demonstrate remarkable cycling stability and the capacitance retention is up to 91.8% over 12 000 cycles. It is believed that the efficient fabrication methodology can be used to construct various integratable microscale tubular energy storage devices with small footprint area and high performance for miniaturized electronics.

9.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 9(4)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614428

RESUMO

In this work, we report on the impedance of p-n junction-based Si biochips with gold ring top electrodes and unstructured platinum bottom electrodes which allows for counting target biomaterial in a liquid-filled ring top electrode region. The systematic experiments on p-n junction-based Si biochips fabricated by two different sets of implantation parameters (i.e. biochips PS5 and BS5) are studied, and the comparable significant change of impedance characteristics in the biochips in dependence on the number of bacteria suspension, i.e., Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12, in Deionized water with an optical density at 600 nm from OD600 = 4-16 in the electrode ring region is demonstrated. Furthermore, with the help of the newly developed two-phase electrode structure, the modeled capacitance and resistance parameters of the electrical equivalent circuit describing the p-n junction-based biochips depend linearly on the number of bacteria in the ring top electrode region, which successfully proves the potential performance of p-n junction-based Si biochips in observing the bacterial suspension. The proposed p-n junction-based biochips reveal perspective applications in medicine and biology for diagnosis, monitoring, management, and treatment of diseases.

10.
Reproduction ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600732

RESUMO

Sperm cells that cannot swim and orient properly compromise male fertility. Such defects are responsible for male infertility regardless of the actual quality of the most important content, the sperm's DNA. Synthetic micromotors are engineered devices that are able to swim in (body) fluids and microscopic environments, similar to flagellated cells like sperm. Coupled together, a sperm-hybrid micromotor embodies the concept of bringing the sperm cell together with artificial components that assist or replace defective functions of the cell, helping it to pursue its goal without interfering with its health, enabling the process of assisted fertilization and further embryo development all inside the body. Non-invasive, remote-controlled in vivo applicability is the key quality of such hybrid microdevices. Assisted reproduction with the help of micromotors is in the focus of this review, although other biomedical applications that arise from the powerful combination of sperm cell and synthetic enhancement are also discussed and summarized. Details are provided about different fabrication processes and cell-material coupling strategies, and the way from proof-of-concept studies to in vivo experiments in animals is outlined.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13728, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551434

RESUMO

Hybrid interfaces between distinct quantum systems play a major role in the implementation of quantum networks. Quantum states have to be stored in memories to synchronize the photon arrival times for entanglement swapping by projective measurements in quantum repeaters or for entanglement purification. Here, we analyze the distortion of a single-photon wave packet propagating through a dispersive and absorptive medium with high spectral resolution. Single photons are generated from a single In(Ga)As quantum dot with its excitonic transition precisely set relative to the Cesium D1 transition. The delay of spectral components of the single-photon wave packet with almost Fourier-limited width is investigated in detail with a 200 MHz narrow-band monolithic Fabry-Pérot resonator. Reflecting the excited state hyperfine structure of Cesium, "slow light" and "fast light" behavior is observed. As a step towards room-temperature alkali vapor memories, quantum dot photons are delayed for 5 ns by strong dispersion between the two 1.17 GHz hyperfine-split excited state transitions. Based on optical pumping on the hyperfine-split ground states, we propose a simple, all-optically controllable delay for synchronization of heralded narrow-band photons in a quantum network.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e1902994, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512308

RESUMO

Modern microelectronic systems and their components are essentially 3D devices that have become smaller and lighter in order to improve performance and reduce costs. To maintain this trend, novel materials and technologies are required that provide more structural freedom in 3D over conventional microelectronics, as well as easier parallel fabrication routes while maintaining compatability with existing manufacturing methods. Self-assembly of initially planar membranes into complex 3D architectures offers a wealth of opportunities to accommodate thin-film microelectronic functionalities in devices and systems possessing improved performance and higher integration density. Existing work in this field, with a focus on components constructed from 3D self-assembly, is reviewed, and an outlook on their application potential in tomorrow's microelectronics world is provided.

13.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 6612-6620, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411038

RESUMO

Medical imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of multiple diseases. It is a field which seeks for improved sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution to allow the dynamic monitoring of diverse biological processes that occur at the micro- and nanoscale. Emerging technologies for targeted diagnosis and therapy such as nanotherapeutics, microimplants, catheters, and small medical tools also need to be precisely located and monitored while performing their function inside the human body. In this work, we show for the first time the real-time tracking of moving single micro-objects below centimeter thick phantom tissue and ex vivo chicken breast, using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound imaging regarding depth and resolution with the molecular specificity of optical methods, thereby facilitating the discrimination between the spectral signatures of the micro-objects from those of intrinsic tissue molecules. The resulting MSOT signal is further improved in terms of contrast and specificity by coating the micro-objects' surface with gold nanorods, possessing a unique absorption spectrum, which facilitate their discrimination from surrounding biological tissues when translated to future in vivo settings.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3013, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285441

RESUMO

Self-assembly of two-dimensional patterned nanomembranes into three-dimensional micro-architectures has been considered a powerful approach for parallel and scalable manufacturing of the next generation of micro-electronic devices. However, the formation pathway towards the final geometry into which two-dimensional nanomembranes can transform depends on many available degrees of freedom and is plagued by structural inaccuracies. Especially for high-aspect-ratio nanomembranes, the potential energy landscape gives way to a manifold of complex pathways towards misassembly. Therefore, the self-assembly yield and device quality remain low and cannot compete with state-of-the art technologies. Here we present an alternative approach for the assembly of high-aspect-ratio nanomembranes into microelectronic devices with unprecedented control by remotely programming their assembly behavior under the influence of external magnetic fields. This form of magnetic Origami creates micro energy storage devices with excellent performance and high yield unleashing the full potential of magnetic field assisted assembly for on-chip manufacturing processes.

15.
ACS Nano ; 13(7): 8067-8075, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274285

RESUMO

Inspired by origami art, we demonstrate a tubular microsupercapacitor (TMSC) by self-assembling two-dimensional (2D) films into a "swiss roll" structure with greatly reduced footprint area. A polymeric framework consisting of swelling hydrogel and polyimide layers ensures excellent ion transport between poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based electrodes and provides efficient self-protection of the TMSC against external compression up to about 30 MPa. Such TMSCs exhibit an areal capacitance of 82.5 mF cm-2 at 0.3 mA cm-2 with a potential window of 0.8 V, an energy density and power density of 7.73 µWh cm-2 and 17.8 mW cm-2 (0.3 and 45 mA cm-2), and an improved cycling stability with a capacitance retention up to 96.6% over 5000 cycles. Furthermore, as-fabricated TMSC arrays can be detached from their surface and transferred onto target substrates. The connection of devices in parallel/series greatly improves their capacity and voltage output. Overall, our prototype devices and fabrication methodology provide a promising route to create integratable microscale tubular energy storage devices with an efficient self-protection function and high performance for future miniaturized electronics.

16.
Adv Mater ; 31(33): e1901263, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243831

RESUMO

High-performance nanostructured electro-optical switches and logic gates are highly desirable as essential building blocks in integrated photonics. In contrast to silicon-based optoelectronic devices, with their inherent indirect optical bandgap, weak light-modulation mechanism, and sophisticated device configuration, direct-bandgap-semiconductor nanostructures with attractive electro-optical properties are promising candidates for the construction of nanoscale optical switches for on-chip photonic integrations. However, previously reported semiconductor-nanostructure optical switches suffer from serious drawbacks such as high drive voltage, limited operation spectral range, and low modulation depth. High-efficiency electro-optical switches based on single CdS nanobelts with low drive voltage, ultra-high on/off ratio, and broad operation wavelength range, properties resulting from unique electric-field-dependent phonon-assisted optical transitions, are demonstrated. Furthermore, functional NOT, NOR, and NAND optical logic gates are demonstrated based on these switches. These switches and optical logic gates represent an important step toward integrated photonic circuits.

17.
ACS Sens ; 4(6): 1476-1496, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132252

RESUMO

The rapid advance of micro-/nanofabrication technologies opens up new opportunities for miniaturized sensing devices based on novel three-dimensional (3D) architectures. Notably, microtubular geometry exhibits natural advantages for sensing applications due to its unique properties including the hollow sensing channel, high surface-volume ratio, well-controlled shape parameters and compatibility to on-chip integration. Here the state-of-the-art sensing techniques based on microtubular devices are reviewed. The developed microtubular sensors cover microcapillaries, rolled-up nanomembranes, chemically synthesized tubular arrays, and photoresist-based tubular structures via 3D printing. Various types of microtubular sensors working in optical, electrical, and magnetic principles exhibit an extremely broad scope of sensing targets including liquids, biomolecules, micrometer-sized/nanosized objects, and gases. Moreover, they have also been applied for the detection of mechanical, acoustic, and magnetic fields as well as fluorescence signals in labeling-based analyses. At last, a comprehensive outlook of future research on microtubular sensors is discussed on pushing the detection limit, extending the functionality, and taking a step forward to a compact and integrable core module in a lab-on-a-chip analytical system for understanding fundamental biological events or performing accurate point-of-care diagnostics.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(17): 15891-15897, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964264

RESUMO

Graphene, with its excellent chemical stability, biocompatibility, and capability of electric field enhancement, has a great potential in optical and optoelectronic applications with superior performances by integrating with conventional optical and plasmonic devices. Here, we design and demonstrate graphene-activated optoplasmonic cavities based on rolled-up nanomembranes, which are employed for in situ monitoring the photodegradation dynamics of organic dye molecules on the molecular level in real time. The presence of the graphene layer significantly enhances the electric field of hybrid optoplasmonic modes at the cavity surface, enabling a highly sensitive surface detection. The degradation of rhodamine 6G molecules on the graphene-activated sensor surface is triggered by localized laser irradiation and monitored by measuring the optical resonance shift. Our demonstration paves the way for real-time, high-precision analysis of photodegradation by resonance-based optical sensors, which promises the comprehensive understanding of degradation mechanism and exploration of effective photocatalysts.

19.
ACS Nano ; 13(3): 2948-2955, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715846

RESUMO

We present a superconducting bolometer fabricated by a rolled-up technology that allows one to combine the two-dimensionality (2D) of the superconducting layer with a helical spiral curvature. The bolometer is formed as a free-standing Nb nanohelix acting as an ultrathin transition-edge sensor (TES) and having a negligible thermal contact to the substrate. We demonstrate the functionality of the thin-film TES by examining its microwave-detection performance in comparison with a commercial cryogenic bolometer from QMC Instruments. The nanohelix has been revealed to feature a noise equivalent power (NEP) of about 2 × 10-10 W Hz-1/2 at a microwave radiation power of 9 W m-2, which is 4 orders of magnitude smaller than the NEP of the QMC sensor at a similar radiation power. Furthermore, the forecast for the nanohelix is a 1 to 2 orders of magnitude shorter response time as compared to sensors based on commonly used 1 µm thick Si3N4 membranes. The reason is the extremely low heat capacity of the 50 nm thick supporting material and the few contact points between the TES and the substrate. Our findings indicate that microwave radiation detection can be substantially improved by extending 2D superconducting structures into the 3D space.

20.
Adv Mater ; 31(3): e1806005, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480352

RESUMO

On-chip micro-supercapacitors (MSCs), as promising power candidates for microdevices, typically exhibit high power density, large charge/discharge rates, and long cycling lifetimes. However, as for most reported MSCs, the unsatisfactory areal energy density (<10 µWh cm-2 ) still hinders their practical applications. Herein, a new-type Zn-ion hybrid MSC with ultrahigh areal energy density and long-term durability is demonstrated. Benefiting from fast ion adsorption/desorption on the capacitor-type activated-carbon cathode and reversible Zn stripping/plating on the battery-type electrodeposited Zn-nanosheet anode, the fabricated Zn-ion hybrid MSCs exhibit remarkable areal capacitance of 1297 mF cm-2 at 0.16 mA cm-2 (259.4 F g-1 at a current density of 0.05 A g-1 ), landmark areal energy density (115.4 µWh cm-2 at 0.16 mW cm-2 ), and a superb cycling stability without noticeable decay after 10 000 cycles. This work will inspire the fabrication and development of new high-performance microenergy devices based on novel device design.

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